Term and methodology



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Term and methodology

  • Term and methodology

  • Sources: written and material



Studying (Roman) Religion: observe the „sacrum”, the holiness - unpartial (diffrence with theology).

  • Studying (Roman) Religion: observe the „sacrum”, the holiness - unpartial (diffrence with theology).

  • Multidisciplinarity:

  • - History of Religion

  • - Phenomenology of Religion

  • - Comparative Religion

  • - Anthropology of Religion

  • - Psichology of Religion

  • - Philosophy of Religion



Analyzing Religion as a socio-cultural, historical phenomenon as a single process, striclty in conection with historical events.

  • Analyzing Religion as a socio-cultural, historical phenomenon as a single process, striclty in conection with historical events.

  • Hecataeus, Herodotus,Varro, Cicero, Apollodoros, Muhammad al –Sharastani

  • XIX. century: Religionswissenschaft

  • Johann Adam Hartung

  • Theodor Mommsen

  • Ulrich von Willamowitz- Moellendorf

  • Georg Wissowa

  • Ludwig Preller

  • W.W. Fowler



Franz Altheim

  • Franz Altheim

  • Raffaele Pettazzoni

  • Kurt Latte

  • H. J. Rose

  • G.B. Pighi

  • F. C. Grant

  • R. Schilling

  • Nicola Turchi





concerns the experiential aspect of religion, describing religious phenomena by it’s components and phenomenon (religious impressions)

  • concerns the experiential aspect of religion, describing religious phenomena by it’s components and phenomenon (religious impressions)

  • Friedrich Schleiermacher

  • Edmund Husserl

  •  William Brede Kristensen

  • Rudolf Otto

  •  Gerardus van der Leeuw

  • Paul Tillich

  • Kerényi Károly

  • Mircea Eliade

  • Thomas Köves- Zulauf

  • Ioan P. Culianu



Comparative religion is a field of religious studies that analyzes the similarities and differences of themes, myths, rituals and concepts among the world's religions. 

  • Comparative religion is a field of religious studies that analyzes the similarities and differences of themes, myths, rituals and concepts among the world's religions. 

  • Friedrich Max Müller

  • Sir James George Frazer

  • Franz Cumont

  • Vladimir Propp

  • Georges Dumezil

  • Joseph Campbell



Ugo Bianchi

  • Ugo Bianchi

  • Maarten Vermaseren

  • Ramsey McMullen

  • John Ferguson

  • Walter Burkert

  • Tóth István

  • Manfred Clauss

  • Richard Gordon

  • Roger Beck

  • Robert Turcan



Ando Clifford

  • Ando Clifford

  • Jörg Rüpke

  • Mary Beard

  • Jaime Alvar Ezquerra

  • Andreas Bendlin

  • Andreas Hensen

  • Mihai Barbulescu

  • Szabó Ádám

  • Sorin Nemeti

  • Valerie M. Warrior

  • John North

  • John Scheid



Études Préliminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain (EPRO)

  • Études Préliminaires aux Religions Orientales dans l'Empire Romain (EPRO)

  • Religions in the Graeco-Roman World (RGRW) – 171 volumes

  • Religion der Römischen Provinzen (RRP)

  • Journal of Roman Studies

  • Journal of Roman Archaeology

  • Phoenix, Latomus, Greece and Rome, Orma

  • ANRW- Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt



Written sources:

  • Written sources:



Libri Haruspicinales, Libri Fulgurales, Libri Rituales, Libri Acheruntici, Libri Tagentici, Libri Vegontici, Libri Sibyllini (Fatales), Libri Marcii

  • Libri Haruspicinales, Libri Fulgurales, Libri Rituales, Libri Acheruntici, Libri Tagentici, Libri Vegontici, Libri Sibyllini (Fatales), Libri Marcii

  • Ritual books and sacred texts of the official and forreign cults (Libri Pontificales, Libri Augurales, Comentarii, Indigitamenta)

  • The cathecism of the mistery cults (Mithras Cathecism)

  • Sacred song- books, texts for religious use (?)



Terentius Varro: Rerum Divinarum libri XVI

  • Terentius Varro: Rerum Divinarum libri XVI

  • Marcus Tullius Cicero: De natura derorum, De

  • haruspicum responsu

  • Publius Naso Ovidius: Fasti

  • Metamorphoses

  • Alulus Caecina: De Etrusca Disciplina

  • Plutarchos: Peri Isidos kai Osiridos

  • Eubulos: De Misteri Mithrae

  • Pallas: De Mithrae



Historical works (Fabius Pictor, Polybios,Caesar, Titus Livius, Dionysius of Halicarnasos, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallustius, Curtius Rufus)

  • Historical works (Fabius Pictor, Polybios,Caesar, Titus Livius, Dionysius of Halicarnasos, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallustius, Curtius Rufus)

  • Poems (Iuvenalis, Martialis, Ovidius, Vergilius)

  • Dramatic works (Plautus, Petronius)

  • Prose (Apuleius, Lykianos, Statius)

  • Scientifical works (Plutarch, Plinius, Varro, Cicero)



Augustinus, Arnobius, Claudianus, Commodianus, Dracontius, Eusebios, Firmicus Maternus, Iulianus Apostata, Kelsos, Lactantius Placidus, Origenes, Tertullianus, Zosimos

  • Augustinus, Arnobius, Claudianus, Commodianus, Dracontius, Eusebios, Firmicus Maternus, Iulianus Apostata, Kelsos, Lactantius Placidus, Origenes, Tertullianus, Zosimos



Material sources: are determined by period, cult and the religious phenomena (ritual and practice)

  • Material sources: are determined by period, cult and the religious phenomena (ritual and practice)

  • Official practice

  • Personal practice



Sacred places: a „sacred geography” (R. Gordon)- ancient concepts of a sacred place

  • Sacred places: a „sacred geography” (R. Gordon)- ancient concepts of a sacred place

  • Natural and human-made places: caves, fountains, saint trees, templum, aedes, cemetery, etc.

  • Interior: inscriptions, altars, reliefs, paintings, frescoes, special arhitectural and ritual elements

  • Exterior: inscriptions, sculptures, reliefs, paintings, altars, etc.





Phisical paths: burial site, cemeteries, tombs, mummies, pits, urnes, collected bones, ritual sacrifices, traces of burnings, animal sacrafices, foods

  • Phisical paths: burial site, cemeteries, tombs, mummies, pits, urnes, collected bones, ritual sacrifices, traces of burnings, animal sacrafices, foods

  • Non- phisical consecvences: no arheological founds (rare)



Ritual objects at home (lares, penates): altars, special objects, ceramics.

  • Ritual objects at home (lares, penates): altars, special objects, ceramics.

  • Religious small-finds (used at home, on a trip, in a castrum, camp): hand-made gods, lamps, ceramics etc.

  • The burial context, as a personalized religious place: small- finds, ceramics, pottery.






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