The Ages of Globalization: Geography, Technology, and Institutions

Yüklə 86,65 Kb.
Pdf görüntüsü
ölçüsü86,65 Kb.
Ages of Globalization

Journal of Global Awareness 
Journal of Global Awareness 
Volume 1 
Number 1 
Inaugural Issue of the Journal of 
Global Awareness 
Article 8 
August 2020 
The Ages of Globalization: Geography, Technology, and 
The Ages of Globalization: Geography, Technology, and 
Brenda Massetti 
St. John's University 
Recommended Citation 
Recommended Citation 
Massetti, Brenda (2020) "The Ages of Globalization: Geography, Technology, and Institutions," 
Journal of 
Global Awareness: Vol. 1: No. 1, Article 8. 
Available at: 
This Book Review is brought to you for free and open access by the Journals at St. John's Scholar. It has been 
accepted for inclusion in Journal of Global Awareness by an authorized editor of St. John's Scholar. For more 
information, please contact,

Professor Jeffrey Sachs’ new book shows us how globalization has been and will 
continue to be a driving force for human progress. The book traces the history of 
globalization through seven distinct ages. Each age represents what he terms a 
scale-enlarging transformation, expanding both population and production while 
changing the nature of governance and geopolitics. Depending on the climate, 
technology, and institutional options available to a particular geography, human 
progress has been spurred or spurned by globalization.
The Paleolithic Age, dating from 70,000 – 10,000 BCE, marks the formative period 
for all of human history, where small groups of humans migrated from one place to 
another. As they carried their tools, know-how, and emerging cultures throughout 
the world, they adapted to hugely diverse habitats while causing environmental 
upheaval along the way. The Neolithic Age characterizes an era of globalization by 
farming. The success of early agriculture hinged on fertile environments where 
flora and fauna could be cultivated and domesticated. Farming led to larger 
communities, which allowed humans the time and resources to develop new 
technologies such as writing, record keeping, and ceramics.
The Equestrian Age is the third scale-enlarging transformation described by 
Professor Sachs, where the horse reigns supreme in its contributions to economic 
development and globalization. In specific, the horse provided speed, durability, 
power, and intelligence, which enabled advancements in farming, mining, 
manufacturing, transport, communications, warfare, and governance. The Classical 
age comes next, signifying an era of globalization by politics. Greco-Roman, 
Persian, Islamic, Mongolian and Chinese Empires disseminate ideas, spread 
technologies, introduce new institutions, and build infrastructures on a continental 
scale. Professor Sachs' discussion of the rise of the Mongol Empire, the largest 
contiguous empire in history, is particularly interesting. The Ocean Age brings the 
birth of global capitalism, where imperial power extends across oceans and 
ecological zones. During this age, western production systems were globalized with 
plantations and mines in the Americas and elsewhere, while profit-oriented 
privately owned corporations maintained their military operations and foreign 
policies. Conquest was justified as a God-given right, whereby civilization was 
brought to the heathens. Financial success became a sign of God's favor and 
The Industrial Age represents Professor Sachs’ sixth age of globalization, bringing 
more extensive, deeper, and faster transformation than any previous age. 
Industrialized nations, including Western Europe and the United States, achieve 
significant increases in output per person, reductions in extreme poverty, rapid 
urbanization, and structural shifts away from strenuous physical labor, with more 
opportunities for education and leisure. The seventh age of globalization, the 
Digital Age, begins in the 21
Century and encompasses the present. Through 
advances in information and communication technology, it brings ubiquitous 
Massetti: Ages of Globalization
Published by St. John's Scholar, 2020

connectivity to the world creating new patterns of global economic activity, jobs, 
lifestyles, and geopolitics. However, this age also brings increasing environmental 
degradation, social inequality, and geopolitical conflict. Professor Sachs’ proposes 
a number of remedies for these global threats, including sustainable development 
and a more inclusive, participatory approach to political and economic life. 
Overall, the book offers a fascinating account of globalization and humanity. Not 
only does Professor Sachs provide rich historical detail in his description of each 
age, but he also offers robust data analysis to support his insights. This book is a 
must-read for anyone interested in how globalization has gotten us to where we are 
and how we can use it to move forward in a better way. 
Journal of Global Awareness, Vol. 1, No. 1 [2020], Art. 8

Document Outline

  • The Ages of Globalization: Geography, Technology, and Institutions
    • Recommended Citation
  • tmp.1597419686.pdf.QOtVg

Yüklə 86,65 Kb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2024
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə