TüRKİye ekonomi kurumu

Contributed Session 45 - Financial Systems and Banking II Workshop 4

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Contributed Session 45 - Financial Systems and Banking II Workshop 4

Mergers and Acquisitions in Turkish Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation

DONDURAN, Murat (Yıldız Technical University)

Turkish economy has faced several crises in itself in last two decades. One of them had a deep impact on banking industry because the crisis began at this industry. After this point, the banking industry was restructured by the public authority and by the foreign banks’ competitive pressure. Mergers and acquisitions were made by the authority or by the banks. In this present paper uses three different New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) approaches (Panzar–Rosse, Bresnahan–Lau and Hall–Roeger models) to investigate competitive conditions in the Turkish banking sector over the period 1988–2009. In order to analyze the wave of mergers and acquisitions in 2001 and afterthat it is studied by comparing the degree of banking competition in two sub-periods, 1988–2000 and 2001–2009. There are some studies that use the Panzar-Rosse Statistics to show the monopolistic competition in Turkish banking industry. This paper uses three different approaches to determine the market structure of the industry and contribute to the efficiency/market power debate for the industry.

JEL codes: G34; G21

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Contributed Session 45 - Financial Systems and Banking II Workshop 4

The Link between Financial Liberalization and Banking Crises

GANİOĞLU, Aytül (Central Bank of Turkey)

Financial crises are categorized as currency (i.e., balance of payments) crises, banking crises and debt crises . As one type of crisis may develop into another, they might also take place together. During the 1970s, there was no apparent link between currency and banking crises, when financial markets were highly regulated. In the 1980s, banking and currency crises become more interlinked, as financial liberalization across countries became more widespread . Then, as many of the countries have both currency crises and banking crises around the same time, the link between banking and currency crises began to take attention.

There are different explanations about how financial crises occur. In the literature, these different approaches have been grouped under mainly three types of models: first, second and third generation models. These models have been developed in response to changing characteristics of the crises over time, especially in the 1990s. Every model has been developed in the aftermath of a new crisis in order to explain the dynamics of the crisis and desire to generalize main aspects. However, both theoretical and empirical analysis of the crises in this period in the literature point to different conclusions. Even, there is no consensus in the literature as regards to the definition of crisis.

There is a vast literature which claims that fragility induced by financial liberalization carries the risk of leading to financial crisis , i.e., financial liberalization precedes crises. Studies that examine the correlation between financial liberalization and crises reach the following conclusions: Williamson and Mahar (1998:54) conclude that financial liberalization was associated with the crises for most of the countries they examined, while urging that not all of the crises following financial liberalization can be evaluated as a direct result of liberalization. Kaminsky and Reinhart (1999:476) claim that highly regulated nature of the markets during most of the 1970s may be the reason why banking crises were very rare during that period. Demirgüç-Kunt and Detragiache (1998) show that banking crises have typically occurred in the wake of financial liberalization that lead to a credit boom in which the banks significantly expand their lending activities.  Joyce (2008) investigates the impact of financial openness on the incidence, duration and output costs of systemic banking crises in 20 emerging markets over the years 1976-2002. It is concluded that more liberal capital account regime lowers the incidence of banking crises, while a less regulated regime is associated with crises of greater duration.  
Angkinand et al. (2009) concluded that the common view that financial liberalization leads to an increase in the likelihood of banking crises is not robust. These findings in general support the hypothesis that openness of emerging markets to international capital flows, combined with a liberalized financial structure, makes these countries particularly vulnerable to crises. In this paper, our aim is to investigate empirically the impact of financial globalization on banking crises for the 1970-2007 period through extending the previous studies for a larger set of 44 countries including emerging and advanced countries using macroeconomic and institutional data.

JEL codes: G18; G21

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Contributed Session 46 - Financial Crises and Financial Regulation Workshop 5

The 2007-2009 Crisis: Facts, Policies and Theories: A Review

MORO, Beniamino (University of Cagliari)

After a summary of the major causes of 2007-2009 financial crisis, this paper reviews the theoretical aspects implied by the sequence of events bringing to the 2007 financial collapse and the following real economic slowdown. The main questions to answer are: was the financial crisis predictable by the usual economic models? If not, are these models lacking in their forecasting capacities, e.g. because they do not incorporate the most important financial variables, or it is not a task of economic models to predict external events such as a systemic financial crisis? On another note, were the economists aware that the financial system had set on an unsustainable path which could eventually lead to a systemic and worldwide crisis? Furthermore, is there a difference in predicting capabilities among models belonging to different schools of thought, namely between Keynesian and Neoclassical theories? Finally, which are the suggestions in economic theorizing that the crisis calls for, so as to avoid “it can happen again”, and also safeguard the profession reputation.

Jel Codes: E58; G17

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Contributed Session 46 - Financial Crises and Financial Regulation Workshop 5

Do we need to rewrite financial regulation?

ÇANAKÇI, Demet (Central Bank of Turkey)

The recent global crisis starting in 2007 brought into attention the frailty of the financial system once more. One of the lessons drawn from the recent global crisis is that financial regulatory system should be better aligned with modern market conditions and developing global standards. Gaps and weaknesses in the coverage of prudential regulation and supervision must be eliminated. All systemically significant financial institutions, regardless of type, must be subject to an appropriate degree of prudential oversight.

Until now, regulatory capital charges, especially those based on the Basel I and Basel II frameworks focus mainly on the risks related to an individual institution’s trading and loan books. The crisis has especially raised the concerns on the adverse consequences of externalities inherent in the financial system. One such externality is the Too-Big-to-Fail (TBTF) problem, which motivated heavy government support of large financial institutions in advanced countries. Such a problem, in principle, could be prevented by imposing limits on the scope and scale of the activities undertaken by a financial institution at the expense of economies of scale. Another one is also associated with the increased pace of globalization and financial integration: the Too-Connected-to-Fail (TCTF) problem. In order to deal with the TCTF problem, regulatory capital charges proportional to how interconnected an institution is within a financial system or to other systemic institutions has been tried to introduce. A TCTF charge penalizes institutions by their incremental contribution to the risk of other institutions. As one institution fails, the domino effect increases the risk of failure of other institutions, as sometimes called Too-Many-To-Fail (TMTF), and the potential costs that must be borne by the government, and ultimately, by the taxpayers. One clear benefit of an interconnectedness capital charge is that it induces institutions to internalize the costs associated with TCTF.

In this paper we look at the prudential regulation and systemic risk surveillance issues in the light of the recent global crisis. We will discuss systemic risk in terms of TMTF, TBTF, and TCTF and also as some authors does not agree and call it Too-Big-Too-Save (TBTS). We analyze pros and cons of reform proposals that have been discussed in the international fora and in the literature so far as well as policy challenges. Enhancing the stability of the financial system and the design of financial regulation pose important challenges for the future, which is the main concern of this paper.

JEL codes: G01; G28

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Contributed Session 46 - Financial Crises and Financial Regulation Workshop 5

A Decade After International Financial Crisis In Asian Tigers, Hong Kong, The Latin American Countries, Russia And Turkey

GAZİOĞLU, Şaziye (Middle East Technical University)

BAŞDAŞ, Ülkem (Middle East Technical University)

The Global Financial Crisis of the 90’s needs to be understood in a global picture during its presence and its after effects. This paper revisits the Financial Crisis of ’90 for some newly emerging markets in three continents. We use a small dynamic macro model, which is reduced to three variables, namely the stock returns, real capital flows and real exchange rate (Gazioğlu (2001, 2002, and 2003)). The original theoretical models have been empirically confirmed for the Turkish data for the crisis period (Gazioğlu (2005, 2008). In this paper, we aim to test the models for other newly emerging markets. The empirical evidence from the South East Asian countries (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand), the Latin American countries (Argentina Brazil, Chili ) and Russia as well as Turkey for post- crisis period, are used to test the theoretical models. The different signs of the variables reflected differences of the structure of each country, which followed different channels of structural behavior in each country. The findings from the Asian Countries and Latin America partially support the original model, depending on the structure of stock exchanges and banking sector in each country. The results confirm that Hong Kong’s exceptional economic performance is due to its well-developed financial market, which experienced negligible financial crisis during the 1997-8 crisis period. Both the real exchange rate and the stock market returns in Hong Kong were not affecte d greatly by the Asian Crisis. There was somewhat an appreciation real exchange rate during the crisis period. A similar appreciation of currency can be observed in the real exchange rates of the UK and the USA. However, our data of assets and liabilities did not show any evidence of capital movements. Furthermore, there has been financial resource reallocation in global sense. This confirms our thesis that outflow of capital from the emerging markets found its way to other financial centers, such as The US, the UK, Mexico and Hong Kong.

JEL codes: G15; F31

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Contributed Session 46 - Financial Crises and Financial Regulation Workshop 5

Real Business Cycles in Turkey?

TAŞTAN, Hüseyin (Yıldız Technical University)

Can a small-open-economy real business cycle (RBC) model driven by nonstationary productivity shocks explain business cycles in emerging economies? Recently, a number of studies have addressed this question using a canonical open-economy RBC model similar to the one considered in Mendoza (1991) and reached different conclusions. For example, Aguiar & Gopinath (2007) argued that an RBC model can explain well business cycles in emerging economies. Accordingly, Kydland & Zarazaga (2002) argued that an RBC model can account for Argentina’s lost decade of economic depression. On the other hand, Garcia-Cicco, Pancrazi & Uribe (2010), using data from Argentina and Mexico, suggested that an RBC model does a poor job in explaining business cycles in emerging markets. This paper attempts to answer the same question for the Turkish economy in the post-liberalization period. The question is addressed by setting up and estimating a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in line with those suggested in the recent literature.

JEL codes: E32; F43

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Seçilmiş Oturum 47 - Küreselleşme ve Krizler II Workshop 6

Küreselleşmenin Dönüm Noktasındaki Yüzyılın Paradoksu: Washington Uzlaşısısı Sona Ererken

AZER, Özlem Arzu (Arel Üniversitesi)

HAVA, Hüseyin Tamer (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri)

Soğuk Savaş’ın sona ermesiyle, uluslar-üstü kuruluşlar için yeni bir dönem başlamış oldu. ‘Komünizm’ tehdidinin yok olmasının anlamı şirketler için sınırları olmayan bir dünya anlamını taşıyordu. Yasal ve yapısal reformlar gelişmekte olan ülkelerde hızla uygulanırken şirketler dünyasında vizyon ve misyon değişikliğine gidiliyordu. Kâr makzimizasyonu hedefi artık yerini hakimiyet makzimiasyonu hedefine bırakıyordu. Yani uluslar-üstü şirketler için hedef artık sadece daha çok kâr etmek değil, aynı zamanda kaynaklara sahip olmak ve kontrol etme savaşıydı.2008 yılında Amerika’da başlayan küresel kriz aslında küreselleşmenin dönüm noktasını oluşturmaktaydı. 1980’li yıllarda uygulanmaya başlanan Washington Uzlaşısı 21.yüzyılın başında sona ermekteydi. Temel prensiplerinden birisi devletin rolünün küçülmesi olan Uzlaşı, devletlerin batan/batmakta olan dev finans kuruluşlarına yaptıkları maddi destekler Uzlaşı’ya ters düşmekte ve yüzyılın paradoksunu yaratmakta idi.

JEL codes: F59; P16

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Seçilmiş Oturum 47 - Küreselleşme ve Krizler II Workshop 6

Küresel Finansal Krizden Alınan Dersler: Denetim Üçlemesi


Finansal piyasalarda yaşanan kriz ve beraberinde ortaya çıkan skandallar ve yolsuzluklar, dünya ekonomisinin geleceği için endişe eden önemli denetleyici ve düzenleyici otoriteleri çare aramaya yöneltmektedir. Bu kapsamda piyasa disiplini ve denetiminin eksik kalan yönleri tartışmaya açılmaktadır. Finansal piyasaların istikrarı açısından ve ekonomik birimlerin karar alma sürecinde şeffaflığı sağlamak için etkin işleyen bir denetim ve gözetim mekanizması önem taşımaktadır. Uluslar arası denetim standartları baştan ele alınarak küresel gelişmeler ve ihtiyaçlar doğrultusunda çözüm önerileri araştırılmaktadır. Literatürde “denetim üçlemesi (audit trinity)” olarak adlandırılan iç denetim, dış denetim ve denetim komitesi arasındaki ilişkiler ve etkileşimler, küresel krizden çıkmak için temel bir yol olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada küresel krizin nedenleri ve bu krizden çıkmanın yolları üzerine bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır. Bu değerlendirmeye temel oluşturan denetim üçlemesi olan, iç denetim, dış denetim ve denetim komitesi ile ilgili mevcut durum analizi yapılarak uluslar arası düzeyde denetim konusunda ortaya çıkan yeni düzenlemeler ve yaklaşımlar hakkında bilgiler verilecektir. Merkezi Amerika Birleşik Devleri’nde (ABD) bulunan İç Denetçiler Enstitüsü (IIA-Institute of Internal Auditors) tarafından her yıl yapılan GAIN (Global Audit Information Network) anketi verileri kullanılarak denetim üçlemesi konusunda politika önerileri yapılacaktır.

JEL kodları: G01; G32

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Seçilmiş Oturum 47 - Küreselleşme ve Krizler II Workshop 6

Uluslararası Likidite ve Dış Borçların Sürdürülebilirliliği: Türkiye Üzerine Bir Uygulama

KAHYAOĞLU, Hakan (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)

UTKULU, Utku (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)

Ülkelerin dış borçlanmalarında genel olarak piyasa mekanizmasını kullanmalarına bağlı olarak, ülkeler piyasa koşullarından etkilenmektedirler. Bu nedenle uluslararası finansal piyasaların likiditesi üzerinde etkili olabilecek iktisadi ve iktisat dışı tüm değişkenler ülkelerin dış borçlarının geri ödemesinde önemli bir likidite riski ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Faiz oranlarında düşüşler olmasına karşın, büyüme oranlarındaki düşüşler reel faizlerin yüksek olmasına yol açmaktadır. Bununla birlikte Dış ticaret açıklarındaki artışlar büyüme oranından daha yüksek ise faiz oranlarının sabit olduğu varsayımı altında önemli bir dış borç birikim sürecinin dinamiğini oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada amaç, finansal krizlerin uluslararası likiditede üzerindeki azaltıcı etkisi sonucunda ülkelerin karşı karşıya oldukları dış borç krizi riskini Türkiye Ekonomisi üzerine bir uygulama ile ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaçla literatürde farklı yazarlarla ortaya konulan yaklaşım, dış ticaret açıkları, büyüme oranı ve dolaylı olarak dış ticaret hadleriyle genişleterek ekonometrik olarak analiz edilecektir.

JEL kodları: F41, E60

3 Eylül, Cuma Friday, September 3

Seçilmiş Oturum 47 - Küreselleşme ve Krizler II Workshop 6

Krizler, Ekonomik İyileşme ve Dış Ticaret Gelişmeleri: 1994, 2001 ve 2008 Krizlerinin Türkiye Ekonomisindeki Etkileri Üzerine Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz

ÜZÜMCÜ, Adem (Kafkas Üniversitesi)

Krizler ve ekonomik iyileşme (süreci) ile ilgili literatürde, finansal/ekonomik krizler ve ardından oluşan ekonomik iyileşme süreci konusunda genellikle iki farklı yaklaşım ileri sürülmektedir. Bu yaklaşımların ilkinde ekonomik iyileşme sürecinin çok hızlı olacağı öne sürülmekte, diğerinde ise bu yaklaşımın aslında bir mit olduğu, krizin yapısı ve ekonomik dalgalanmanın boyutuna göre kriz sonrası iyileşme sürecinin çok daha uzun sürebileceği belirtilmekte ve her iki yaklaşımda da bu görüşleri destekleyecek bazı argümanlara yer verilmektedir.

Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’nin son dönemde yaşadığı büyük çaplı üç kriz sonrası ekonomik iyileşme sürecinin uzunluğu ve dış ticaret ile iyileşme süreci bağlantısı araştırılmaya çalışılacaktır. Bu çerçevede çalışmada kriz öncesi ve sonrası genel ekonomik durum bazı makro göstergeler aracılığıyla ve dış ticaret gelişmeleri üzerinden karşılaştırmalı analize tabi tutulacaktır. Bu analizde çeyrekler itibarıyla GSYİH, sanayi üretim indeksi, işsizlik oranı, ihracat ve ithalat gelişmeleri v.b. makro göstergeler kullanılarak ekonominin konjonktürel olarak zirvede bulunduğu noktadan krizin dibe ulaştığı noktaya ve krizden çıkışa kadar geçen süredeki ekonomik gelişmeler ele alınacaktır. Ayrıca krizden çıkış sürecinde ortaya çıkan dış ticaret gelişmeleri üzerine de odaklanılmaya çalışılacaktır. Çalışmada, 2008 krizi sonrası ekonomideki yapısal değişim ihtiyacına, özellikle dış ticarette yapısal değişim ihtiyacının zorunluluğuna (aciliyetine) da vurgu yapılmaktadır.

JEL kodları: O40; F43


ACAR, Mustafa 31, 137

ADAKALE, Türker 31, 36, 140, 180

AKBOSTANCI, Elif 23, 34, 39, 42, 89, 163, 217

AKDOĞAN GEDİK, Melek 34, 165

AKDOĞAN, Kurmaş 32, 141

AKER, Ahmet 41, 42, 212

AKER, Şule 42, 212

AKGÜL, Zeynep 30, 131

AKIBA, Hiroya 20, 42, 63

AKKUZU, İdris 28

AKKUZU,İdris 118

AKTAŞ, Arda 33, 153

AKTAŞ, Erkan 38, 183

AKYÜZ, Yılmaz 21, 30, 72

ALP, Harun 23, 88

ALP, Sevim Kösem 42, 218

ALTUN, Ayşen 39, 44, 189, 225

AOKI, Masahiko 18, 25, 47, 97

ARABACI, Özer 23, 32, 91, 146

ARI, Aydın 28, 115

ARICA, Feyza 38, 183

ARISOY, İbrahim 32, 145

ARSLAN, Bengül Gülümser 21, 70

ARSLAN, Yavuz 22, 77

ARTUÇ, Erhan 29, 122

AŞICI, Ahmet Atıl 39, 193

ASTAR, Melek 26, 108

ATABEK, Aslıhan 29, 123

ATALAY, Ceren Giderler 44, 225

AYBAR, Sedat 29, 124

AYDIN, Derya Güler 41, 208

AYDIN, Levent 31, 137

AYSOY, Cevriye 33, 150

AZER, Özlem Arzu 45, 238

BABACAN, Mehmet 41, 209

BAKIR, Hasan 34, 159

BALCI İZGİ, Berna 36

BALCILAR, Mehmet 31, 34, 43, 138, 165

BAŞAK, Ramazan 31, 133

BAŞARAN ALAGÖZ, Selda 21, 69

BAŞDAŞ, Ülkem 23, 45, 84, 236

BAŞLEVENT, Cem 22, 78

BAŞTAN, Emine Meltem 23, 89

BEKTAŞOĞLU, Yunus 25, 103

BELET, Nuran H. 26, 31, 105, 133

BESİM, Mustafa 31, 134

BOCUTOĞLU, Ersan 24, 93

BOUZA-TEKİN, Serpil 49

BOZKUŞ, Sezer 45, 239


ÇAĞLAYAN, Ebru 26, 108

ÇAKIROĞLU, Ali 34, 164

ÇAKMAK, Erol 40, 196

ÇAKMAKLI, Selim 27, 113

CALVO, Guillermo 18, 33, 48

CAMPBELL, Duncan 23, 35

ÇANAKÇI, Demet 45, 235

CANPOLAT, Naci 40, 194


ÇAŞKURLU, Eren 26, 39, 106, 186

ÇAŞKURLU, Sibel 35, 168

ÇAVUŞ, Salim 44, 229

ÇELİK, Gökçe 20, 64

ÇELİK, Sadullah 23, 84

CERİTOĞLU, Evren 23, 92

CESARANO, Filippo 40, 195

ÇETİN, Mehmet 36, 38, 180, 184


CEYLAN, Coşkun 43, 221

ÇİÇEK, Serkan 39, 187


CİHAN, Cengiz 43, 224

ÇİTÇİ, Sadettin Haluk 20, 59

CİVCİR, İrfan 42, 216

ÇOBAN, Mehmet Kerem 29, 124

ÇOLPAN NART, Ela 35, 167

DAĞLAROĞLU, Tolga 26, 39, 106, 186

DANIŞ, Emin Emrah 35, 38, 169, 184

DAYAR, Hatice 39, 189

DAYIOĞLU, Meltem 20, 62

DEĞER, Çağaçan 28, 117

DEĞİRMENCİ, Serkan 19, 32, 55, 149

DELLAL, İlkay 43, 221

DEMİRALP, Seda 44, 230

DEMİRALP, Selva 19, 31, 44, 53, 230

DEMİRÖZ, Dündar Murat 40, 198

DENİZ, Pınar 23, 30, 31, 84, 129, 139

DESEATNICOV, Ivan 36, 177

Doğan, Bahar Burtan 171

DOĞRUEL, A. Suut 22, 79

DOĞRUEL, Fatma 19, 22, 79

DONDURAN, Murat 39, 44, 187, 227, 231

DUDU, Hasan 40, 196

DUMAN, Alper 20, 64

DUMRUL, Cüneyt 31, 135

DUNGEY, Mardi 32, 142

DURAN, Selman 36, 175

DURUSOY, Serap 33, 154

EKİCİ, Nezahat 21, 69

EKİNCİ, Aykut 24, 26, 93, 107

ELEKDAĞ, Selim 23, 42, 88, 214

ELGİN, Ceyhun 33, 151

ERAKTAN, Selahattin 43, 221

ERATAŞ, Filiz 32, 37, 39, 147, 181, 188

ERBİL, Can 19, 56

ERCAN, Hakan 20, 29, 60, 123

ERDAL, Özkan 26, 107

ERDEM, Ekrem 31, 135, 136

ERDOĞDU, Oya S. 42, 219

EREN, Ercan 19, 39, 57, 187

ERGEÇ, Etem Hakan 21, 70

ERİÇ, Gülçin Elif 36, 40, 178, 197

EROĞLU, Derviş 18

ERSOY, İmre 30, 129

FEDOTOVS, Aleksandrs 24, 94

FENG, Yixin 20, 63

FETHİ, Meryem Duygun 43

FİLİZ, Meryem 32, 146

FINDIKÇIOĞLU, Gündüz 34, 164

FİSUNOĞLU, Mahir 28, 35, 172

FİTRİ, Nofia 41, 210

GACANER ATIŞ, Aydanur 35, 167

GAITAN, Beatriz 202

GANİOĞLU, Aytül 44, 232

GAZİOĞLU, Şaziye 22, 38, 45, 81, 236


GÖKOVALI, Ümmühan 43, 222, 223

GÖKSEL, Türkmen 20, 61

GÖNÜLTAŞ, Suna 41, 204

GONZALES RABANAL, Miryam C. 34, 155

Gözgör, Giray 174

GÖZGÖR, Giray 36

GÜLAY, Emrah 38, 185

GÜLCAN, Beyazid 21, 69

GÜLOĞLU, Bülent 23, 85

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