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КАЗАНСКИЙ (ПРИВОЛЖСКИЙ) ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНСТИТУТ ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ИСКУССТВ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

FAMOUS COMPOSERS

Учебно-методическое пособие

Казань – 2013

УДК 811.111: 78+929 (072)

ББК 81.2.Англ+85.31я73

372


Печатается по решению учебно-методической комиссии Института филологии и искусств Казанского (Приволжского) Федерального университета
Протокол № от .02.2013 г.

Составитель: старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Г. Ф. Валиуллина

Учебно-методическое пособие «FAMOUS COMPOSERS» предназначено для студентов I-II курсов музыкальных учебных заведений, а также для широкого круга лиц, интересующихся литературой в области истории музыки.

Пособие содержит три главы: Russian composers, Tatar composers and Foreign Composers. В каждой главе представлены тексты, содержащие биографию и творчество знаменитых русских, татарских и зарубежных композиторов-классиков.

Материалы, содержащиеся в пособии, могут быть использованы для аналитического чтения, перевода и для совершенствования навыков устной речи. Также текстами можно пользоваться на занятиях по домашнему чтению.



Alexander Dargomyzhsky

(1813-1869)

Dargomyzhsky Alexander Sergeevich, famous Russian composer, was born February 14, 1813 in the village Dargomyzh Belevsky County, Tula province. His father, Sergei, worked in the Ministry of Finance; his mother, Maria Kozlovskaja, married against the wishes of parents. She was well educated; her poems were published in almanacs and magazines. Some poems were written by her for her children, mostly hortatory nature, entered into the collection: “A gift to my daughter.”

One of the Dargomyzhsky’s brothers played the violin, taking part in a chamber ensemble at home evenings and one of the sisters played well on the harp and composed songs. Until five years Dargomyzhsky did not speak, and later his formed voice was hoarse and squeaky, but it was not prevented him, however, later touched to tears expressive artistry and vocal performance at the intimate gatherings.

Dargomyzhsky studied at home, though he knew the French language and French literature.

Playing in the puppet theatre, the boy wrote to him small plays, vaudeville, and at six years he began learning to play the piano.

His teacher, Adrian Danilevskiy, not only encouraged the attraction of his student with 11 years of age to compose, but also destroyed his musical experiments, learning to play the piano. Dargomyzhsky studied and sang at Tseybiha who told him information about the intervals and violin playing at P.G. Vorontsov, participating since the age of 14 in the quartet ensemble. The present system in music education was not for Dargomyzhsky, and their theoretical knowledge he was obliged mainly to himself. The earliest of his works (a rondo, variations for piano, songs with the words of Zhukovsky and Pushkin) was not found in his papers, but during his lifetime published “Contredanse nouvelle” and “Variations” for piano written: the first - to 1824, the second - in 1827 - 1828 years.

In 1830 Dargomyzhsky was known in musical circles in St. Petersburg as a strong pianist, as well as the author of several piano pieces by the brilliant salon of style and romance: “Oh, ma charmante”, “Lady and the Rose”, “I confess, my uncle,” “You're pretty” and others, differ little from the style of romances Verstovsky, Alyabjeva and Varlamov, with a touch of French influence. Later M.Glinka brought them out of Berlin by Professor Dan theoretical manuscript, further widening his knowledge of harmony and counterpoint at the same time he began and for the study of orchestration. For his first opera “Esmeralda” Dargomyzhsky selected, however, the French libretto, compiled by Victor Hugo of his novel “Notre Dame de Paris” and only after the end of the opera (in 1839), translated it into Russian. “Esmeralda” remained unpublished. In “Mermaid” Dargomyzhsky consciously cultivated a Russian style of music created by Glinka.

New in “Mermaid” is its drama, comedy (figure matchmaker) and bright recitations, in which Dargomyzhsky was ahead Glinka. But the vocal style of “Mermaid” is not sustained, closed to truthful, expressive recitations met conditional cantilenas (Italianisms), rounded arias, duets and ensembles are not always binding with the requirements of drama. Weaknesses “Mermaids” was still technically orchestrated it, which could not be compared with the rich orchestral colours “Ruslan”, but from an artistic point of view - all part of a fantastic, very pale. The first performance of “Mermaid” was in 1856 (May 4) at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg, when not staging, with the old sets are not suitable costumes, negligent performance, misplaced notes, by K. Liadov, no lover of Dargomyzhsky, had no success. Opera did not show until 1861, but resumed in 1865 with Plato and Commissar Rzewski, was a huge success and had since become repertoire and one of the most beloved of Russian operas. Moscow “Mermaid” set for the first time in 1858, the initial failure of the “Mermaid” had affected Dargomyzhsky disappointingly, the story of his friend, V.P. Engelhard, he intended to burn scores of “Esmeralda” and “Mermaid”, and only a formal refusal to extradite the directorate these scores to the author, supposedly to fix, saved them from destruction.

The last period of creativity Dargomyzhsky, most original and significant, was able to called reformist. Its beginning, the root was already in the recitatives “Mermaids”, was marked with the emergence of a number of original vocal pieces, his humour is different - or rather, Gogol's humour and laughter through tears (“clerk”, 1859), a drama (“The Old Corporal” 1858, “Paladin”, 1859), the subtle irony (“Worm”, the text of Beranger-Kurochkin, 1858), the burning feeling rejected by women (“They parted, we proudly”,” I do not care“, 1859), and always remarkable strength and truth of vocal expression. These vocal pieces were a new step forward in the history of Russian romances after Glinka and served as models for vocal masterpieces Mussorgsky, written in one of their dedication Dargomyzhsky – “the great teacher of musical truth”. Comic vein Dargomyzhsky was seen in the field of orchestral compositions. For the same period included his orchestral fantasy: “Malorossiysky Cossack”, inspired by “Kamarinskaya” Glinka, and completely independent: “Baba-Yaga, or from the Volga nach Riga” and “Finn fantasy”.

Getting Dargomyzhsky in the mid 1850’s with the composers, the Balakirev circle was beneficial for both parties. New vocal verse Dargomyzhsky influenced the formulation of vocal style of young composers, which was particularly, affected the work of Cui and Mussorgsky who met with Dargomyzhsky, as Balakirev, before the others. On Rimsky-Korsakov and Borodin’s opera especially acted to new techniques Dargomyzhsky, which were the practical realization of the points made in his letter (1857) to Karmalinoy: “I want to express the sound of the word, I want the truth”. Opera composer by vocation, Dargomyzhsky, despite the failure of a government directorate, could not long lithographic copy of the first action) - the product of a weak, inadequate, incompetent to go in comparison with “Life for the Tsar”.

However, it had been found to Dargomyzhsky: drama and the pursuit of expressive vocal style, influenced by acquaintance with the works Megyulya, Auber and Cherubini. “Esmeralda” was posed only in 1847 in Moscow and in 1851 in St. Petersburg. “These some eight years of waiting in vain and in the most ebullient years of life have placed a heavy burden on all of my artistic activity,” - wrote Dargomyzhsky.

Until 1843 Dargomyzhsky was in the service, at first in the control of the Ministry of the court, then in the Department of the Treasury, and then he dedicated himself entirely to music. The failure of the “Esmeralda” suspended operatic works of Dargomyzhsky, he began composing songs, which, together with earlier been published (30 songs) in 1844 and brought him the honorary recognition.

In 1844 Dargomyzhsky visited Germany, Paris, Brussels and Vienna. Personal acquaintance with Aubert, Meyerbeer and other European artists influenced its further development. He became close friends with Halevy and Fetisov, which indicated that Dargomyzhsky consulted with him about his works, including here and “Esmeralda”.

Leaving supporter of the French, Dargomyzhsky returned to St. Petersburg. He was much greater than previously, a champion of Russian (as happened with Glinka). Reviews foreign press about the execution of works Dargomyzhsky at the private meetings in Vienna, Paris and Brussels contributed to some change in attitude to Dargomyzhsky Directorate theatres. In 1840, he wrote more choruses on the cantata with a text of Pushkin's “Triumph of Bacchus”. It was performed at a concert Directorate at the Bolshoi Theatre in St. Petersburg in 1846, but staged it as an opera, completed and orchestrated in 1848, the author was denied, and only much later (in 1867) it was staged in Moscow. This opera, like the first, the music was weak and not typical for Dargomyzhsky. Sorry failure in production of “Bacchus”, Dargomyzhsky again locked into a close circle of fans and admirers, while continuing to compose a small vocal ensembles (duets, trios, quartets), and romances, at the same time published and popularized.

However, he started teaching singing. The number of his students and especially girls was enormous. Empathy and the worship of women, more so - singers, always inspired and encouraged Dargomyzhsky and he jokingly remarked: “Do not be singers in the world - should not have to be a composer.”

Already in 1843, conceived Dargomyzhsky third opera, “Mermaid” (“Rusalka”), in Pushkin’s text, but the work progressed very slowly, and even the approval of friends was not quickened their pace of work, and yet the duo of Prince and Natasha, who performed Dargomyzhsky and Karmalina brought tears to Glinka .

New impetus creativity Dargomyzhsky gave a big hit a grand concert of his works, arranged in St. Petersburg in the hall the Noble Assembly 9 April 1853, according to Prince V.F. Odoyevskiy and A.N. Karamzin. They started again for the “Mermaid”, Dargomyzhsky graduated in 1855 and transferred it to four hands (unpublished endure inaction).

In early 1860 he began to work at a magical comic opera "Rogdai”, but he wrote only five rooms, two solo and the three choirs. A little later he planned the opera “Mazeppa”, the story “Poltava”, but by writing a duet with Orlik Kochubey (“Once you're here, despicable man”) on it and stopped. Lack the determination to devote a large work forced, whose fate seemed uncertain.

Travelling abroad in 1864 - 65 years helped to lift his spirit and strength, as it was very successful in the artistic respect: in Brussels conductor Gansens rated talent Dargomyzhsky and facilitated execution in concerts of his orchestral things (the overture to “Mermaid” and “Cossack woman”), had a huge success.

However, the main impetus to unusual awakening creativity Dargomyzhsky gave his new young friends, especially talent that he quickly realized. Question of the opera form was then another. Serov did it, intending to become an opera composer and carried away by ideas of operatic reform Wagner. He engaged members of Balakirev circle, especially Cui, Mussorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov, solving its own, based largely of the features of the new vocal style Dargomyzhsky. He composed his “William Ratklif”, Cui immediately acquainted with Dargomyzhsky written. He introduced Dargomyzhsky with new vocal compositions as Mussorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Their energy and communicated very Dargomyzhsky, he boldly decided to embark on reform of the opera and sang (as he put it) swan song, began with an extraordinary zeal for the essay “The Stone Guest”, without changing a single line of Pushkin text and not adding to it a single word.

Dargomyzhsky did not stop creativity and in his disease (aneurysm and hernia) he wrote in recent weeks, he laid in bed with a pencil. Young friends, preparing the patient, performed the opera scene after scene as they create and their enthusiasm fading gave new strength to the composer.

For several months, the opera was nearly over; death prevented finish music only to the last seventeen verses. Bequest Dargomyzhsky finished “The Stone Guest” Cui, who also wrote the introduction to the opera, borrowing from its thematic material, and orchestrated the opera by Rimsky-Korsakov. Through the efforts of “Friends”, of “The Stone Guest” was raised in St. Petersburg at the Mariinsky Theatre on Feb. 16, 1872 and renewed in 1876, but the repertoire was not kept and was still far from being appreciated.

No doubt, the value of “The Stone Guest” and the logical final of it reformed ideas of Dargomyzhsky. In “The Stone Guest” Dargomyzhsky, like Wagner, he had sought to make a synthesis of drama and music, subjecting the text to music. Opera forms “Stone Guest” was so flexible that the music flows continuously, with no repetitions, did not caused by the sense of the text. He achieved a waiver of symmetrical forms of arias, duets and other ensembles rounded, and at the same waiver of continuous cantilenas as insufficiently flexible for the expression of fast changing nuances of speech. But here the way Wagner and Dargomyzhsky diverged. Wagner moved centre of gravity of musical expression of Psychology actors into the orchestra and the vocals had been in the background. Dargomyzhsky concentrated musical expression on Vocals, finding it more appropriate to their own actors talking about themselves. Opera links in a continuously flowing music of Wagner’s leitmotifs were the symbols of persons, objects and ideas. Opera style “Stone Guest” deprived of leitmotifs, still the characteristics of actors in Dargomyzhsky bright and very conservative. In their mouths embedded speech are different, but uniform for everybody.

Denying the solid cantilena, Dargomyzhsky rejected the ordinary, so-called “dry” recitative, expressive and a little devoid of pure musical beauty. He created a vocal style that lied between cantilena and recitation, a special singing or melodic recitation, elastic enough to be in constant compliance with the speech, and at the same time, rich distinctive melodic twists, inspired by this speech, which brings in her new, missing her emotional element. This vocal style, it was what suited the Russian language, and was the Dargomyzhsky’s merit. Opera forms “Stone Guest” caused by the properties of the libretto, the text was not open to wide use of choruses, vocal ensembles, an independent orchestra, could not, of course, be regarded as immutable models for all of opera. Artistic problem admit no one, not two solutions. Nevertheless, the Dargomyzhsky’s resolution opera problems were so significant that in the history of opera will not be forgotten. Dargomyzhsky had not only Russian followers, but also foreign. Gounod intended to write an opera based on the model of “The Stone Guest”, Debussy in his opera “Pelleas et Melisande” to implement the principles of opera reform Dargomyzhsky.

Musical and social activities Dargomyzhsky began only shortly before his death: in 1860 he was a member of the committee to review the works presented to the competition of the Imperial Russian Musical Society, and in 1867 was elected a director of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Company. Most of the essays had been published Dargomyzhsky P. Jurgenson, Gutheylya and W. Bessel.

He died in January 17, 1869 in St. Petersburg.


Notes

harp – арфа

hoarse – хриплый

squeaky – писклявый

cantilena – плавная мелодия; песенка

recitation – декламация

pursuit – поиск

service – служба

aneurysm – аневризма

hernia – грыжа

merit – заслуга

Cui – Цезарь Антонович Кюи (18351918) – русский композитор и музыкальный критик

“Esmeralda”, “Mermaid”, “The Stone Guest” – оперы «Эсмеральда», «Русалка», «Каменный гость»



Alexander Borodin

(1833-1887)

Alexander Borodin was a remarkably versatile personality. Many talents had been given this wonderful man. He went down in history as a great composer, and as an outstanding chemist – a scientist and educator, and as an active public figure. Remarkable was his literary talent: it was manifested in their written the libretto of the opera “Prince Igor”, in their own texts, songs and letters. He had successfully performed as a conductor and music critic. And at the same time of Borodin, and his outlook was unique to the integrity. In all felt his clarity of thought and a wide scope, progressive beliefs and bright, cheerful attitude toward life.

Similarly, versatile, yet inwardly one is his musical creativity which was small in volume, but includes examples of different genres: opera, symphony, symphonic picture, quartets, piano pieces, songs.

The extraordinary creativity of Borodin’s integrity stemmed from the fact that through all his major works was one of the leading thought – about the heroic power, hidden in the Russian people. Once again, in different historical circumstances, Borodin, Glinka expressed the idea of national patriotism.

Favourite heroes of Borodino were the defenders of the homeland. These were real historical figures (as in the opera “Prince Igor”) or the legendary Russian warriors, standing firm in their native land, as if burrowing into it, in the images of Igor and Yaroslavna in “Prince Igor” and the epic heroes of the Second Symphony Borodin summarized the qualities that manifested themselves in the characters of the best Russian people in defense of the homeland for many centuries of national history. This was a living embodiment of courage, calm grandeur, and spiritual nobility. The same generalizations of significance were shown scenes from the composer of folk life. He did not dominate everyday life sketches, and the majestic paintings of historical events influencing the fate of the whole country.

Turning to the distant past, Borodin, as other members of the “Mighty Five”, did not depart from the present, but rather responded to her requests.

However, Musorgsky (Boris Godunov, “Khovanshchina”), Rimsky-Korsakov (“The Maid of Pskov”), he participated in an artistic study of Russian history. At the same time, his thoughts rushed to an even more ancient time, especially far into the centuries.
Notes

versatile – разносторонний

outlook – кругозор

circumstance – обстоятельство

“Prince Igor” – опера «Князь Игорь»

“Mighty Five” – «Могучая кучка» творческое содружество российских композиторов


The life and career

Alexander Borodin was born November 11, 1833 in St. Petersburg. The future composer brought up in his mother's house. Through her childhood, the boy took care in a supportive environment. Finding versatile abilities, Borodin received an excellent education at home, in particular - a lot of music. Under the guidance of teachers, he learned to play the piano and flute, and a self-taught - the cello. Sooner manifested by Borodin and composing a gift. In childhood, he composed a polka for piano, concerto for flute and a trio for two violins and cello, and wrote a trio without the score, just for votes. In the same childhood Borodin appeared passion for chemistry, and he enthusiastically studied all kinds of experiments. Gradually, this passion took precedence over his other inclinations. Like many members of progressive youth of 50-ies, Borodin chose the path of the naturalist. In 1850, he joined a volunteer in the Medical-Surgical (now the Military-medical) academy in St. Petersburg.

In his student years Borodin more carried away with chemistry. He became a favourite disciple of the outstanding Russian chemist N. H. Zinin and intensively studied in his laboratory. At the same time, Borodin was interested in literature, philosophy. According to one of his friends, the 17-18-year old his favourite reading was the works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Belinsky’s articles, articles in philosophical journals.

He continued to engage in and the music, causing discontent Zinin, who saw him as his successor. Borodin took lessons in playing the cello with a passion for playing in amateur quartets. In those years began to take shape his musical tastes and views. Along with foreign composers (Haydn, Beethoven, Mendelssohn) he thought highly of Glinka.

During the years of teaching in the Academy Borodin did not stop composing work (in particular, wrote many fugues). The young amateur musicians interested in Russian folklore, mostly - urban song. Demonstrate this were a piece of his own songs in the national spirit and the creation of a trio for two violins and cello on the theme of Russian song “What You I'm upset”.

Soon after graduating from the academy (in 1856) and the passage of compulsory medical experience Borodin had long-standing research in the field of organic chemistry, earned him an honourable reputation in Russia and abroad. After receiving his doctorate, in 1859 he went on a scientific mission abroad. Three years Borodin held in Germany, France and Italy, for the most part - together with other young, later famous scientists, including chemical com - Mendeleev, physiologist Sechenov.

Surrendering scientific studies in laboratories, he was not leaving music: attend symphony concerts and operas, played cello and piano, composed a number of chamber and instrumental ensembles. In the best of these ensembles, piano quartet - are already beginning to be felt in places a strong national flavour and epic force, to become characteristic of Borodin later.

Of great importance for musical development of Borodin was acquainted abroad with his future wife, a talented pianist from Moscow, Ekaterina Protopopova. She introduced Borodin with many unknowns his musical works, and he thanked to her. Borodin was an ardent admirer of Schumann and Chopin.

The first period of creative was maturity. Hr worked on the First Symphony. In 1862 Borodin returned to Russia. He was elected Professor of Medical-Surgical Academy and took up with new chemical research.

Soon, Borodin met in the home of the famous doctor Botkin Balakirev, immediately evaluate his musical talent. This meeting played a crucial role in the ill - Divine Life Borodin. “Before meeting with me - later recalled Balakirev, - he considered himself only an amateur and did not attach importance to his exercises in the book. It seems to me that I was the first person, telling him that - standing of his case – composing”. Borodin joined the “Mighty Five” had become a true friend and ally of the rest of its participants.

Balakirev helped the Borodin, as well as other members of the circle, to develop based on traditions Glinka own musical style. Under his leadership, Borodin began writing his first symphony (in E flat major). A month and a half after the start of classes with Balakirev was almost entirely written by the first part. However, the scientific and pedagogical affairs distracted composer, writing symphonies, and dragged on for five years, until 1867. The first performance of it took place in early 1869 in Petersburg, the Russian Musical Society with Balakirev and was a great success.

In Borodin's First Symphony had been determined to completely creative person. It clearly felt heroic scale and powerful energy, the classical form of austerity. Symphony attracts brightness of images and identities, Russian and eastern stocks, fresh tunes, richness of colours, the originality of the harmonic language, grew up on people-song soil. The appearance marked the beginning of the symphony the composer's artistic maturity. The same witness its first completely independent songs, composed in 1867-1870, respectively. Finally, at the same time, Borodin appealed to the operatic genre, attracted in those years the attention of all members of the group. He wrote a comic opera (in essence, operetta) “Heroes” and began to write an opera “The Tsar's Bride”, but soon lost interest in its story and left the job.


Notes

guidance – руководство

successor – преемник, наследник
Creation of the Second Symphony

Borodin started working on his opera “Prince Igor”. The success of the First Symphony caused a new upsurge of Borodin's creative forces. He immediately began to compose the Second (Bogatyrskaya) Symphony (B minor). Simultaneously, at the request of Borodin Stasov found him a new subject for an opera – “Lay”. This proposal generated enthusiasm of the composer, and in the same 1869 he began the opera “Prince Igor”.

В 1872 Borodin’s attention was distracted by a new conception. Theatre management had ordered him, along with Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Cui wrote an opera-ballet “Mlada”, the plot, inspired by the traditions of the ancient Western Slavs. Borodin composed the fourth act “Mlada”, but opera was not completed by its authors, and some time later returned to the composer's symphonies, and then also to “Prince Igor”.

The work on the Second Symphony lasted seven years and was completed only in 1876. It slowly progressed forward and opera. Main reason for this is an extraordinary employment Borodin scientific, educational and social activities.

In the 70 years Borodin continued their original chemical research, which produced gains of modern science in the field of plastics. He had spoken at international chemical congress, published a series of valuable papers. In the history of Russian chemistry, he occupied a prominent place as a leading scholar of the materialist, a prominent ally of the Mendeleyev and Butlerov.

Many forces took up Borodin teaching in the Medico-Surgical Academy. By his teaching duties, he was truly selfless attitude. Warmly, in a fatherly way he cared about the students every opportunity to help them and even saved if necessary revolutionary youth from the police. His compassion, benevolence, loves for people and easy to use attracted to him warm sympathy of others. Borodin showed a genuine interest in their social activities. He was one of the organizers and teachers of Russia's first higher education institution for women – Women’s medical courses. Borodin bravely defended the progressive initiative from the persecution of the tsarist government and the attacks of the reactionary circles. In the early 70’s he took part in the publication of the journal “Knowledge”, in which waged propaganda materialist theory and democratic ideas.

Different classes of Borodin left him almost no time to compose music. Home furnishings due to illness of his wife and insecurity of life did not conducive to musical creativity. As a result, Borodin could work on his musical works only in fits and starts.

Musical friends, Borodin has repeatedly complained “many cases of professors and women’s medical courses ever prevented him” (Rimsky-Korsakov). In fact, Borodin-scientist did not only prevent but also helped the Borodin-composer. Integrity philosophy, a strict sequence and depth of thinking of a scientist, contributed to the coherence and harmony of his music. Scientific studies filled his faith in the power of reason and human progress strengthened its confidence in the bright future of the people.



Notes

upsurge – повышение

benevolence – доброжелательность
In recent years, the life and work

In the late 70’s - early 80-ies Borodin created the first and second quarters, symphonic picture “In Central Asia”, a few songs, and some new scenes for the opera. Since the early 80’s he began to write less. The major works of the last years of his life can only be called third (unfinished) symphony. Besides it, there were only “Little Suite” for piano (composed in large part still in the 70-ies), a few vocal miniatures and operatic numbers.

The fall of the intensity of creativity Borodin (as well as its research activities) could be attributed primarily to changes in social conditions in Russia in the 80’s.

In conditions of severe political reaction intensified persecution of advanced culture. It was, inter alia, submitting defeat Female medical courses, suffering Borodin. It was all the more difficult for him to fight against the reactionaries in the Academy. In addition, increased his employment, and health of the composer, which seemed all the heroic, was taken. It was heavily influenced by Borodin and death of some close friends - Zinin, Mussorgsky. Yet these years had brought Borodin and some joyful experiences associated with the growth of its composer’s fame. His symphonies had been increasingly and successfully performed in Russia. Even in 1877, Borodin, being abroad, visited F. Liszt, and heard him rave reviews about his works, their freshness and originality. Later, Borodin had twice visited Liszt, and found great delight in the hot creative musician, composer of the “Mighty Handful”. At the initiative of Liszt Symphony Borodin was repeatedly performed in Germany. In 1885 and 1886 Borodin travelled to Belgium, where his symphonic works enjoyed great success.

The last years of life Borodin were also communicating with young composers Glazunov, Liadov and others admire his work.

Borodin died in February 15, 1887. This morning he was still improvising music for his Third Symphony, and about midnight, at a gala evening among the guests, he suddenly fell down, “not uttering no groan, no cry like a terrible enemy nucleus struck him and swept him from the midst of the living” (Stassov).

Immediately after the death of Borodin’s next musical friends, Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov decided to stop and prepare for publication of his unfinished works. Based on materials Borodin they had done a full score of the opera "Prince Igor" by treating a number of episodes, and having painted some unfinished scenes. They also prepared for publication until that time unpublished writings - Second Symphony, the Second Quartet and some ballads. Glazunov wrote down from memory and orchestrated the two parts of the Third Symphony. Soon, all these works have been published, and in 1890 the opera “Prince Igor” was first posed by the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg and found a warm reception by the audience, especially among young people.
Notes

symphonic picture “In Central Asia” – симфоническая картина «В Средней Азии»



F. Liszt - Ференц (Франц) Лист (1811 - 1886) - венгерский композитор, пианист-виртуоз, педагог, дирижёр, публицист, один из крупнейших представителей музыкального романтизма



Piotr Tchaikovsky

(1840 -1893)

Tchaikovsky was not a child prodigy as Mozart, he did not appear as a great talent during his young years - nether as a pianist, nor as a composer. His life in music was not smooth and predictable. Tchaikovsky was regarded as the most popular Russian composer, and even “the most Russian” composer, though he was not like Glinka consecrated to the service of nationality, and no doubt was influenced by German, Italian and French composers. Even among the other quite famous Russian contemporaries, “The Mighty Five”, he stayed aside: his music was considered too Western, though it had been written at the rising time of the national movement.

Tchaikovsky was born in a middle class family. From the early years his life was filled with melodies from Mozart, Rossini, Bellini, played on the orchestra by his father. The boy, very likely taught piano by his mother, showed the perfect pitch and remarkable musical memory. But his parents did not pay attention to his musical capabilities. One time, however, once, he was so engaged with a rhythm, tapping with his fingers on the windowpane that he broke the window, cutting his hand. This incident moved his parents to engage a music tutor for young Piotr.

Tchaikovsky’s musical lessons were not very regular. At the age of nine he was sent to the School of Jurisprudence in St. Petersburg, where he studied until the 1861. During these years musical activities of the young composer were minimal, though he went to the performances of very famous musicians, such as Clara Schumann, and also frequented the Italian opera, which was very popular that time. Outside the school he took music lessons on Sundays from the pianist Rudolph Kundinger, but the teacher discovered no particular talent in his pupil. Nobody could see in young Tchaikovsky what he would later become. His classmates remembered that they were amazed by his improvisation on the themes from fashionable opera, but mostly by the musical tricks, he could demonstrate, like the guessing keys and playing the piano covered by a towel.

After his graduation from the School of Jurisprudence, Tchaikovsky began his civil service in the administrative division of the Department of Justice in St. Petersburg, trying to find his niche in this field. According to his brother Modest, who has written the most detailed biography of the composer, the first indication of his intention to change his career is dated 1861, when in the letter to his sister Aleksandra he wrote: “Papa insists that it is not that late for me to become an artist? But the fact is that even if I do have some talent, it is probably already impossible to develop it. They have made a clerk out of me, and a poor one at that: I try to improve as much as I can, to take my work more seriously - and now to study thoroughbass at the same time!”

That time was a crucial moment in Russian music life. In 1857 the Russian Musical society was formed, which soon brought the classical music out of the aristocratic salons to public. There were many musical classes opened for general education, which of course gave rise to professional education as well Tchaikovsky was told about these classes by his cousin, a young officer in the Horse Grenadiers, who once mentioned that he can make the transition from one key to any other in no more than three chords; and demonstrated immediately.

The classes on orchestration and composition with one of the most significant musician of hat time, the director of St. Petersburg Conservatory Anton Rubinstain, became the centrepiece of Tchaikovsky’s studies. His teaching was improvisational, and even having not very wide musical outlook, Rubinstain was not only a great pianist and composer, but also a man of rare nobility, sincere, honest, magnanimous.

Anton Rubinstain recognized an outstanding talent in his pupil and wanted to encourage him. He arranged to bring one of the first serious works of his student to the attention of Johann Strauss. The performance of “Characteristic dances”, incorporated later to Tchaikovsky's first opera “The Voevoda” was, indeed, the first public performance of any of his works.

Before even graduating, Tchaikovsky had already composed the Overture in F and the String quartet movement in В flat, both of which were performed in student concerts at the conservatory. As his graduation work, Tchaikovsky proposed his cantata on the text of Schiller's ode "An die Freude" (the same text as in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony). Reaction on it was almost uniformly unfavourable.

During these years, Tchaikovsky worked as teaching assistant in a harmony class. Several weeks before his graduation, he was invited by Anton Rubinstain's brother Nikolay to teach at the newly founded Moscow Conservatory. Tchaikovsky, a very soft and charming person, very quickly became a member of musical family, attracting people not only by his promising talent, but mostly by his character. But his creative efforts still were not still productive.

Early in 1866 he began work on his first symphony “Winter Daydreams”. It was time of endless depression, enforced by insomnia. The abnormal labour was killing his sleep, and sleepless nights were sapping his energy and paralyzing his creative power. In the middle of July, as his doctor said, Tchaikovsky was even close to insanity. In September, he showed the unfinished yet score to his former teachers - Anton Rubinstain and Nikolay Zaremba. To his dismay both men disliked of the symphony. But the “Moscow Rubinstain”, Nikolay liked it and in December played the scherzo from it at a concert of the Russian Musical Society. The full performance of this work in February 1868 was a resounding success, which brought it in the row of one of the first symphonies written by Russian composer. “Winter Daydreams”, filled with folk motives, already showed Tchaikovsky’s own style. It was his first triumph, but aware of number of weaknesses in the work, Tchaikovsky decided to rewrite it.

Encouraged by his first successful works, Tchaikovsky began to work on his first opera, with the libretto of the famous Russian playwright Alexander Ostrovsky. He composed with great speed and enthusiasm, but in his inexperience he made a number of stenographic errors. The first performance, which took place at the Bolshoi Theatre, was not very successful - the National opera was not as popular as Italian. Russian composers were not even permitted the advantage of a full orchestra and the second-rate singers were considered good enough. Even so, the opera was performed in all about ten times. Afterwards Tchaikovsky burned the score, perhaps from disappointing. But some parts of this fist opera would be included in his later opera “The Oprichnik”.

Tchaikovsky’s next work, the fantasia “Fatum”, which joined the list of his failures, was performed in March 1869 with some success. And again, unsatisfied by it Tchaikovsky destroyed the score.

The end of his failures was soon to come. In the spring of 1869 Balakirev discussed with young talented composer the plan of his next work - Fantastic Overture “Romeo and Juliet”. They talked about all the details very carefully. Tchaikovsky came from his vacation in September with the almost finished score. But the evil fate did not forget the young composer. On the evening of forth of March 1870, Nikolay Rubinstain appeared in the hall of Moscow Conservatory to conduct his work, which was predicted to be a great success. But he was received the fantastic demonstration of students against him, after an incident with a student of Conservatory, resented a reprimand. “Romeo and Juliet” was published at 1871 in Berlin and indeed became one of the most popular classical masterpieces.

The next seven years (1871-1877) were more or less successful in Tchaikovsky's creative work. His next two operas were not good ones: “Undina” was rejected by Theatral Direction, “Snow maiden” (“Snegurochka”) did not have success (not like the Rimsky-Korsakov opera of the same theme). But at the same time, Tchaikovsky composed such famous works as the Second Symphony (“A Little Russian”, almost fully consisting of variations on Russian folks melodies), Third Symphony, the opera “Vakula the Smith”, which had significant success in Russia and Europe, but was remodelled later into the opera “Cherevichki”; the opera “The Oprichnik” was the great advance of his previous operas “Undina” and “The Voevoda”; the ballet “Swan Lake”, the Fantasia “Franceska di Rimini” etc.

The year of 1877 was the most crucial for Tchaikovsky. In the August he married Antonina Miljukova. She was one of his students, who had written him a confession of love. On the day of marriage he wrote several letters to his friends, informing them of this event. But on the train to St. Petersburg, where they wanted to spent their first days together, he was “ready to scream from the sobs that were suffocating me”. The marriage appeared as a real disaster for his life. In the early years he was found to have a spinal cord problem, which, as the doctors said was the reason for his extremely sensitivity and nervousness. These factors combined together made his life very unhappy and unsatisfactory.

During this very hard period of his life, Tchaikovsky wrote two of his greatest works: the opera “Evgeni Onegin” and the Forth Symphony. The brilliant Violin Concerto also comes from the late 1870s.

In 1893 Tchaikovsky died from cholera.

The last years of Tchaikovsky's life were very productive. "”The Queen of Spades”, “The Sleeping Beauty”, the symphonic poem “Manfred”, the lyric opera in one act “Iolanta”, the famous two act fairy ballet “The Nutcracker”, the Sixth Symphony - this is far from the full list of his late works. The last works did not need the approval of critics. He became famous not only in Russia, but in Europe and in America, as an incomparable master-orchestrator, as a genius in creating melodies. The last symphony – “Pathetic”, is the most melancholy among them all (each of his symphonies has a definite colouring. The Second was written in national traditions, the Third - by influents of Schumann's enthusiasm, the Forth is the only humorous one, the Fifth, which is regarded as the weakest one has religious feelings). There are many critical opinions with respect to his works: in his symphonic, as well as in his instrumental work one can find a weakness: be able to find the expressive musical ideas in his work, he seems to find difficulties in quitting them; the criticism of his romances, that Tchaikovsky regarded the music as the most important element of the song.

But even agreeing with these critics, it is impossible not to acknowledge Tchaikovsky as a one of the most significant composers in history, whose music is still very popular and beloved by people in the world.
Notes

prodigy – одаренный

niche – ниша; убежище

magnanimous – великодушный, благородный

The Oprichnik”, “Undina” – оперы «Опричник», «Ундина»

Swan Lake”, “The Sleeping Beauty”, “The Nutcracker” – балет «Лебединое озеро», «Спящая красавица», «Щелкунчик»



Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

(1844-1908)
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composer, conductor and teacher, was a member of the Russian “Mighty Five”. He was largely responsible for creating the severity and uncompromising professionalism of the Russian school at the turn of the century.

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov was born in the town of Tikhvin near Novgorod on March 6, 1844. His father was an important place in the province, and although the boy showed early musical talent, he has been duly entered in the St. Petersburg Naval Academy at the age of 12 years. There, he took cello lessons and then piano lessons with Fedor Kanille, who called his efforts in composition. About 1861 Kanille introduced the young cadets to the circle of talented amateurs who depend on Mili Balakirev professional advice and guidance. This “Balakirev Circle” searching for Russian based expressions to model Glinka. Its prominent members - Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Borodin, Modest Mussorgsky, and Cesar Cui, was the fact that the critic Vladimir Stasov much later called the “Mighty Handful” or “Mighty Handful”.

From 1862 to 1865 Rimsky-Korsakov, cruised around the world with the Russian fleet. His First Symphony, composed during this trip, was executed on his return to Balakirev, who conducted the orchestra the Free Music School, which he founded. Rimsky-Korsakov, is currently devoted less time in the Navy case. He wrote a symphonic poem “Sadko” (1867), returning to the subject of much later for an opera, and the second (“Antar”) Symphony (1868).

In 1871 Rimsky-Korsakov became a professor at St. Petersburg Conservatory, but in 1873 he resigned his naval commission.

From 1874 to 1881 he led the Free School, and he served as director of the Navy band until 1884. He was convinced of the need for training, skills and professional attitude. He started on a careful study harmony, counterpoint and orchestration in particular and called analogous Kure on his colleagues. He published the text of harmony in 1884, and the orchestration of the text in 1896. He had exhibited his orchestral experience in the Third Symphony (1874) and in a delightful tone poem “Capriccio” (1887), “Scheherazade” (1888) and “Dubinushka” (1905). But most of his energy went into his operas, the most important of which are "The Snow Maiden "(1882), “Sadko” (1898), “The Invisible City of Kitezh” (1907) and “The Golden Cockerel” (1909). Sources for these and other works were a fairy tale, fairy tales and Eastern Russian epic of the people. During the political turmoil in 1905 Rimsky-Korsakov, vigorously protested against the police repression of students. Conservatory was closed and he was fired.

Others, including Alexander Glazunov, resigned in protest. Conservatory finally back on a more independent basis, Glazunov, as a director and Rimsky-Korsakov, as head of the department orchestration. Orchestral colouring and stuffing if not authentic “orientalism” was the work of Rimsky-Korsakov brought him considerable fame and popularity. He was certainly the most prolific from five, with a long list of orchestral works, 15 operas, as well as a large number chamber and vocal music. Furthermore, his major works divisible without great loss of musical small parts that can be put on a concert utilities and “background” use. Maybe not less than the contribution of his efforts to name other people's music: he had finished, copied, and arranged many works of other Russian composers, including Alexander Dargomyzhsky Stone Guest, Khovanshchina M. Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov”, as well as (Glazunov) Borodin’s “Prince Igor”.

Rimsky-Korsakov died June 21, 1908. His creation of professional skill of technique as the exclusive route to the legitimacy of the musical heritage was still preserved in Russia.
Notes

amateur – любитель

naval – военно-морской

the second ("Antar") Symphony – вторая часть (Анданте) Первой симфонии



“The Golden Cockerel” – опера «Золотой петушок»



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