The simplest atom is hydrogen. The simplest atom is hydrogen



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The simplest atom is hydrogen.

  • The simplest atom is hydrogen.



An atom is nearly entirely empty space. A scale model has the electron at the outside of Miller Park, the nucleus a marble at its center

  • An atom is nearly entirely empty space. A scale model has the electron at the outside of Miller Park, the nucleus a marble at its center









































































































































Matter is supported against gravity by its pressure.







































If all of the electrons of the Sun were pulled onto their nuclei to form neutrons, the Sun would shrink by nearly 100,000 times, from 700,000 km to about 10 km

  • If all of the electrons of the Sun were pulled onto their nuclei to form neutrons, the Sun would shrink by nearly 100,000 times, from 700,000 km to about 10 km

















Radius about 10 km

  • Radius about 10 km

  • Density over 1 billion tons per teaspoon

  • Mass about 1.5 Msun

  • A neutron star is a giant atomic nucleus, made almost entirely of neutrons, held together by gravity

  • Flashes of light seen as pole passes our line of sight (like the light from a searchlight beam sweeping past you)

  • Neutron stars seen in this way are called pulsars





















The speed of light, 300,000 km/s (or 186,000 mph), is really the speed of information.

  • The speed of light, 300,000 km/s (or 186,000 mph), is really the speed of information.

  • It is the maximum speed at which anything can travel, matter or energy or simply a wave of curvature of space itself.

  • No change in one place can alter what happens somewhere else more quickly than this speed limit allows.



a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

  • a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.



a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

  • a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.



a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

  • a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.



a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

  • a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.



a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

  • a charge moving up and down creates a wave in the electric field that moves outward at the speed of information, 300,000 km/s.

























































A black hole is a region of space from which nothing can escape to the outside

  • A black hole is a region of space from which nothing can escape to the outside

  • The boundary of a black holes is called the event horizon because no events occurring beyond the horizon can be seen from the outside.

  • After a star has collapsed to within a black hole, it continues to collapse to the size of a speck.

















































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