u z y k a l i a XIII
The Polish Pianist Artur Hermelin
For many years, I knew about my late relative - the pianist Artur Hermelin - only this: that
he grew up in Lwow (called Lemberg when he was born there in 1901); that he was a child prodigy;
and that as a piano soloist he toured Europe with orchestras and gave recitals - some of which were
broadcasted by the Polish Radio. I also knew that Artur perished in the Holocaust. When my father
told me that, his eyes revealed how much he was still missing his cousin Artur, who had been one
year older than him; that was 30 years after Artur’s tragic death, when I was still a child; it was far
beyond my grasp, and it still is. We had an old small photo of Artur as a very young boy, hugging
a big accordion and giving the camera a warm smile.
During my recent attempts to collect details about Artur’s 41 years of life – I’ve read that
Artur was among the musicians who were forced to perform music for the Nazis in the ghetto
of Lwow and later in the labor camp; hundreds of thousands of Jews - Artur and his relatives among
them - were murdered at the ghetto of Lwow and at its notorious Janowska camp, or transported
from the ghetto or the camp to concentration camps, in the years 1941-1943. May the memory
of the victims be blessed.
Had Artur Hermelin survived the Holocaust and continued to play, I would have probably
asked him to play for me the music he loved - Bach, Beethoven, Schumann, Liszt, Chopin,
Debussy, Szymanowski, Tansman... But would have we been living in the same country at all?
And would have Artur kept performing in the post-Holocaust era? Those questions - which have
crossed my mind so many times since my childhood - will remain unanswered; but my urge to get
acquainted with Artur’s biography, and above all to hear him playing (how much I hope to find old
recordings of him!) - is still growing deeper; I realize that this research of mine might be the last
chance to trace Artur’s footprints. I would like him to be remembered. In this article I would like
to tell about Artur, whose pianistic personality evolved through many wanderings, successes and
failures, and whose style was crystalized out of all he had learnt with his five outstanding teachers -
four of them Polish.
In the beginning of the 20 century, the Polish musical life stood on the threshold of opening up
to experimentalism on different levels; “Young Poland” (1890-1918) was a movement that appeared
on culture’s stage as a reaction to the call of the Polish positivists to adopt a rational and “organic” -
as opposed to tempestuous - approach in order to gradually regain independence for Poland; while
the positivists partially rejected the stormy emotional state of mind of the romantic period,
the philosophers and artists of “Young Poland” rejected the bourgeois mediocre culture, and favored
the ideas of the decadence movement - a vitriolic, modernistic, bothersome type of romanticism,
and a daring use of symbols, dreams and fantasies. The artists of that movement wanted to use
Polish idioms (like the Mazurka's rhythm and character) in a fresh, contemporary way; for example,
the music of the composer Mieczysław Karłowicz was neoromantic and influenced by Tchaikovsky
and Wagner; his symphonic poems demonstrated the musical orientation of the later "Young
Poland" composers - Szymanowski, Różycki, Fitelberg and Szeluto. Szymanowski was influenced
not only by Wagner and Strauss, but also by the atonal works of the symbolist Scriabin, by
the impressionists Debussy and Ravel, and by the distinctive folk music of the Polish highland
In 1905 Różycki founded - with the rest of the “Young Poland” composers - the “Young
Polish Composers’ Society”, whose goal was to promote performances of modern Polish music
abroad; that demonstrated the growing interest - among Polish musicians - in exchanging ideas with
contemporary musicians in other European countries. Grzegorz Fitelberg, who was a prominent
conductor (he worked with the Polish Radio orchestra since its founding), promoted the new Polish
music - in Paris, among other places, and worked a lot with Szymanowski and the pianist Artur
While in Paris, young Polish musicians confronted a prevailing dislike towards
neoromanticism. The musical “fashion” in Paris in those days was a reserved neoclassicism, with an
emphasis on classical structures which were balanced enough to accommodate the fruits of daring
musical experiments with harmony, rhythm, poly- and atonality, etc. That French style
of composing highly influenced Szymanowski, as well as his contemporaries - Aleksander
Tansman, for example.
In fact, Józef Koffler (a teacher at the Lwow conservatory in the years 1928-1941, and
a colleague of Artur Hermelin who also taught there in the years 1932-1941) was the first Polish
composer to adopt dodecaphony (since 1926) - after studying with Arnold Schoenberg in Vienna.
The evolution of his music - starting with folkloristic elements and tonal harmonies, then adding
to his palette whole-tone modality, serial dodecaphonic organization and neo-classical “transparent”
textures, then oscillating between two kinds of neo-classicism - the “dry” and airy French style and
the more polyphonic German style, and finally tailoring his music for the Russian regime before
the Nazi invasion - draws a scenario which is typical to periods of experimentalism in music history
(coupled so often with stormy political and social conditions); Koffler’s personal music history can
also teach about the musical climate in which Artur Hermelin took his first steps and matured
as a pianist - in Lwow, Vienna, Paris and Warsaw.
Koffler belonged to a group of Polish avant-garde composers, who created in the first half
of the 20th century, and who were continuously criticized by Polish conservative music critics -
mainly in Warsaw; those composers were considered to be too attentive to - and influenced by -
foreign avant-garde musical cultures like the French one, thus being only “loosely Polish” in their
music, on top of being disrespectful to the lofty music, which is - as the critic Piotr Rytel phrased it
on Dec. 1
1926, in “Gazeta Warszawska Poranna”:
the temple of art to the streets, so now the mob can enter the new temple...
And Rytel added:
Stupid, though quite coarse, rhythmic ideas are introduced - regardless of form and meaning. Offensive vulgarity and
ugliness are so strong, noisy and untiring, and they are turning everything upside down; it causes an extreme lowering
of requirements. Skillful composing, the ability to master the material, a subtle taste
all those have been sent to the
Artur Hermelin - having been a pianist and not a composer - was, nevertheless, similarly criticized
in Warsaw; the most harsh critic reviews were written by the above mentioned conservative
musician Piotr Rytel, whose responses might have been adding weight to the reasons which made
Tansman, Fitelberg and Artur Rubinstein leave Warsaw; and also by the pianist and conductor
Juliusz Wertheim, who wrote in Nov. 23
1926, in “Epoka”:
level of general technique, Hermelin has a real talent of disclosing the content of the work he plays. But he has also
disagreeable manners, and the experimental interpretation of pieces such as Perkowski’s sonata - cannot remain
unpunished; thus, the undoubted performance skills - which have been so far acquired by Mr. Hermelin - are damaged.
The Lwow-based Hermelin (Harmelin) family, into which Artur was born 111 years ago,
was a branch of a larger Jewish family from Brody; his grandfather was the Hassidic rabbi Baruch-
David Hermelin, whose sons - at least some of them - pursued secular studies: Dr. Eliasz Hermelin,
for example, was a well-known gynecologist in Lwow (before Second Wrold War he headed
the department at the Jewish Rappaport hospital); Dr. Natan Hermelin (Artur’s father) was
a successful lawyer, who carried out a life-long endeavor - to nurture and develop the musical life in
Lwow, and especially among his Jewish community: He was a violinist, composer and
the conductor of the amateur symphonic orchestra near the Galician Music Society. In 1919, he was
among the founders of the Jewish Musical Society, whose goal was to revitalize the musical life
in Lwow - after a long regression during World War I; first, that Society organized symphonic
concerts - played by a group of professional Jewish musicians as well as amateurs. Dr Natan
Hermelin was chosen to direct and conduct that Jewish Symphonic Orchestra (a position he held
until 1927). The Jewish “Chwila” newspaper described, for example, the inauguration concert at the
new Jewish orphanage house in Lwow in 1920 - in which Natan Hermelin conducted
Mendelssohn’s Serenade op. 43. In the “Jewish Almanac,” 1936, which was published in Lwow,
the musician Alfred Plohn wrote that the press in Lwow praised the concerts of the Jewish
Symphony Orchestra, stressing their high artistic level. There were, for example, many excellent
violinists in that orchestra - who could play exceptionally well as soloists too (and they indeed gave
solo recitals and performed with other orchestras like the Lwow Theatre Orchestra, and some of
them taught at music conservatories in Lwow): Adolf Bruckmann, Maurycy Diamand, Bernard
Bauer, Dr. Leon Bristiger, Eduard and Dr. Ignacy Fuhrmann, Dr. Marek Gottesmann and Dr. Natan
Hermelin himself - to name a few. The Jewish Musical Society organized music festivals like
the “Chopin Days” - an event which was artistically directed by the composer Jozef Koffler.
So, Artur Hermelin – Natan’s son - grew up in a musical family. The first music-related
event in Artur’s life - as far as I know - took place in 1914: Artur moved from Lwow in eastern
Galicia to Vienna (both cities belonged then to the Austro-Hungarian Empire) in order to study with
the famous Polish composer, pianist and piano teacher Teodor Leszetycki (1830 - 1915).
Who moved with 13 years old Artur to Vienna - may be his parents? - that I don’t know, but I can
imagine how excited and probably terrified young Artur was on his way to study with famous
Leszetycki in his private studio, which attracted pupils from all around the world; Leszetycki had
studied with Carl Czerny (one of Beethoven’s pupils), and became famous for his pianistic virtuosi
abilities; he taught for 25 years in St. Petersburg, later returning to Vienna to found his own studio,
where special assistants - outstanding pianists - used to prepare the new pupils to work with
the master. “Leszetycki method” gained huge reputation (despite Leszetycki’s protest: “There is no
method!”), and Artur Schnabel, Alexander Brailowsky, Anna Yesipova, Mieczysław Horszowski,
Ignacy Friedman, Ignacy Jan Paderewski - were among his pupils. His motto was: “No art without
life, no life without art”. Artur had one year, at most, of studies with Leszetycki - the last year of
Leszetycki’s life; like all the master’s pupils, Artur had to play for the whole group during
the “collective lessons”, while in the one-on-one lessons each pupil enjoyed Leszetycki’s very
“tailored” instruction. Interestingly, much later in his life, Artur would learn with Leszetycki’s
former pupil - Alexander Brailowski - in Paris.
Upon his teacher’s death, Artur returned to Lwow, and was a student at the Higher School of
Music “Sabina Kasparek”. Between 1916 and 1919 his teacher was Vilem Kurz - at
the conservatory of the Society of Galician Music (founded in 1848); that conservatory became later
the Mykola Lysenko State Music Academy, by merging with the two other conservatories in Lwow
in 1939 - the year the Soviets took over (The first director of that conservatory was Karol Mikuli -
Chopin's pupil). Vilem Kurz (1872 - 1945), was a well- known Czech pianist and piano teacher,
who taught in Vienna before arriving at Lwow; his teaching methods were largely based on
Leszetycki’s approach. Eduard Steuermann – Schoenberg’s pianist-to-be (and one of Artur’s later
teachers) - was among Kurz’ pupils; so were the composers and pianists Gideon Klein and Rafael
Schachter (later - active musicians in a surreal world: Theresienstadt concentration camp).
When Vilem Kurz moved to Prague in 1919, Artur started his studies with the Polish pianist Jerzy
Lalewicz (1875-1951), who had been studying with Anna Jesipova (Leszetycki’s pupil and wife)
in St. Petersburg. In Lwow he taught for two years - after teaching in Vienna and before
immigrating to Buenos Aires. The pianists Zygmunt Dygat, Mieczyslaw Munz and Leopold
Münzer, and the conductor Artur Rodziński, were among Lalewicz pupils, who were inspired by his
rich and mainly contemporary repertoire - Chopin, Ravel, Melcer, Paderewski, Szymanowski.
When Lalewicz moved to Argentina, Artur left too: at age 18 he traveled to Vienna again,
this time to his fourth teacher Eduard Steuermann (1892-1964), who had been Kurz’s pupil (like
Artur), as well as Ferruccio Busoni’s pupil. Eduard Steuermann, who was born in Sambor, Galicia,
became a performer of Schoenberg’s music, and in 1938 immigrated to USA and taught at Juilliard
School of Music (Alfred Brendel and Lwow-born Jakob Gimpel were among his many talented
From Biblioteka Narodowa at Warsaw I’ve received a photo which Artur sent in 1927 to his
beloved teacher Eduard Steuermann, with a dedication that said:
It is interesting to look at the “family tree” of Artur’s teachers, and to notice the “web” of multiple
connections between teachers and pupils. It seems that pupils chose their teachers according
to a “familiarity code”, preferring to study with teachers who were pupils (or teachers) of their
Artur Hermelin’s photo with his dedication to Eduard Steuermann (from 1927); received from Biblioteka Narodowa
In red – the names of Artur Hermelin’s teachers. The arrows’ direction is from a teacher to his/her
Artur studied with Steuermann until 1923 or 1924; then he lived in Paris for more than
excellent pianist Alexandre Brailowsky (1896-1976). In 1925 Artur returned to Lwow and gave his
first recitals there; Vasyl Barvinsky (the Ukrainian composer, pianist and conductor) wrote
in Lwow, in 1925:
In Hermelin’s musical profile there are no “pale features”; he is outstanding not only thanks to his well-known
technique or his musical intelligence, but - first of all - thanks to his balance which is rare at this young age;
that balance enables Hermelin to avoid getting blinded by superficial and external aspects of music; he entirely masters
the architecture of big forms like the sonata (he played a sonata by Chopin) or the Fantasie (by Schumann), but he also
shows us the beauty which lies in the details of miniature forms like Chopin’s mazurkas.
In 1926, Artur gave concerts and recitals in Warsaw and Paris. Since that year, Artur came
frequently for long stays in Paris. In Paris, Artur belonged to the Stowarzyszenie Młodych
Muzyków Polaków (Society of Young Polish Musicians), which Piotr Perkowski, Feliks Roderyk
Łabuński and Stanisław Wiechowicz had founded in 1926.
Many of Artur’s friends from his piano classes in Vienna and Lwow - reached Paris too,
as well as Polish composers, conductors and other instrumentalists; they came to study with Nadia
Boulanger, Albert Roussel, Vincent d’Indy, Igor Stravinsky, Maurice Ravel, Arthur Honneger,
Alfred Cortot, Isidor Philip, Wanda Landowska... At that time, Artur himself studied there with
Alexander Brailowsky. The influences of Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky and the French “Group
of Six” were shaping - in France and then outside too - experimental neoclassical Polish
composition; the tonal system was on its way to collapse - with the help of dodecaphony and
polytonality, and composers used polyrhytm, jazz idiom and clusters - among other innovations.
Artur, who inherited from his teacher Eduard Steuermann a sense of commitment
to the music of the future, was repeatedly playing in Paris the contemporary works of Tansman,
Szymanowski and Perkowski; the musical conversation between the French music and the Polish
music was indeed fruitful. Tansman’s works, for example, were highly influenced by jazz,
polytonality, neoclassical dialogue with traditional forms (including Polish dances), and Ravel’s
According to several Polish critics - from Warsaw mainly - Artur Hermelin was highly
appreciated in Paris, and his interpretations of the contemporary Polish music he played were
considered to be very intelligent and balanced.
At that time, Paris was called home - temporarily or permanently - by many Polish
musicians like Szymon Laks, Mieczysław Horszowski, Zygmunt Dygat, Leopold Münzer,
Stanisław Szpinalski, Henryk Sztompka, Jerzy Sulikowski, Alexander Tansman, Piotr Perkowski,
Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Leopold Stokowski, Roman Palester, and others. The Society of Young
Polish musicians organized concerts and recitals - mainly of Polish music by Karol Szymanowski,
Piotr Perkowski, Aleksander Tansman, Feliks Roderyk Łabuński, Ignacy Paderewski, Józef Koffler,
Alfred Gradstein, Karol Rathaus, Tadeusz Zygfryd Kassern, Tadeusz Szeligowski... Artur played in
many such recitals, including at the Sorbonne’s Institute of Slavic studies and at the Concerts
Pasdeloup - the Sunday concerts on the rotunda of the Cirque d’Hiver: On May 20 1928, in such
a concert, the conductor Rhene-Baton conducted the Symphonic and Artur performed - with
the orchestra - a Symphony by Tansman, Humoresque by Perkowski, and a work by Szymanowski
(the singer Suzanne Cesbron-Viseur also took part in that concert). Artur went on performing
frequently in Paris until the Second World War.
In Warsaw, where Artur performed in 1926, he had to cope with the harsh critics mentioned
above; on the other hand, Karol Stromenger (A Polish composer and music critic in Warsaw) wrote
in “Illustrated weekly”, no. 50, p. 872:
The Pianist Artur Hermelin is a young talent, already significantly sophisticated (...) from Lwow, carefully educated
abroad, currently residing in Paris; he has a prominent, serious and interesting sense of artistic structure. He has
indisputable career-predestination to be an interesting pianist (...) Artur Hermelin dominates the technique of bravura,
his interpretations are carefully groomed and based on reasonable grounds, and his musical tone is expressive -
revealing the artist's imagination, seriousness, and pianistic intelligence. Artur Hermelin is spiritually at home when he
plays Beethoven - whose concerto in C minor was played beautifully by the Philharmonic, and he also feels comfortable
in the modernist piano style of which he is an eloquent advocate. That style was presented by the sonatas and fantasies
of a young Polish composer - Piotr Perkowski.
In 1927 Artur had a long tour in the United States and several countries in South America;
for example, he played in the Teatro Solis in Montevideo, Uruguay. Then, Artur performed all over
Europe; In a Spanish “Buletin Musical”, on its lists of musical events in 1928, I’ve found that Artur
performed with the famous violinist Nathan Milstein in Toledo (April 1928) and in Malaga
(November 1928); interestingly, in the same concert series in Malaga, Michel Grandjany gave
a harp recital in October 1928, and in December 1928 - Vladimir Horowitz gave a piano recital
Bologna, Paris and Algiers, and his recitals - to other cities in the following countries: Austria,
France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Algeria, Tunis, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, Argentina and USA.
Upon his return to Poland, Artur performed music by Chopin, Szymanowski and Tansman
in Cracow, with the Warsaw Philharmonic.
1931 was dedicated to concerts in Warsaw, and according to the Słownik pianistów polskich
(Encyclopedia of Polish Pianists) by Stanisław Dybowski - by that time Artur was already
an appreciated pianist there; Stanisław Dybowski writes:
Artur Hermelin’s performance was warmly applauded - not less than those of our popular Edwin Fischer and Stefan
When Artur returned to Lwow, he started teaching piano there, at the Music Conservatory.
In 1934, the conservatory faculty gave a series of recitals called The music of the 20th century;
in the first recital, Artur Hermelin and the violinist Marek Bauer played together two sonatas - one
by Debussy and one by Szymanowski, and Artur played a suite by Karol Rathaus. Stefania
Łobaczewska, the music critic of “Gazetta Lwowska”, praised the initiative and the concerts. (She
was an enthusiastic advocate of Polish contemporary music; Magdalena Dziadek writes in his paper
uncrystallized preparatory stage on the way towards the formation of a universal music of the
In “The Jewish Almanac” from 1936, Alfred Plohn wrote:
Among the previously mentioned pianists - few have already gained international fame, as mature artists; Leopold
Münzer should be mentioned first - an excellent pianist who has already played a lot, and very successfully, in several
European capitals; his name is frequently mentioned in the foreign radio stations and he is quite rightly considered as
one of the best Polish pianists. Artur Hermelin is also known as an excellent pianist and musician. He has played in the
main cities in Europe and America, always enjoying big applause and deep appreciation.
Artur was also teaching at the conservatory of Galician Music Society in Lwow - where
he was a professor of piano performance for advanced students. In 1939-1941 he was teaching
at the Mykola Lysenko Music Academy - which merged the three former conservatories.
Artur gave recitals for the Polish Radio; some of them were broadcasted internationally.
The Polish Radio gained an enormous importance in the musical life in Poland between the wars,
since - besides three nationalized conservatories - the other conservatories and orchestras were
in poor condition between the wars; the radio - which had subscribers - did well, and hence
succeeded to pay for commissioned compositions by young composers, found the excellent Polish
Radio Symphony Orchestra (directed by the Jewish conductor Grzegorz Fitelberg), encouraged
young performers and ensembles, and raised the performance level thanks to constructive
The British newspaper “Palestine Post” used to list the “wireless” broadcasted recitals and
concerts from around the globe - which could be heard in British Palestine, and on those lists I’ve
found out that in 1936, 1937 and 1938 the Polish Radio broadcasted Artur’s recitals: one was
dedicated to music by Chopin, one - to contemporary Polish music, and there were no details about
the third one.
When Artur stayed in Warsaw, his address - as listed in the 1939 Warsaw Telephone
Directory - was: Hermelin Artur, Prof. Cons., ul. Długa 3, telephone 110636.
Like his father Natan, Artur used to conduct an orchestra in concerts which the Jewish
Musical Society organized in Lwow, and may be in other occasions too. In the newspaper “Tydzień
Polski” (“Polish Week”), the critic (K.K.) wrote about a concert at the Grand Theatre in Lwow,
which was called Opera in Kratke (Checkered Opera); it was a light opera - composed by Artur
Hermelin and Jakub Mund. (Mund was a well-known composer and conductor.) K.K. mentioned
the modern and unique instrumentation.
Stefania Łobaczewska wrote a warm critic about a concert by the amateur Jewish
Symphonic Orchestra in Lwow: the conductor was Mark Horowitz, and the soloist - Artur
Hermelin, playing his often-performed Liszt’s Concerto No. 2. Łobaczewska mentioned Artur’s
“which were counterbalanced by the lyrical and soft melodious movements”, and
In October 1941 - four months after the Nazis invaded Russian eastern Galicia and incited the
Ukrainian local population to kill thousands of Jews in Lwow and other towns and shtetls - around
119,000 Jews were imprisoned in the ghetto of Lwow, which was awfully crowded; many Jews
from shtetls around Lwow were brought there too, and there were many Jewish refugees who
escaped to Lwow from western and central Poland. The shock and mental stress were enormous,
since everything escalated very fast in Lwow, which was previously ruled by the Soviets for two
In the newspaper “Gazetta Lwowska” (which the Nazis published in Lwow after invading
performed in Lwow, and the following quotations demonstrate “Scherzo” ‘s extremely hostile style
of writing about the Jewish musicians: “Mr. Jozef Koffler is leading the way, with great marketing
inventiveness, but with a talent for impotence”; “Next - Münzer, Grünfeld and Golhamer are
following the herd”; “One Jew is galloping on another Jew”; “Dunayevsky (...) steals from songs
composed by others”; “And right behind him - a big nothing with much wit; in short - Schütz!”
Natan Hermelin committed suicide in 1941, in the ghetto. Artur kept on living until he was
killed in March 16 1942, in the ghetto or in Janowska camp; he was buried in the Jewish
cemetery, in the 13 plot. His last address in the ghetto, before he was killed, was Sp. Kuszewicza.
Artur was most probably performing in the ghetto of Lwow, since Philip Friedman and
among many excellent musicians, whom the Nazis forced to perform; generally, the Jews
in the ghetto were compelled to be involved in "cultural" activities: there were two orchestras
in Lwow during the Holocaust: in the ghetto and in the labor camp in Janowska. Their main role
was to accompany the groups of prisoners on their way to and from work. The Nazi officers made
the musicians play dances, marches like the “Radetzki March”, and classical music.
The orchestras were forced to play in very tragic moments, which were very frequent, sadly:
until the liquidation of the ghetto (in June 1943) and of Janowska camp (in November 1943) - there
were deportations to Belzec and other concentration camps, murders (“akcje”), epidemics and
devastating hunger. One of the most monstrous Nazi officers in Janowska - Richard Rukita (who
had been a violinist before the German invasion.) used to murder immediately every orchestra
This information is based on the Lviv Cemetery Data 19411942, p. 473, no. 1369 (as appears on the website
) and on the Yad Vashem List of Persecuted Persons, among the Jews buried
in the Jewish cemetery in Lwow, 1941-1942 (this is a copy of the document itself, in handwriting; from this document
we can learn that Artur was murdered, and that later was buried by Jews).
player who - in Rukita's opinion played out of tune. Rukita forced the Jewish composer Schatz
to arrange the popular Polish tango Ostatnia niedziela (Last Sunday) for the orchestra, and that
tango - “the tango of death” – was played near the camp gates during the most bloodcurdling
occasions. According to Moshe Hokh’s book Voices from the Darkness, the ghetto of Lwow and
Janowska camp were among the cruelest ghettos and labor camps in Poland and Ukraine, and the
voluntary musical (and generally cultural) activity was almost nonexistent.
These are the names of the musicians who perished in the ghetto and in Janowska camp:
Marceli Horowitz, Jakub Mund, Józef Frenkel, the Striks brothers (composers), Schatz (composer);
the professors from the music academy: Józef Herman, Edward Steinberg, Artur Hermelin,
Hildebrand, Breyer, Priwes, Aron Dobszyk, Mark Bauer, Teodor Pollak (the pianist who was the
director of the music academy) and Leon Eber.
Toerien writes that poems and folk-songs from Lwow survived the Holocaust, as Jewish
clerks had been hiding copies of them; Toerien adds that a satirical song - with 40 names
of performing musicians in the ghetto (most probably in the tragic orchestra) - was published
in “Gazetta Lwowska” - the newspaper which the Nazis distributed in the ghetto.
The Polish musicologist Michał Bristiger was Artur’s pupil in Lwow, in 1934 or 1935.
I have studied piano with Artur Hermelin as a 14 or 15 years old teenager, perhaps in 1934 or 1935, but the lessons were
interrupted because (as I remember) he left Lwow for Warsaw. I feel his artistic influence until now, and for me it still
has value and beauty. He had a radiant personality and in his presence everyone was just infected with musical beauty.
Epoka (Epoch) - Nov. 23
, 1926, by Juliusz Wertheim.
Gazeta Warszawska Poranna (The Morning Warsaw Newspaper), Nov. 21
, 1926, by Piotr Rytel;
, 1926 by Piotr Rytel.
(A poem about music), by. “Scherzo”.
Tydzień Polski (Polish Week), date unknown, by K.K. (?).
Tygodnik Ilustrowany (Illustrated Weekly), date unknown, by Karol Stromenger.
Lwowskie Wiadomosci Muzyczne i Literackie (Lwow Music and Literature News), No. 8, 1926;
and No. 1, 1927 – concert reviews.
Vasil Barvinsky’s concert-review from 1925.
Mateusz Gliński’s concert-review from 1926, Warsaw.
Commission of the Central Committee of Polish Jewry, No. 4.
Artur Hermelin’s photo with his dedication to Eduard Steuermann (from 1927); received from