The Crises of the Late Middle Ages The Great Loss in Population



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The Crises of the Late Middle Ages

  • The Great Loss in Population

  • Monarchs & Rulers imposing new political Order

  • Religious crisis





Europe = many small states!!

  • Europe = many small states!!

  • Major states at this time:

  • England Scotland Norway

  • Sweden Portugal Denmark

  • France Bohemia (= Czech Republic today)

  • Austria Teutonic Order (= Baltic states today)

  • Do not yet exist as we know them today:

  • Spain = Castile, Aragon, Granada, Navarre; not united

  • Italy = Sicily, Papal States, + others; not united

  • Germany = not united; part of Holy Roman Empire

  • Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg = the Low Countries

  • Russia = group of principalities; Mongol Yoke (1237-1480)

  • Nations of SE Europe = part of Byzantine Empire





price inflation

  • price inflation

  • In 1315 the price of wheat rose 800%

  • 3 SFHS cookies cost $1.25.

  • With 800% inflation  $10!



 susceptibility to disease

  •  susceptibility to disease

  • later marriage

  •  population

  •  homeless

  • rich farmers buy out poor farmers

  • volatile land market

  • unemployment

  • migration of young males to towns

  •  crime



From 1300-1400 states consolidated their holdings = fewer small states

  • From 1300-1400 states consolidated their holdings = fewer small states

  • Major states at this time:

  • England Union of Kalmar = Norway, Sweden, Denmark

  • Scotland Poland-Lithuania

  • Portugal Bohemia

  • France Hungary

  • Austria Wallachia (= Romania today)

  • Ottoman Empire

  • Do not yet exist as we know them today:

  • Spain, Italy, Germay = still not united

  • Russia = still under Mongol Yoke (1237-1480)





What would you do if you know you were going to die in less than a week?

  • What would you do if you know you were going to die in less than a week?

  • Things to think about

    • Possessions
    • Food
    • School
    • Friends


Boccaccio in The Decameron:

  • Boccaccio in The Decameron:

  • The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors.



famine  susceptibility to disease

  • famine  susceptibility to disease

  • advances in shipbuilding

  • Rats (fleas from rats) on ships from Black Sea

  • urban overcrowding & poor sanitation & hygiene











What were the most significant effects of the Black Death on Medieval Europe????

  • What were the most significant effects of the Black Death on Medieval Europe????



-Read the Introduction of The Decameron

  • -Read the Introduction of The Decameron

  • Complete Graphic organizer after using introduction and slides



pogroms against Jews

  • pogroms against Jews

  • Migration (move to city)

  • clergy care for sick (demand for religious services for dead, and dying)

  • Social conflicts of classes (Peasant Revolts)



 unemployment (Farms decline)

  •  unemployment (Farms decline)

  •  productivity, wages, & standard of living (limited laborers)

  • Nobles decline in power (pay more for products & labor)

  • Agricultural prices 

  • craft guilds take new members (laborers migrate to city to learn skills)

  • inflation



Pessimism

  • Pessimism

  • art & lit – theme of death

  • Flagellants (beat themselves in ritual penance)

  • new colleges & universities – more localized

  • culturally Europe becomes more divided



"And no bells tolled and nobody wept no matter what his loss because almost everyone expected death ... and people said and believed, 'This is the end of the world.'"

  • "And no bells tolled and nobody wept no matter what his loss because almost everyone expected death ... and people said and believed, 'This is the end of the world.'"

  • - Agnolo di Tura, chronicler of Siena in central Italy, on the Black Death, 1348



What were the most significant effects of the Black Death on Medieval Europe????

  • What were the most significant effects of the Black Death on Medieval Europe????

    • 3 to 5 sentences


What were the causes of the Hundred years war?

  • What were the causes of the Hundred years war?

  • What were the outcome of the Hundred years war?



One Person Find Causes of 100 years war

  • One Person Find Causes of 100 years war

  • One person Find Progress/Development of War

  • One Person Find Outcomes of 100 years war

  • Pg. 298-302



Battle of Sluys (1340). Illustration from a manuscript of Froissart’s Chronicles.

  • Battle of Sluys (1340). Illustration from a manuscript of Froissart’s Chronicles.



Charles IV of France dies heirless

  • Charles IV of France dies heirless

  • French nobility selects Philip VI of Valois

  • Chosen over Edward III of England

    • Long history of prejudice & animosity between French and English people
    • “no woman or her son could succeed to the [French] monarchy”
    • 1340 – proclaims himself King of France


English claim Aquitaine as ancient inheritance & occupy it as vassal to French crown

  • English claim Aquitaine as ancient inheritance & occupy it as vassal to French crown

  • Philip VI confiscates Aquitaine in 1337



Wool trade b/t England & Flanders

  • Wool trade b/t England & Flanders

  • Flanders = French fief

  • Flanders wants independence from French rule & asks English for help



France 3x population and far wealthier then England

  • France 3x population and far wealthier then England

    • France disunited caused by social conflicts
    • Estates general (too divided to be effective)
    • Peasants had to pay increasing taxes
  • French vassals (land holders) of Philip VI side with Edward III to assert independence from French crown



Crécy, Calais, Poitiers, Agincourt victories

  • Crécy, Calais, Poitiers, Agincourt victories

  • English longbow vs. French crossbow

  • Cannon

  • England Embargo to Flanders= rebellions by merchants & signed alliance with England

  • Capture King John II the Good



Joan of Arc to the rescue!

  • Joan of Arc to the rescue!

  • Orléans = turning point

  • King Charles VII receives crown back









What were the causes of the Hundred years war?

  • What were the causes of the Hundred years war?

  • What were the outcome of the Hundred years war?





Pope moves to Avignon

  • Pope moves to Avignon

    • Popes live extravagantly
  • Cut off from Rome needed to get funds

    • Annates (taxes for first year in office)
      • Shorter time in purgatory
    • Indulgences (sell pardons for unrepeated sins)
      • Could buy them for those already dead
  • Rome left in poverty

  • Clement V



2 popes!! (Rome & Avignon)

  • 2 popes!! (Rome & Avignon)

  • Gregory XI brings papacy back to Rome

      • Within sphere of influence of France
    • King Charles V wanted papacy to return to Avignon
  • Urban VI (Rome) – aggressive reform causes anger & second election

  • Clement VII (Avignon) – “antipope”





Reform movement

  • Reform movement

  • Pope derives power from entire Christian community

  • Constitutional structure: pope + general council



Council of Pisa (1409)  3 popes!!

  • Council of Pisa (1409)  3 popes!!

  • Council of Constance (1414-1418) – 3 goals:

    • end Great Schism
    • end heresy
    • reform church
  • Results: Kings asserted their

    • Power over the church (France & England)
    • -others reformed®ulated Religious life


Jacquerie (1358)

  • Jacquerie (1358)

  • Causes:

    • Long-term socioeconomic grievances
    • 100 Years War – taxation
  • Result: Crushed by nobility





Marriage & Family

  • Marriage & Family

  • Arranged

  • Based on economics (vs. ♥)

  • Age: men in mid-late 20s, women <20

  • Children = objects of affection

  • No divorce (annulments in rare cases)



Work

  • Work

    • Rural: farming
    • Urban: craft guilds – hard to enter (more open post-plague)
    • Women “inferior”  limited opportunities
  • Religion

    • Central to life
    •  lay control over parish affairs


Migration of peoples to frontier regions

  • Migration of peoples to frontier regions

  • “race”/“ethnicity” = used to mean language, customs, laws (vs. blood)

  • Legal dualism: natives subject to local laws & newcomers subject to laws of former homeland

    • Ireland as exception – Statute of Kilkenny (1366)
  • As time passed, moved away from legal dualism toward homogeneity & emphasis on blood descent

    • Dalimil Chronicle


Dante, Divine Commedy (Italy)

  • Dante, Divine Commedy (Italy)

  • Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (England)

  • Villon, Lais & Grand Testament (France)

  • Christine de Pisan, The City of Ladies, etc. (France)

  •  lay literacy – due to needs of commerce & gov’t.





The Renaissance



Journal #3

  • “O highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.”



Italian City-States

  • Florence

    • Economic prosperity
      • Mediterranean trade routes
      • Development of banking & credit
    • Social dynamism
      • Popolo grasso “Fat people
        • Nobles, wealthy merchants, manufactures
      • Mediocri
        • Smaller merchants & market artisans
      • Popolo Minuito “little people
        • Laborers, artisans


Italian City-State Government

  • Constitutional oligarchies dominated by powerful wealthy families

    • Manipulated electoral process
    • Played off rivalries and implemented rule (sometimes by Force)
      • Medici (Venice, Siena, Florence & Lucca
      • Francesco Sforza (Milan)


THE “ISMS” of the Renaissance

  • Humanism

  • Individualism

  • Secularism

  • Scientific Naturalism



intellectual movement based on study of the Latin & Greek classics (classicism)

  • intellectual movement based on study of the Latin & Greek classics (classicism)

    • humanities (liberal arts): grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ethics, history & Philosophy
      • Instead of law, medicine & theory
  • renewed interest in man and new view of humankind

    • believed in human potential and glorified man’s dignity
    • man depicted in art as the center of the world
  • civic humanism: application of humanist education to civil service

    • First half of renaissance
    • How humanism affected the city-states themselves
  • vs. Middle Ages – learning confined largely to Christian monasteries; subordination of humans to God; human body should be covered up, not glorified (Christian worldview)



new emphasis on individual achievement

  • new emphasis on individual achievement

  • belief that the individual ought to be free to think, speak, and act for himself

    • Able to discover truth & wisdom
    • Could interpret text w/o assistance of Clergy
  • vs. Middle Ages – cooperation within small communities; individual achievement subordinate to religious faith/piety (Christian worldview)



Titian,

  • Titian,

  • Portrait of Emperor Charles V at Muhlberg, 1548

  • (oil on canvas)



increasing concern with the material rather than spiritual world

  • increasing concern with the material rather than spiritual world

  • material values: money/wealth, material goods, leisure time/activities

  • vs. Middle Ages – focus on the spiritual world/Kingdom of Heaven (Christian worldview)





Secularism

  • Boccaccio (1313-1375), The Decameron:

  • “Niccolò’s son, Filippo, being a young man and a bachelor, was wont sometimes to bring thither a woman for his pleasure, and after keeping her there for a few days to escort her thence again. Now on one of these occasions it befell that he brought thither one Niccolosa, whom a vile fellow, named Mangione, kept in a house at Camaldoli as a common prostitute. And a fine piece of flesh she was, and wore fine clothes, and, for one of her sort, knew how to comport herself becomingly and talk agreeably.”



Scientific Naturalism

  • close observation and study of the natural world

    • geometry / proportions / space / laws of perspective
    • anatomy
  • realistic portrayal of natural world

  • vs. Middle Ages – less realistic and more stylized; focus is on representation of God rather than representation of God (Christian worldview)



Leonardo da Vinci,

  • Leonardo da Vinci,

  • Study of a woman’s hands,

  • date unknown (drawing)



You are Michelangelo

  • You are assigned to design a mural for the ceiling

    • Can be words, pictures (drawn), or a collage (of pictures from the computer)
    • Has to fill up the whole 8x11 piece of white paper
    • 1 paragraph typed on the back or on a separate piece of paper describing your work
    • DUE Tuesday
  • Get on the floor and stare at the ceiling

    • 3 minutes for inspiration


The Renaissance

  • Architecture (Renaissance vs. Medieval Gothic)

  • Paintings (Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo)

  • Sculpting (Michelangelo, Donatello)

  • Writings (Petrarch,Pico Della Mirandola, Machiavelli



Complete your graphic organizer

  • You will go around the stations and write down everything you notice about the writings, paintings, sculptors or architectures

    • For each station you have 5 minutes


The Renaissance & Gender

  • Considered sinful daughters of eve (church view)

  • Subordinate to men

    • Can own property & write wills but cannot sell w/o permission
  • Boys valued more than girls

    • Female babies were abandoned or sent to convents
      • Considered liability cause of marriage
  • Some educated girls

    • Became writers, publishers, booksellers, printers
  • No prominent female painters

    • Couldn’t go to university or be an apprentice


Journal #4

  • If you were a leader and you could not be both would you rather be loved or feared?

  • Explain your answer



The End of the Renaissance

  • The French Invasions

  • Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe



Decline of the City States

  • Political life deteriorated

    • Medici despotism faced opposition
      • Exiled Machiavelli
    • War between rival families
      • Tried to outdo each other in violence, brutality, & prayer
  • Dis-unification led to Invasions

    • King Charles VIII marches through Italy (1st invasion)
      • Priest/Monk Savonarola of Florence welcomed arrival was because of sin (secularism)
    • Pope Alexander VI allows France back in (2nd invasion)
      • Corrupt pope
      • Allows King Louis XII to invade Milan
    • King Francis I invades (3rd time)
      • Goes to war with SPAIN




Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

  • France



Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

  • France

    • Professional army
    • Collapse of English Empire in France (100 years war)
    • Death of Charles Bold of Burgundy= King Louis XI to secure monarchy


End of Renaissance

  • By 1530 Artistic styles reflected loss of Self-confidence due to Invasions

  • Optimism declined

  • Renaissance (you can do it attitude was lost)



Northern Vs. Italian Renaissance



Desiderius Erasmus




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