Theme 3: The philosophy of ancient Greece and Rome. Text of primary sources

Yüklə 74.63 Kb.
ölçüsü74.63 Kb.

Theme 3: The philosophy of ancient Greece and Rome.

Text of primary sources

(Fragments of philosophical works)

"Thales is credited with the following saying:

Ancient of all things - God, for he was not born.

Beautiful of all - peace, for he is creation of God.

Most of all - space, for it encompasses everything.

Fastest - mind, because he runs around all.

Most of all - the inevitable, because it dominates everything.

Wisest of all - time, for it reveals all.

Asked what in the world it is difficult? - "Know thyself."

That easy? - "To advise another."

It is more pleasant? - "Good luck."

Is divine? - "That which has no beginning and no end."

That he had seen an unprecedented? - "Tyrant's in his old age."

When it is easier just to endure misery? - "When you see that the enemy is even worse."

What kind of life is best? - "When we do not do it themselves, we condemn in others."

Who is happy? - "Those who are healthy body, soul, and it is yielding receptive to education."

Diogenes Laertius. About the life, teachings and sayings of famous philosophers. Moscow, 1979, Vol. 1, page 74.

"Anaximander of Miletus, son Praksiada. He taught that the original and the basis is infinite (apeiron), and did not define it either as air or as water, much like anything else. He taught that the parts are changed, the whole remains unchanged. Earth lies in the middle, taking the place of focus, and it is spherical. The moon shines not the light, but borrowing it from the sun. Sun value not less than the Earth and represents a pure fire. "

Diogenes Laertius. About the life, teachings and sayings of famous philosophers. Moscow, 1979, kn.2, p.103.

"Anaximander: the first animals were born in the moisture contained inside Spined shell, with age, they began to leave the land and, after peeling off the shell burst and they lived for a short time."

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Part 1, Moscow, 1989, p.126.

"Pseudo-Plutarch: Reportedly, Anaximenes thought the beginning of all things air. For an extended amount it is infinite, and is defined by its qualities. All things are produced by some thickening and, conversely, thin air. As for the movement, then it exists from time immemorial. He said that in the process of "fulling" / / from the air first originated Earth, very flat, so it is natural that it floats in the air. And the sun and the moon, and other stars originate and come from the Earth. Thus, he argues that the sun - is the Earth, but only on rushing it also pretty heated. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. CH.1.M., 1989.Str. 130.

"As for where he studied, the majority of states that began the so-called mathematical sciences he (Pythagoras - NP) learned from the Egyptians, Chaldeans and Phoenicians (as geometry from ancient times the Egyptians engaged in, numbers and calculations - Phoenicians, and astronomical theories - Chaldeans), and everything related to the cult of the gods and other vital rules, learned from the Magi and they borrowed ... Pythagoras called his doctrine of wisdom () rather than wisdom (). Reproaching seven sages (as they were called before him), he said that no one is wise, because the person on the weakness of their nature are often not able to achieve anything, and those who aspire to the disposition and lifestyle wise beings, can be appropriately named Wisdom (philosophy) ...

Pythagoras ... first to say that my friends have everything in common, and that friendship - equality. And his disciples have made their fortunes in a common pot ... Pythagoras, Xenocrates says, discovered that the origin of musical intervals is also inextricably linked to the number, as they are a comparison of the number. He investigated, resulting in an dissonant and consonant intervals and general harmony and disharmony. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Part 1., Science, 1989. P.143-148.

Heraclitus is credited with the following: "Although this Logos is eternally, people do not understand it - not before heard of him, nor heard before. After all, everything happens on the logos, and they become like the foolish, when embarking on such words, and in such cases, what I set out, separating each by nature and explaining the merits. From the rest of people to hide what they do awake, just as they forget their dreams ...

... If happiness was to bodily pleasures, we would call the bulls happy when they find peas for food ... Sun - not only (as Heraclitus said) new every day, but always and continually new ... Donkeys prefer gold a straw ... On entering the same river flows more and more water. Psyche is evaporated from moisture ... Born, they want to live and thus die, better said - to calm down and leave the children generated for death ... This space is the same for all existence, creates no god and no man, but he always was, is and will forever live fire, measures and actions to fade illuminated ... Psyche's death - to become water, water is death - to become the earth, of the earth, the water is born, and from the water - Psyche ... Wisdom is only one: recognize the mind as something that runs through all of ... The people must fight for the law as for its walls ... Regardless of which route you go, the boundaries of the psyche you will not find, so deep its logo ... One the same river we come in and do not go in, exist and do not exist ... Immortals - mortal, mortal - immortal, death each other, they live each other's lives, they die ... Fire lives the death of earth, and air live-fire death; water lives the death of air, earth - water / death /. Fire death - birth of the air and air death - water birth. Is born from the death of the land water, water comes out of the death of the air / of death / air - fire, and vice versa ... You should know that war is universal and true - the fight and that is through the struggle and the need to fight ... With a heart difficult: any desire to be bought at the cost of the psyche ... In all exchanged fire, and the fire - at all, as for gold - the goods and the goods - gold ... God all fine and well, and rightly so, as one people see as an unfair and another - just ... makes health pleasant disease, evil - the good, the hunger - saturation, fatigue - rest ... ".

Materialists of ancient Greece. State. Publ political. Literature ry.M., 1955, p.41-52.

Xenophanes is credited with the following: "But if oxen and horses and lions had hands and could draw and create their work (of art), like humans, the horse should all the gods like horses, oxen as similar to oxen, and gave a ( them) of the body of this kind, what is the body image they themselves (in their own way). "

Clement Strom. 5110 (15).

"He (Xenophanes - NP) believes that the elements of existence - four, and Space - an infinite number, but indistinguishably similar. Clouds are formed when the vapor by the sun rises and rises up into the environment / space /. The essence of God are spherical and did not similar to the man: he sees all entirely and all entirely hears, but does not breathe, and fully - consciousness, mind and eternal. He is also the first to say that everything is subject to the resulting loss of life and the soul - a breath. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Part 1. Pergamon Press, 1989., P.156.

"If something is - he says (Xenophon - NP), referring to God - it could not have arisen. In fact, it is necessary that arose or came from a similar or dissimilar from, but neither one nor the other cannot, because: (a) be the product of such a similar fitting no more than produce it (in the same things all the / properties / identical, and they are equally related to each other), (b) cannot be dissimilar from dissimilar. "

Fragments of the earliest Greek filosofov.Ch.1.M.: Science, 1989, p.160.

"Pseudo-Plutarch: Stromata, 4: Xenophanes Kolofonsky went peculiar way, to avoid all the above philosophers / Milesians = /. He does not allow any of or destruction, but argues that the universe always like / self /. In fact, if it arose, says / Xenophanes / involved, it is / it / would of necessity was not. But the non-existence could not be non-existent could not produce something, and from the non-existent nothing could be born. He also argues that the feelings are false, and along with them the most discredited and mind. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. CH.1.M.: Science, 1989, p.164.

"He (Parmenides-NP) first put forward the assertion that the earth is spherical and is located in the center / universe /. Elements / by his teaching /, two, fire and earth, and the first has the status of the demiurge, and the second - a matter. Initially, people came out of the mud, and he himself / people / a / mix / hot and cold, of which all things. Soul and mind are identical, and as mentioned by Theophrastus in the "Physics", where he outlines the teaching of almost all / Physics /. Philosophy, he says, is twofold: one according to the truth, in the opinion of the other ... The criterion / truth / he believed the mind and feelings - unreliable ... "

Fragments of the earliest Greek filosofov.Ch.1.M., 1989.Str.274.

"The views of it (Zeno - NP) are: space \ one \ and emptiness there. Universe \ letters. "Nature only" \ arose from warm and cold, wet and dry out due to their interconversion. People emerged from the earth, and the soul is a mixture of the above-mentioned \ four elements \, none of them have the advantage. "

Fragments of the earliest Greek filosofov.Ch.1.M., 1989.Str.299.

"There are four arguments of Zeno on the motion, which bring difficulties to those who try to solve / deny = /. The first - the impossibility of motion, because the move / body / above should reach half, rather than to the end ... So the argument of Zeno proceeds from a false premise of which is impossible in a finite time to pass / priv. "Pass-from-beginning-to-end" / infinite number / long values ​​/ or the touch of an infinite number / dot / one by one. And length, and time, and in general, every continuum called "infinite" in two ways: either by division or by an extreme extent. Therefore, to address in a finite time "of infinite quantity" / = "in length" / / variables / impossible, but "of infinite division" - you can, so as time / = "length of time" / "infinite" in this sense . Therefore, it appears that / moving body / are related to infinity and infinite numbers / dots / in the infinite, not finite time and / themselves with / "endless", and not the end. "

Fragments of the earliest Greek filosofov.Ch.1.M., 1989, p. 307.

"... Empedocles of Akraganta, according to those who claim to a simple interpretation of his teachings, teaches the six criteria of truth. That is assuming the two activities began all things - love and hate - and at the same time referring to the four as tangible (land, water, air and fire), he recognized them as the criteria of all things. As I said above, the idea that like is known by like, a very ancient and has since ancient times became a walking among natural philosophers ... "

Fragments of the earliest Greek philosopher .M., 1989. Part 1, str.341.

"The views of it (Empedocles-NP) as follows: four elements: fire, water, earth and air, and even love, they are connected, and the strife that they share ... The Sun he believes high concentration of fire, the largest superior to the moon, the moon - discoid, and the sky itself - shaped ice. The soul, he says, is reincarnated in different species of animals and plants ... "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Moscow, 1989, Part 1, str.356.

Protagoras credited with the following: "Man is the measure of all things: the existing, that they exist, do not exist, they do not exist ...

Oh gods ... I (Protagoras-NP) can not know either that they exist or that they do not exist, nor what they mean. For many of the obstacles to know this: the ambiguity problem, and the brevity of human life. "

Anthology of World filosofii.T.1, Part 1, str.316.

Gorgias "... in the book bears the title" On the non-existent or of nature ", it sets the three main provisions of ... the first states that nothing exists, the second - that if something exists, it is unknowable to man, and the third - What if it is knowable, yet, at least, it is ineffable and inexplicable to neighbor. "

Anthology of World Philosophy. Vol.1, Part 1, str.317.

"He (Anaxagoras-NP) taught that the sun - a red-hot lump, are larger than the Peloponnese (others attribute this view tantalite), and the moon is the settlement, as well as the hills and ravines. Start-gomeomerii: just as from the "nuggets" (as they call it) is made gold, so the similarity of individual cells formed small universe. The driving reason - the mind, heavy body, like the earth, / when a world / occupied the lowest place, the lungs, such as a fire - the top, and the water and the air - average. So on flat ground arose sea after the sun evaporate the moisture. (9) Stars originally moved domed, so always visible Pole was at its zenith, but later / their orbit / tilt. Milky Way - a reflection of light from the stars, is not illuminated by the Sun, the comet - Cluster planets emitting flames, tiny / = "falling" / star - like sparks emitted from the air. The winds arise from the fact that the air is liquefied and / flows / from the sun. Thunder - the collision of clouds, lightning - much friction clouds, earthquakes - lowering air into the bowels of the earth. Animals are born out of a wet, hot and earthy / started / and then from each other, with males - on the right, and females - to the left. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Moscow, 1989, Part 1, str.506.

"Finding the old position that nothing comes from nothing, Anaxagoras denied the occurrence of (birth) and introduced the division instead of ...

All ... / things / contain a proportion of the total, the mind, there is something unlimited and self-ruled, and not mixed with any one thing, but - only - by itself. If he was not alone, but was mixed with something else, he would have been involved in all things / right /, whether it is mixed with something / one /. For ... all contained the proportion of all. Admixed / things / would prevent him / preventing / edit a single thing as / he rules / alone and by itself. "

Fragments of the early Greek philosophers. Moscow, 1989, Part 1, str.533.

Aristotle, "Metaphysics" A 4. 985 at 4. Leucippus and his friend as Democritus taught that the items / elements / - full and empty, calling one of them being, the other - non-existence. Namely, they are full of them being referred to, and let them rare - nothingness (and because of that, they say, that being no more important than the nothingness and emptiness as no less real than the body.) These items are considered material causes of existing things. And as those who worship the underlying essence of things one / original / produce other things from its modifications, the same way and they are putting the beginnings of what is happening is a rare and dense, to claim that the other things are some differences in them. But these differences, according to their teaching, three: form, order and position. In fact, they say that being different only "an outline of by touching and rotating"

Materialists ancient Greece .M., 1955, p.55.

Aristotle de gen. Et corr. A I 314 a 21. Democritus and Leucippus also say that / all / other consists of indivisible bodies, the latter an infinite number of infinitely varied in form, the same things are different / indivisible /, of which they are composed, their position and order. 315 at 6. Democritus as Leucippus, taking / physical / figures, the output from these change and, / is /, separation and adding them / they explain / emergence and destruction, order, and the same situation - change. Because they believed in the truth / the world of sense / events, phenomena, however, / these / opposite and infinitely varied, they assumed the forms infinite / the number and shape /, so that / according to their teaching /, due to changes in the composition of the same seems to be true in one or another way and changed with little impurities and generally seems different when moving / was a part of any of his / unit. After all of the same / letters / emerging tragedy and comedy ... "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.57-58.

"/ Democritus says /" Only / in the general opinion there is sweet, in the mind - bitter, in their view - warm, in the mind - cold, in the opinion-color, in fact, / there is only / atoms and the void. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.60-61.

"Therefore, he believes that they hold fast to one another and" stay together "for a certain period of time, as long as any more than a strong need, appearing from the outside, not shake / conglomerate formed and /, the / atoms /, scatter them. He speaks of the birth of the opposition of it - not only with respect to the decomposition of animals, but also about the plants at all worlds and all sensible bodies. So, if the birth is a combination of atoms, but death - their decomposition, and then the birth of Democritus, perhaps, there is a change. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, page 63.

"... Democritus recognized the beginning of the full and empty, calling the first being, the second - nothingness. Namely, they are counting the atoms of matter as it exists, / all / other findings of their differences. The difference in the three of them, "shape, rotation, and Touching", this means that the shape, position, and order. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.63.

"In the essay" On the ideas, "he (Democritus NP) said:" This rule one should know that he is far from / real / true "/ that the reality of it is hidden /.

And / there he says / "In fact, we do anything we do not know, but for each of us individually is his opinion / result / inflowing / him images /"

And again: "But / we / you find that it is difficult to know what each thing / / in reality" ...

Democritus sometimes rejects the phenomenon perceived by the senses, and said that none of them is true, but only in the opinion, truly exist / only / atoms and the void ...

... "In fact, we do not think nothing is true, but / only perceive / that varies depending on the state of our body and its member and rendered resistance / outflows from things /".

And he said: "A lot of times / I / have shown that we do not perceive what actually everything is / / is and what the property actually it not inherent."

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, pp. 75-76.

"Says he (Democritus - NP) the following:" There are two kinds of knowledge - one true, the other - dark. To include all of the following dark / types of knowledge /: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. As for the true / knowledge /, then it is quite different from the first. " Then, giving preference to the true / knowledge / before dark, he adds: "When the dark / kind of knowledge / no longer in a position to either see too little, nor hear, nor smell, nor perceive taste, nor touch, but research / should get / to more subtle / inaccessible to sense perception is /, (then appears on the scene real / kind of knowledge / because he has thought more subtle cognitive authority). "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.84-85.

"Democritus says that the soul has no parts, and that it does not have many abilities, and he says that the mind with a sense of identity, and that they come from the same power."

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.138.

"... That is why those who are with them into dispute, prudently protected as if from above, from some invisible, strongly insisting that the true being - it is certain intelligible and incorporeal ideas; same body, which they say these people, and what they call the truth, they are expanding in their discussions on small parts, not being called, but something moving, becoming. Regarding this between the two sides, Theaetetus, is always strong fight. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Vol.2, str.365.

"And since the soul is immortal, often born and saw everything here, and in Hades, then there is nothing that she did not know; therefore nothing surprising in the fact that about virtue, and about everything else she can remember things that before she knew. And since everything in nature is akin to one another, and the soul has known all, nothing prevents someone who remembered something one - people call it knowledge, - to find himself and all the rest, if he is courageous and tireless in seeking: it look and learn - it just means remember. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Vol.1, str.384-385.

"But the soul, never having seen the truth, will not take such an image, because people must comprehend it in line with the idea of ​​coming from many sense impressions, but reducible reason together. And this is the recollection of what had seen our soul, when she was accompanied by God, looking down on what we now call being, and rose to the true being. Therefore rightly inspires only the mind of the philosopher: he is always as it forces the memory brought to the divine than God. Only a person who correctly use such memories, always devoted to the administration of the sacraments, it is a truly perfect "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Volume 2, page 185.

"But do you want to install, and all that being intelligible through dialectics can contemplate more clearly than what is seen with only the so-called science, which emanate from the assumptions. However, and this research area are forced to contemplate the intelligible by reason and not by feeling, but because they see it on the basis of their assumptions, not go back to the original, then, according to you, they can not conceive of her mind, though she quite intelligibility when first beginning to grasp it. Same reason you call it, in my opinion, that ability, which is common in dealing with the geometry and the like. However, this is not the mind, because mind is intermediate between opinion and mind. "

Plato. Works in three tomah.M. ,1968-1972, Vol.2, page 185.

"It seems to me that for a start that's what should distinguish two things: that there is an eternal, having no appearance of being, and that there is always occurring, but never being. What is perceived by thought and explanation, obviously, is always being identical, but that is subject to opinion and irrational sensation arises and perishes, but never actually exists. However, all of the resulting must have some reason for its appearance, for no reason be absolutely impossible. Further, if any thing demiurge always looks at things and take it as a prototype for the creation of ideas and potentialities of the thing, everything will be fine, but if he looks at something arose and uses it as a prototype, the product of his ill-will. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972. Vol.3, Part 1, str.469.

"Let us examine, for whatever reason, gave the appearance of this universe and the one who gave them. He was good, but the one who benefits, and never in any case does not feel envy. Being a stranger to her, he wished that all things have become more similar as possible to him. Seen in the wake of reasonable men of genuine and overriding the beginning of creation and the cosmos would be, perhaps, most likely. So, to wish that everything was fine and that nothing, if possible, was not bad, God has taken care of all the visible things that remained were not alone, but in discordant and chaotic motion, and he brought them out of the mess in order, assuming that the second is definitely better than the first. Impossible now, and it was impossible to ancient times, to the one who is the highest good, has made something that would not have been fine; between meditation showed to him that, of all things, by nature visible, no creature devoid of intelligence, cannot be beautiful one that is endowed with the mind ... and the mind cannot live in anything but the soul. Following this reasoning, he arranged the mind in the soul, and the soul in the body, and thus built a universe, referring to create a creature of the beautiful and the best in nature. So, according to plausible reasoning, we should recognize that our cosmos is a living being endowed with soul and mind, and he was born with a truly divine providence. "

Plato. Works in three tomes .M. ,1968-1972, Vol.3, Part 1, str.470-471.

"The State, - I said - there is, I believe, when each of us can not satisfy itself, but needs much more. Thus, each person draws one or the other to meet a particular need. Feeling no need of many, many people come together to live together and help each other: this is a joint settlement and gets us the name of the state ... ".

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Vol.3, Part 1, page 145.

"Although all the members of the state brethren ... but God has molded us, those of you who are able to rule by mixing gold at birth, and therefore they are most valuable in their assistants - silver, iron and copper in the same and different farmers artisans. You are all related, but more often are born of their own kind, but still it happens that will be born from gold silver offspring, and of silver - gold, and the same in other cases. The rulers of God requires above all and primarily, it is here that they were valiant guards and nothing so hard not to protect as their offspring, observing that the impurity has the soul of their children, and if a child is born with a mixture of copper or iron, they in no way should have pity for him, but to do so, as they deserve to his natural inclinations, that is to include it in the number of artisans or farmers, but if someone is born with a touch of gold or silver, it should be appreciated and honored to translate it a guard or an assistant. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Vol.3, Part 1, str.202-203.

"Therefore, it is first of all finds himself a philosopher, which frees the soul from communion with the body of a much greater extent than any of the people? Yes, please. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, Volume 2, page 22.

If death was the end of everything, it would have been happy to find bad people: die, they would at once get rid of the body, and - together with the soul - of his own depravity. But in actual fact, once it became clear that the soul is immortal, for it is not, apparently, a refuge and escape from the disaster, except one: to become as good as possible and reasonably. "

Plato. Works in three volumes. M. ,1968-1972, T.2str.81.

"... Should be considered (Aristotle believed - NP), what are the causes and beginning, the science of which is wisdom. If we consider the opinions and beginning, the science of which is wisdom. If we consider those opinions which we have the wise, then, perhaps, we will reach more clarity here. First, we assume that the wise as possible to know everything, even though he has no knowledge of each subject separately. Second, we consider the wise one who is able to learn the difficult and easy understandable to humans (because perception is common to all the senses, so it is easy and nothing wise to do so). Third, we believe that a more wise in every science the one who is more accurate and more able to learn to identify the causes, and / fourth / that of the sciences is more wisdom, that which is desired for its own sake and for the knowledge than that which is desirable for the sake of benefit from it, and / fifth / one that predominates - is more than an auxiliary, for the wise should not receive instructions, and instruct, and he should obey another, and him - the one who is less wise. "

Aristotle. Works in four volumes. M., "The idea," ,1975-1983, Vol.1, str67.

"... The reasons stated in the four values: one such reason, we believe the essence, or the essence of being a thing (as every" why "comes ultimately to a certain thing, and the first" why "is the cause and origin), the other reason we believe the matter, or substrate (hypokeimenon); third - is where the beginning of the movement, and the fourth - the reason for that is opposite of the last, namely, "that, for what", or good (for goodness is the goal of every occurrence and movement) ... "

Aristotle. Works in four volumes. M., "The idea," ,1975-1983, Vol.1, p.70.

"And do not make sense to judge the truth on the ground that the things around us is clearly changing and never stay in the same state. For in the search for truth must go on what is always the same, and do not undergo any change. And these are the heavenly bodies: they do not seem that such a different, but always the same and is not involved in any change. "

Aristotle. Works in four volumes. M. ,1975-1983, t.1.str.282.

"Our definition, therefore, in accordance with / opinion / those who define happiness as a virtue or as a specific virtue, because virtue is just inherent in the activity according to virtue. And it may be the next important distinction: whether by virtue of the possession of the highest good, or its use, storage of the soul (...) or activities. For it may be that the existing warehouse / soul / do not execute a good cause - for example, when a person is asleep or otherwise idle, - and in the activities of this is impossible, since it implies the need to act, and successful. Just as in the Olympic sport wreaths are not the most beautiful and powerful, and those who participate in the competition (because the winners are among them), so in the life of the beautiful and the good reach those doing the right thing. Even life itself gives them pleasure ... So most fun fighting each other, its such fun that do not exist in nature. The same as those who love a great pleasure (philokaloi), pleasure in nature, and are doing, according to virtue, therefore, they give pleasure and such people, and by itself. The lives of these people, of course, did not need the pleasure, as if in some embellishment, but it contains within itself the pleasure of ...

Happiness, so - is the highest and most beautiful / benefit / pleasurable ...

Justice ... may be natural and statutory ...

When there is ... just, and when not? Generally speaking, when a person does choose to voluntarily ... "

Aristotle. Works in four volumes. M. ,1975-1983, m, 4, str.327-328.

"From the letter" Epicurus welcomes Herodotus':

... Nothing comes from a non-existent: / if this were so, then / all would occur from all, not at all in need of seeds. AND / contrast / if fading died, / moving / non-existent, then all things would be dead already, because that would not be what they would have been resolved. Furthermore, the universe always has been, what it is now, and always will be that because there is nothing in that it changes, because in addition to the universe there is nothing that could get into it and make a change.

Furthermore, the universe consists of bodies and space, that bodies exist, evidenced the feeling of all the people on the basis of which to judge the mindset of the unseen ... And if it were not for the fact that we call a void, a place inaccessible touch of nature, that the body would have no where to become one and through that move, as they obviously are moving ...

They ... / indivisible atoms / are of the nature / substance / full, as there is nothing in what or how they can go bad. Thus, it is necessary that the first elements were indivisible corporeal nature / substance / ".

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, str.182-183.

"Atoms are moving continuously for eternity alone spaced far apart, while others take the oscillatory motion, if they are given in the plexus tilt or if covered by those who have the ability to plexus. For on the one hand, the nature of emptiness separating each atom from another, makes it, not being able to give a point of support and on the other hand, the hardness inherent in his / atom /, produces a collision bounce to a distance at which plexus enables / atom / return to its previous state after the collision. This is not the beginning, because the atoms and the void are the causes / movements of /. '

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.183-184.

"Furthermore, to think that the atoms do not have any properties of objects that are available to sense perception, except shape, weight, size, and all of those properties, which must be connected to form. For every property is changed, and the atoms does not change, because in the decomposition of complex objects must be something solid and irreducible, that would produce a change not in the non-existent or of a non-existent, but / changes / moves by some of the particles and the arrival and departure of some. Therefore it is necessary to move the items were indestructible and do not have the nature of that change, but having their own / special, unique / parts and form. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.186-187.

Furthermore, the atoms move with equal speed when they sweep through the void, if nothing prevents it. For no heavy atoms would not be a fast small and light, when, of course, nothing occurs to them, neither small / not rush faster / more, with all convenient passage, when, and there is nothing they will oppose: also move up or to the side due to shock and move down due to its own weight / no faster /. For as long as each of the two movements will be valid / the atom / atom so much time will have a motion with the speed of thought, until something / outbound / or outside, or from its own weight, would not hamper the force that made hit ...

After that, referring to the outer and inner feelings - because in this way get the most reliable foundation of reliability - should comprehend that the soul is composed of fine particles of the body, scattered throughout the body, much like a breeze with a mixture of warmth and in some ways similar to the first / the wind / other - the second / ie on the heat /. There are still a part / soul / which, by the subtleties of the particles is a big difference even these themselves and therefore more able to feel according to the rest of the body. All this was evidence of the power of the soul, feelings, ability to excitement, thought processes and all that, losing what we die. Next, hold the belief that the soul belongs to the main cause of feelings, / but it would not get it if it had not been covered by the rest of the body .... Therefore, when the soul is removed, the body has no sense, because he is not in itself had this power, but deliver it to another, what happened to him at the same time being: and the latter, because of the power that has developed it as a result of movement / atoms in the soul / now / directly, without external influence / produce for themselves the ability to sense and communicate it and the body as a result of proximity and harmony in motion, ... / So long as the soul is in the body, it will never lose the feeling, though lost some other part of the body, on the contrary, what parts of the soul or die, when that veil they will be destroyed - whether all or any part of it - the soul, if persists, will have a feeling. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, str.189-191.

"The world is a limited part of the sky, enclosing a luminary, the earth and all the celestial phenomena. If it is destroyed, everything will come to confusion. This part of the sky is a segment from infinity ... The sun and the moon and other celestial body does not have their own / outside world / so that they were received only after the world, but right from the start began to form and grow through the addition and the rotation of some small natural ... "

Materialists ancient Greece .M., 1955, str.198-199.

"Eclipse of the Sun and Moon can occur as a result of extinction, as we have seen it, and because of what some occlusions of other bodies - the earth, or some invisible body, or something else like ...

Clouds can be formed and assembled as a consequence of condensation of air under the pressure of the wind and because of the intertwining of atoms to keep each other and which are suitable for this, and as a result of the meeting effusions / vapor / out of the ground and water ... "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, p.201-202.

"Some stars are rotating at the same place, which happens not only because it is / still / this part of the world revolves around which the rest, some say ...

Happen to see that some of the stars behind some others, it is either because they describe at the same range, but move slower, or because they are / actually / move in the opposite direction ... "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, str.206-207.

"Accustom themselves to the idea that death has to do with us. After all, good and bad is the feeling, and death is the deprivation experience. Therefore, the correct knowledge that death has to do with us, makes life delectable mortality - not because it adds to her endless amount of time, but because it takes away the desire of immortality. "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, str.209.

"Death has no relation to us, for what is decayed, feels, and what he does not feel has nothing to do with us.

(...) The limit values ​​pleasures is eliminating all suffering. And where there is pleasure there until it is, there is no suffering or sorrow, or both together, "

Materialists of ancient Greece. Moscow, 1955, page 213.

"When shall we know that nothing can come out of nothing, then we will see much more clearly the subject of our jobs: and where things are and how everything happens without help from above."

Lucretius. On the Nature of Things, Volume 1, Moscow-Leningrad, 1946, p.15.

"... Because all of the seeds is created certain, and there will be born into the world and all the things there, where matter is the original and the body of each, that's why you can not have all of the most nascent, for certain special powers inherent in things."

Lucretius. The nature veschey.T.1, ML, 1946., P.17.

"You have to add: the body breaks down the basic nature of all again and nothing does not. For, since all parts of his would have been mortal, and then suddenly disappeared from view b they perished. "

Lucretius. The nature veschey.T.1, ML, 1946, page 19.

"... According to the teachings of the Stoics, in making things involved two elements: matter the reason. Matter is inert and can take any form and dead, while nothing brings it into motion. The reason, or the mind, gives a form of matter, giving it on your own one or the other of the appointment and makes it different things. So there must be something out of what is in the subject, and then that created it. The first is the matter, the second - the cause. "

Seneca. Cit. In the book.: Anthology of World filosofii.T.1, Part 1, str.504.

"The universe you see, embracing the entire divine and human world, the image of unity - we are members of one body. Nature made us relatives to each other, because it made us out of the same material for the same purpose ...

Reason - it is not nothing but a part of the divine spirit, immersed in a body of people ...

Supreme good lies in the mind, not in feelings. That man is the best? Mind. It transcends the power of reason and animals is on par with the gods. So, the mind in its perfection is good, inherent human, whereas all the other senses - common to animals and plants ...

In the struggle for existence of the animals, armed with teeth and claws, seem more human, but human nature has endowed two properties that make it a weak being the strongest in the world: the mind and society ...

All people want to live happily ever after ... but they are vague idea of ​​what the happy life. And to achieve the latter is highly difficult ... Our main objective should be that we should not follow like cattle for the leader of the flock ... The greatest trouble is causing us what we consistent with rumor and, recognizing the most supportive of those views that greet great empathy and found many followers, do not live like this requires intelligence, and the way others live. That's where this continuously growing pile of victims of delusion! ... "

Seneca. Cit. In the book.: Anthology of World filosofii.T.1, Part 1, str.506-509.

"... However, I agree with the general rule of the Stoics:" Live in conformity with the nature of things. " Do not shy away from it, to be guided by its law, take off her example - this is the wisdom. Therefore, life is happy, if it is consistent with his nature. Such a life is possible only if, first, the man always has the common sense, then, if the spirit of his courageous and energetic, noble, tough and prepared for all sorts of reasons, and if he does not indulge in disturbing mistrust, focuses on meeting physical needs, if at all interested in the material aspects of life, is not offended any of them, and finally, if he is able to use the gifts of fortune, not having become a slave to them ... the result of this frame of mind is a constant serenity and freedom because of the elimination of any reasons for anger and the fear. Instead of pleasure, rather insignificant, fleeting and not only disgusting, but also harmful pleasures comes a strong, neomrachimaya and constant joy, peace, and harmony of spirit, greatness, combined with gentleness. After all, every cruelty comes from weakness. "

Seneca. Cit. In the book.: Anthology of World filosofii.T.1, Part 1, str.510-511.

"... It is necessary to comply with the directions of nature: a sensible man watches her and asked her advice. Live happily and to live according to nature - one and the same. What this means, I'll explain. We must reckon with the natural needs of the body and take care of the necessary funds to meet them in good faith, but without fear for the future, Aware that they are given to us at the time and transient, we should not be their slaves and allow to essentially foreign to our rule over us , bodily pleasures and all the factors that are important in the lives of inconsequential, we should be in a position in which the camp occupied by auxiliary and lightly armed troops. They should play an official, instead of the dominant role. Only under this condition, they can be useful for our spirit. External benefits should not demoralize and subjugate man: the latter should only bow to his spiritual dignity. "

Seneca. Cit. In the book.: An Anthology of World Philosophy. Vol.1, Part 1, str.514-515.

"... The skeptical mode of reasoning called looking (dzetetike) of activities to search for and going-over range (skeptesthai), or holding (ephektike) from the state of mind that comes in inspects around after searching, or puzzled (aporetike) or due to what it all and looking perplexed, some say, or what he's always hesitant before acceptance or rejection, and he is also called Pirronovym because, it seems, went to Pyrrho on skepticism clearer and clearer to his predecessors' .

Sextus Empirik.Tsit. in the book.: An Anthology of World Philosophy, Volume 1, Part 1, Moscow, 1969, str.527.

"... Skeptical ability (dynamis) is that which opposes what possible way phenomenon (phainomenon) imaginable (nooymenon); WHETHER equivalence here (...) in opposite things and speeches, we come first to refrain from judgment (.. .), and then to equanimity (...) ... The phenomenon we call "feel" (...) and therefore opposes to it "conceivable" (...) ... Under the same provisions, the opposite, we mean not any approval or denial, but only that they are fighting with each other. Equivalent to (...) we call for equality of reliability and unreliability, as none of the contending positions is above the other as more reliable. Refraining from judgment is a state of mind in which we do not deny and do not say anything, "coolness" is also a serenity and peace (...) of the soul. "

Sextus Empiricus. Cit. In the book.: An Anthology of World Philosophy. V.1, Part 1., M., 1969, str.527-528.

"... May be clear ... that all things are true / there / in contemplation is contemplation, and emerged from it arose from the fact that it contemplates itself is the subject of contemplation ..., that the actions are aimed at knowledge and the desire for knowledge and the generation of contemplation / aim / end form (eidoys) and other subjects of contemplation, that in general all, being an imitation of the creator, creates objects and forms of contemplation, that the essence of becoming, being an imitation of things, the decree creating, and made it his goal not acts of creativity and not act, and the opportunity to contemplate / their / the result, that it would like to see reflections and even before - the feeling, the purpose of which - knowledge, and before them the nature of works subject of contemplation in itself and make sense, creating a different meaning. After all, it is clear that if the first things is to contemplation, it is necessary and everything else to aspire to it, just the beginning - the purpose for everything. Do ... some being - means to create the form, and then fill it all in contemplation. And mistakes, whether arising or existing, are contemplating avoiding the subject of contemplation. "

Dams. Cit. In the book.: Antologich world philosophy. V.1., Part 1, Moscow, 1969, str.547.

"One is everything and nothing, since the beginning of everything is not everything, but still - it, because everything seems back to him, or rather, as it is not yet, but will. ... The one is not existent, and his parents, and it's as if the first birth, because, being perfect (because nothing is looking for, has nothing and did not need anything), it seemed to flow over the edge and filled with himself, has created another; arose immediately turned to him and was filled, and looking at herself, was so wisely. So ... when it is, being, addressed to himself, in order to contemplate ones at the same time and has the mind and things. And, existing as "the one", it creates such a pouring out of a lot of potential, and this is the idea of ​​it, as he poured out the foregoing. And that which stems from the nature of the activity is the soul, become it, while the "it" remains unchanged, because the mind has emerged, while preceding it stayed the same. But the soul creates, not staying the same, and set in motion, it generated image. So, regardless of the fact of what occurred, it is filled and engaging in different and opposite movement, generates an image of itself - the feeling and plant origin. But nothing has been taken away and cut off from the preceding one. Therefore, it seems that the human soul extends to plants: a known manner extends so that it belongs to that in plants. However, not all of it in plants, so far is in the plants, as rushed as far as to your progress and wish the worst created another substance, whereas prior to this, depending on the mind, the mind can be in itself. "

Dams. Cit. In the book.: An Anthology of World Philosophy. V.1,. P.1,. M., 1969, str.549-550.

"Thus, when the soul enters the plant, it turns out to be another part of the plant, the most daring, reckless, and come down to here, and when she / is / at unreasonable / being /, the wins and governs the ability to feel, and when entered a man, or even move it to a reasonable portion, or what is happening on the mind, as if it has a mind of its own and independent thinking or even the desire to be in motion. ... Thus, there are at least elongated life, each of the following in order of different parts, but there is something continuous, and one different from the other, but not destroyed prior to subsequent. "

Dams. Cit. In the book.: An Anthology of World Philosophy. V.1, Part 1, Moscow, 1969, str.550-551.

Dostları ilə paylaş:

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2017
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə