Theories & Concepts of Motivation



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tarix02.10.2018
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Theories & Concepts of Motivation

  • Theories & Concepts of Motivation

  • Motivation & the brain

  • Theories & Concepts of Emotion


Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, & maintain behavior, usually toward some goal

  • Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, & maintain behavior, usually toward some goal

  • Emotion: subjective feeling including arousal, cognitions, & expressions



Three Components of Emotions

  • Three Components of Emotions

  • Physiological-- arousal comes from brain (particularly the limbic system) & autonomic nervous system (ANS)



Research Highlight

  • Research Highlight

  • Mirror Neurons: brain cells that fire both when performing specific actions and when observing specific actions or emotions of another; this “mirroring” may explain empathy, imitation, language, etc.





Three Components of Emotion (Continued)

  • Three Components of Emotion (Continued)

  • Cognitive--thoughts, values, & expectations

  • Behavioral--expressions, gestures, & body positions



Can you identify the social smile vs. the genuine, “Duchenne” smile? Real smiles involve muscles around both the eyes & cheeks. (Duchenne was a 19th C. neurologist who studied emotions & muscles.)

  • Can you identify the social smile vs. the genuine, “Duchenne” smile? Real smiles involve muscles around both the eyes & cheeks. (Duchenne was a 19th C. neurologist who studied emotions & muscles.)



James-Lange: subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal

  • James-Lange: subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal

  • Cannon-Bard: arousal & emotion occur simultaneously

  • Facial-Feedback: facial movements elicit arousal & specific emotions

  • Schachter’s Two-Factor: arousal & label (or interpretation) produce emotion





Cultural similarities & differences: 7 to 10 culturally universal emotions, but each culture has its own display rules governing how, when, & where to express emotions

  • Cultural similarities & differences: 7 to 10 culturally universal emotions, but each culture has its own display rules governing how, when, & where to express emotions

  • Role of evolution: strong biological, evolutionary basis for emotional expression & decoding









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