Taks objective 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy



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TAKS Objective 4



TEKS 8.7 Science Concepts

  • The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

    • B. recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media.


Lesson Objectives

  • The learner will be able to differentiate between the motion of the wave and the motion of the matter carrying the wave.

  • The learner will identify waves that require a medium to move through and waves that travel through empty space.

  • The learner will demonstrate that waves carry energy.



Lesson Objectives

  • Students will generate waves that pass through different media.

  • The student will demonstrate that a wave moves forward while the material through which it passes is displace only slightly and momentarily.

  • Students will measure wave properties.



Background

  • What is a wave?

    • A disturbance in which energy is transferred without causing any permanent displacement of the medium (e.g., air, water, earth, empty space).


How do Waves Move?

  • Longitudinal- (e.g., Compression waves)

  • Transverse- (e.g., S waves)

    • energy moves perpendicular (right angles) to medium
    • Electromagnetic, some earthquake




Major Wave Types

  • Electromagnetic- produced by the vibration of electrons within atoms on the Sun's surface.

    • Does not require particles to transfer energy
    • Usually transverse (S) waves


Mechanical- must have a medium to transfer energy

  • Mechanical- must have a medium to transfer energy

    • Need particles to interact to transfer energy
    • Compression (sound), surface (water), both compression & transverse (earthquakes)


Sound Waves



Ocean Waves



Earthquake (Seismic) Waves



How Are Waves Made?



Ocean waves are produced by wind and the gravitational pull of moon produces ocean tides.

    • Ocean waves are produced by wind and the gravitational pull of moon produces ocean tides.


Electromagnetic waves- electric field and magnetic fields combine

    • Electromagnetic waves- electric field and magnetic fields combine
      • DON’T need molecules - travels through empty space


Electromagnetic Waves

  • Radio, radar, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, xray, gamma



Redheaded Martians Invade Venus Using Xrays & Gamma rays



Where do Electromagnetic waves come from?

  • Radio - sound and video of television is carried by shorter radio waves (wavelengths < 1 meter), and are modulated for broadcast much like FM radio. Radio waves are also produced by stars in distant galaxies.

  • Microwaves - Microwaves & radar are high frequency radio waves and are emitted by the Earth, buildings, cars, planes, and other large objects. In addition, low-level microwave radiation permeates space, where it is speculated to have been released by the "Big Bang" during creation of the universe.



Infrared - Almost all objects emit infrared rays, depending on the temperature of the object.

  • Infrared - Almost all objects emit infrared rays, depending on the temperature of the object.

  • Visible light -  White light originates from a variety of natural and artificial sources, including the sun, chemical reactions (fire), incandescent tungsten filaments, and fluorescent lamps (ROYGBIV)

  • UV - The sun is a constant source of ultraviolet radiation. Stars and other hot celestial objects in outer space emit ultraviolet radiation.



X-rays - Medical tools and hot gases in outer space emit X-rays

  • X-rays - Medical tools and hot gases in outer space emit X-rays

  • gamma - radioactive materials (natural and artificial) but also originate from nuclear explosions and a variety of sources in outer space. They also originate from the hottest regions of the universe including supernova explosions, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes.



Misconceptions

  • True or False?

  • When a wave moves, the medium flows with the wave





True or False?

  • True or False?

  • Radio waves are

  • sound waves



Answer: False

  • Answer: False

  • Equipment in the radio converts electromagnetic energy into sound waves

  • (XM radio is FM radio

  • broadcast from satellites)



True or False

  • True or False

  • There is sound in the

  • vacuum of space



Answer: False



Chapter Activities

  • A variety of experiences with waves are designed to introduce students to waves. Students will generate and study waves traveling through many different types of medium.



Engage

  • Cheerleader

  • Poof- demo



Explore

  • Complete the falling like dominos learning experience.



Explain

    • Was energy transferred?
    • 2. Did we significantly change the position of the dominos?


Elaborate

  • I Can Hear You (telephone)

  • Making Waves

  • You Light Up My Life





Evaluate

  • Create an illustrated poem (cinquain, haiku, limerick) for each type of wave.




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