The Habsburg Empire Formation of the Dual Monarchy

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pg. 746-749, 838-847


  1. The Habsburg Empire

    1. Formation of the Dual Monarchy

      1. 1848-Francis Joseph becomes Emperor

      2. Hapsburg Empire is defeated by France and Piedmont

      3. October Diploma-created a federation among the states and provinces of the Empire

      4. Habsburgs defeated by Prussia

      5. compromise between Habsburgs and Prussians to form dual monarchy

      6. Riechsrat-a bicameral Imperial Parliament; established by the February Patent

      7. Ausgleich (Compromise of 1867)-compromise that formed the dual monarchy

    2. Unrest of Nationalities

      1. much unrest between ethnic groups and Austria-Hungary

      2. the Austria of Germans hated non-German national groups and influenced Adolf Hitler

  2. Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems

    1. Bismarck's Leadership

      1. War in the Balkans

        1. The Three Emperors League-established by Bismarck and United the empires of Germany Austria and Russia; later collapsed over Austro Prussian rivalry which was a result of Russo Turkish war

        2. The Treaty of San Stefano-signed by Ottoman Empire; was Russian triumph

        3. jingoism-super patriotism; made famous by song

      2. The Congress of Berlin

        1. was a blow to Russian endeavors and annoyed the Balkan states

      3. German Alliances with Russia and Austria

        1. Dual Alliance-secret treaty between Germany and Austria in fear of Russian retaliation after alienation

      4. The Triple Alliance

        1. occurred when Italy asked to join the dual license

        2. Great Britain did not get into any alliances

        3. the three emperors league lapsed

        4. Bismarck in order to assure good relations with Russia negotiate the Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 which said that both powers were to remain neutral in either was attacked

        5. William II-came to the German firm in 1888; emperors were called Kaisers; dismissed Bismarck

    2. Forging the Triple Entente

      1. Franco Russian alliance

        1. General Leo Von Caprivi-Bismarck successor; let treaty fall apart; purposefully did not renew the reinsurance treaty

        2. intern the French and the Russians signed alliance against Germany

      2. Britain and Germany

        1. Britain would not take Germany as an ally

        2. Germany made trouble for Britain

        3. supported Boers against Britain

        4. William congratulated Paul Kruger who was the president of the Boer Transvaal Republic on their defeat of the British

        5. Boer War-your frowned from Britain for mercilessly crushing South African farmer rebellion

        6. Joseph Chamberlain the colonial Sec. made several attempts to conclude alliance with Germany but Germany held better concessions

      3. the Entente Cordiale

        1. British concluded an alliance with Japan

        2. Entente Cordiale-series of agreements between Britain and France; gave France freehand in Morocco

        3. Britain's unexpected defeat in the Russian Japanese war led to the Russian Revolution of 1905

      4. The First Moroccan Crisis

        1. Prince Bernhard von Bulow-Germany's chancellor at the time hoped to show how weak the French were

        2. Sir Edward Grey-the British foreign Sec.; authorized conversations between British and French; German bullying brought France and Britain closer together

      5. British Agreement with Russia

        1. formed the Triple Entente which was an informal Association of Britain Russia and France who went to war with the Triple Alliance

        2. started a two front war in Germany

        3. destroying the Bismarck's equilibrium

  3. World War I

    1. The Road to War

      1. Young Turks-group of modernizing reformers who seized power in the Ottoman Empire

      2. The Bosnian Crisis

        1. when Austria annexed turkey before anybody else have the chance to act

      3. The Second Moroccan Crisis

        1. the Germans sent Panther to Morocco and challenge the British naval supremacy

        2. made in the Entente Cordiale a de facto alliance

      4. War in the Balkans

        1. a reaction to the second Moroccan crisis

    2. Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War

      1. The Assassination

        1. a Serbian nationalist shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne and his wife as they drove through Sarajevo

      2. Germany and Austria's response

        1. Conrad von Hotzendorf-chief of Austrian general staff urged an attack

        2. Count Stefan Tiszah-speaking for Hungary resisted

        3. count Leopold von Berchtold-the Austro-Hungarian Prime Minister felt the need for strong action

        4. William II and Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg-promised German support for attack on Serbia

        5. General Helmut Von Moltke-chief of general staff since 1906 had come to believe that the growing power of Russia threatened Germany

        6. Austria declare war on the Serbia

      3. The Triple Entente Response

        1. Austria was humiliated at the London Conference in 1913

        2. since Russia was Allied with concerns and Britain and France were allied with Russia they fought

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