The place of english in morphological and genetic typology of languages

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seminar 1



Language is the system, phonological, lexical, and grammatical,
which lies at the base of all speaking. Speech, on the other hand, is the
manifestation of language, or its use by various speakers and writers of
the given language. Text is the result of the process of speech. Language
is social by nature; it grows and develops with the development of
society. It exists in individual minds, but serves the purposes of social
intercourse through speech (originally oral, nowadays to a greater extent
written). The three constituent parts of language are the phonological
system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. The unity of these
three elements forms a language. The system of language includes
the body of material units: sounds (phonemes), morphemes, words
(lexemes), word-groups, sentences, supra-phrasal unities. According to
them we distinguish between 6 levels of linguistic analysis.
Phoneme is a linguistic unit, but not a linguistic sign. It has no
meaning; it has a meaning differential function instead. It differentiates
morphemes and words as material bodies. Units of all the other levels
are meaningful. They are bilateral, possessing both form and meaning.
The morphemes express abstract, “significative” meanings which are
used as constituents for the formation of more concrete, “nominative”
meanings. Words and all the higher units: phrases (word combinations,
word-groups), sentences and supra-phrasal unities (sentence-groups,
textual unities, or just text) are used to express referential meanings.
Three main branches of linguistics dealing with the main linguistic
units are phonetics (phonology), lexicology and grammar. Grammar
is the study of the grammatical structure of language. It includes
morphology and syntax.
Morphology is the part of grammar which treats of the forms of words. Syntax is the part of grammar which treats of phrases and sentences. The border-line between the two is conventional, and there are cases of overlapping. While free phrases fall under syntax, the formations like have been found, has been raining
are referred to as analytical word-forms and fall under morphology. Set
phrases make the subject of phraseology as a branch of lexicology.
Morphology deals with the paradigmatic relations of morphemes
and words, while syntax deals with the syntagmatic relations in phrases
and sentences.
Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units
in a segmental sequence (string). Syntagmatically connected are words
and word-groups in the sentence, morphemes within words, phonemes
within morphemes and words. Syntax as a part of grammar studies
syntagmatic relations of words in phrases and sentences.
There are four main types of notional syntagmas identified in the
sentence The small lady listened to me attentively:
1) predicative syntagma — The lady listened;
2) objective syntagma — listened to me;
3) attributive syntagma — The small lady;
4) adverbial syntagma — listened attentively.
Paradigmatic relations exist between elements of the system of
language outside the strings where they occur. Each linguistic unit is
included in a set of connections based on different properties. This
is evident in classical grammatical paradigms which express various
grammatical categories (e. g. number, person, case, tense, aspect, mood).
Morphology is a part of grammar which deals with the paradigmatic
relations of word-forms. The major English verb paradigm includes forms:
1) The Base Form (work).
2) The S-Form (works).
3) The ED-Form of the Past Simple (worked).
4) The ED-Form of the Past Participle (worked).
5) The ING-Form (working)
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