Three Waves of Migration (1930s-40s)



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Three Waves of Migration (1930s-40s)

  • Three Waves of Migration (1930s-40s)

    • “Classical”
    • From Europe (especially Eastern Europe)
    • “Classical,” part II
      • Rural Black Farmers






Added Importance to:

  • Added Importance to:

    • Race
      • A social category based upon some inherited, biological characteristic
    • Ethnicity
      • A social category based upon some cultural trait or characteristic


Contributes to:

  • Contributes to:

    • Stereotypes:
    • Discrimination:
      • the unequal treatment of certain people on the basis of their race, ethnicity, religion, gender


“Ecology” of the city

  • “Ecology” of the city

    • Process of invasion & settlement of a territory
  • Concentric Zones

    • Zone 1: Central Business District
    • Newcomers: settle in Zone 2 (the zone in transition)
      • “Natural Areas”




Assimilation:

  • Assimilation:

    • "a process of cooperation in which one ethnic group loses its identity"
    • Differences between 1st and 2nd Generation Immigrants


Louis Wirth, “Urbanism as a Way of Life”

  • Louis Wirth, “Urbanism as a Way of Life”

    • The city as a troubled place
    • Especially Zone 2
    • Crime, mental illness, alcoholism, drug addiction, etc.
    • Crude crime rate (#crimes/1000)
      • Always highest in zone 2


Biological & Psychological Attempts to Explain

  • Biological & Psychological Attempts to Explain

    • Inherited inferiorities/abnormalities
      • Physique
      • Phrenology
      • XYY
    • Minority of Cases


Correlation

  • Correlation

    • “X” and “Y” are always found together in time and space
  • Temporality

    • “X” always precedes “Y”
  • Intervening Variables?

    • “X”  “Z”  “Y”


Not biological, not psychological

  • Not biological, not psychological

  • Time in zone in transition = 4-7 years

    • Over time, population turns over
    • But crime & deviance rates consistently highest in zone 2
  • Social Disorganization (Wirth et al.)



Thorstein Sellin: cultural conflict

  • Thorstein Sellin: cultural conflict

  • Frederick Thrasher: gang activity

  • Daniel Bell: “Crime as an American Way of Life”



Edwin Sutherland

  • Edwin Sutherland

    • Differential Association
  • Gresham Sykes & David Matza

    • Techniques of Neutralization
  • Robert Merton

    • Anomie
    • Deviance and Opportunity Structures




Universal, so necessary

  • Universal, so necessary

  • Boundary Maintenance

  • Group Solidarity

  • Innovation

  • Tension Reduction



Howard Becker & Edwin Lemert

  • Howard Becker & Edwin Lemert

    • Not the act, but the societal reaction
    • Secondary deviance (Lemert)
    • Deviance varies across:
      • Time
      • Situation
      • Culture & Society


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