Us new Conservatism Simon Shen Old Conservatism



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US New Conservatism

  • Simon Shen


Old Conservatism

  • Founder of Conservatism:

    • Edmund Burke
    • Tocqueville
  • Vs French Revolution

  • Experimentalism Vs Rationality / Populism

  • On Human Nature

  • On Class

  • On Tradition (Forward Vs Backward)

  • On Liberty (Absolute Vs Societal)



Old Conservatism in USA

  • Conservative Tradition in the American War of Independence

  • Foundation of USA: “Classical Liberalism” = “European Conservatism”

    • Social Contract
    • Private Property Rights
  • Adam Smith Vs Thomas Jefferson

    • Constitution Vs Bills of Rights


Conservatism in the Economic Front

  • Keynesian Economics / Welfare State

    • Known as “Conservatism” in Europe
    • Known as “Liberalism” in USA
    • FDR New Deal
  • Hayek and Conservatism Economics

    • Vs Communism
    • Vs Social Democracy
    • Vs Welfare State


New Conservatism Since 1960s

  • “Liberalism” in the USA after Cold War

    •  New Leftists (mix with Stalinism, Marxism, or Anarchism……)
    •  Anti-Leftist Liberalists (+ The Jewish Influence)
  • The Goldwater Revolution

  • Michael Harrington Assigns the term “New Conservatism” to the “traitors” of Liberalism

  • New Conservatism allies with Old Conservatism



The Tragedy of American Compassion (Marvin Olasky)

  • “Compassion” = Social Darwinism

  • The Poor People Lose their Ability of Self-living and Self-strengthening

  • Welfare Bureau Replaces the Socio-Economic Function of Family (from Class to Caste)

  • The Concept of Compassion Redefined (Moral Guidance)

  •  Vs Social Security System = “Compassionate Conservatism”



The Dream and the Nightmare (Myron Magnet)

  • The 60s Legacy to the Underclass

  • JFK: New Culture Movement

  • LBJ: The Grand Society

  • The Excess of Ultra-liberalism / Collapse of the Value System

    • Hippies, Family, Homosexuality, Abortion, Drug Addiction
  •  Need the God



Give Peace a Chance Lyrics

  • Two, one, two, three, four Ev'rybody's talking about Bagism, Shagism, Dragism, Madism, Ragism, Tagism This-ism, That-ism, is-m, is-m, is-m All we are saying is give peace a chance, All we are saying is give peace a chance

  • Ev'rybody's talking about ministers, Sinister, Banisters And canisters, Bishops, Fishops, Rabbis, and Pop eyes, Bye, bye, bye byes All we are saying is give peace a chance, All we are saying is give peace a chance

  • Let me tell you now Revoluton, evolution, masturbation, Flagellation, regulation, integrations, Meditations, United Nations, Congratulations

  • Ev'rybody's talking about John and Yoko, Timmy Leary, Rosemary, Tommy Smothers, Bobby Dylan, Tommy Copper, Derek Taylor, Norman Mailer, Allen Ginsberg, Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna



Destructive Generation (Peter Collier)

  • The “Dark Age”

    • The 3 Assassinations
  • From Civil Movement to Radical Movement

    • Malcolm X and the Black Panthers
  • Fifth Columnists and the Red Menace

  •  Public Order, with Costs



Theodore Rex (Edmund Morris)

  • Theodore Roosevelt as the “Pre-incarnated Bush”

  • American Exceptionalism

  • Gunboat Policy / Carrot and Stick  Pre-emptive

  • Mahon’s Sea Power  Rumsfeld’s Aerial Power

  • Global Military Redeployment

  • From Isolationism to Unilateralism



Essence of New Conservatism (I) Continuity with Old Conservatism

  • Individual Rights, Free Market

  • Further Promote Isaiah Berlin’s Positive Liberty (individual’s ability to acquire resources)

  • Hayek Economy (Reagan Economy) ……

  • Liberty > Equality (Noblemen)

  • Individuality > Totalitarianism



(II) From the “Leftists”

  • FDR’s New Deal

  • Welfare State, to a certain extent

  • Encroachment Vs Isaiah Berlin’s Negative Liberty (individual’s ability to avoid intervention by the social/ political mechanism)

  • Mass Base / Civil Movement

  • Organization

  • “Permanent Revolution” Theory, Rightist Version



New Inventions

  • Christian Rights Movement

    • Morality
    • Ethics … towards the Liberalist Ideal
    • Moral Absolutism Vs Relativism
  • International Salvation

    • Anti-Communism: Activism Vs Isolation / Engagement
  • The Missionary Approach

    • Forward Looking (Meliorism)


“Christian Right”

  • “Christian Fundamentalism”

    • Islamic and Jewish Fundamentalists Revisited
    • 1910-1915: “The Fundamentals”
  • Pro-life: Vs Abortion; Bio-ethics

  • Family Values: Self-help; Vs Homosexual

  • Religion from Private to Public Domain

    • Education (e.g. “homeschooling”)
    • Politics (e.g. Southern Evangelicalism)
    • International Relations (e.g. PNAC)
  • Moral Values according to the Bible



Francis Fukuyama

  • Francis Fukuyama (1952—)

  • The “Oriental” Descendent

  • The Elitist Background:

    • Cornell BA; Harvard PhD; John Hopkins Professor; RAND Researcher; PNAC Member
  • 2 Types of “General Education” Genius Reassessed

  • “Historiography” / “Universalism”

    • IPE + IR + Politics + History
    • + Philosophy
    • + Literature
    • + Science
  • “the words sort of American undergraduate term-paper” Vs “the most important defense of liberal democracy since John Rawl’s ‘A Theory of Justice’”



Hegel’s Dialectical History

  • A Dialectical Process:

    • A process through which the contradiction between a dominant truth (thesis) and its opposite (antithesis) are reconciled to produce a higher truth (synthesis)
    • Synthesis = a new Thesis Vs a new Antithesis until all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied
  • History culminated in an absolute moment – a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious”  “the End of History”



Nature of the Contradiction

  • Fukuyama: Ideological Consciousness (“the real subject underlying the apparent jumble of current events in the history of ideology”)

  • “Thymos” – man’s need for rational recognition

    • “Megalothymia” – the desire to be recognized as better than others [Master]
    • “Isothymia” – the human demand to be recognized as equal rather than superior [Slave]
  • The End of History Begins in 1806 (Battle of Jena)

    • (1) Capitalism satisfies man’s economic need of ownership and material goods
    • (2) Democracy abolishes the distinction between master and slave


How Liberalism > Rivals

  • Feudalism – Fell after 1806

  • Fascism – Fell after WWII

  • Marxism / Neo-Marxism – Fell after 1989

    • The Dialectical Theory of Marxism
  • Religion Fundamentalism / Nationalism / Huntingtonianism – Not Universalism



Why is Liberalism “Imperialistic”?! “The First Man”

  • Anglo-Saxon Liberalism (Hobbes: Leviathan) Vs German Liberalism (Hegel: the Phenomenology of Mind)

  • The First Man in the Natural World

    • Basic Instinct, Darwinism……
    • German: “Megalothymia” [Master] and the Progressive Nature
    • Anglo-Saxon: “Isothymia” [Slave] and the Protective Nature


“The Last Man”

  • The last man emerges at this end point in history, as liberal society grants recognition and thus the satisfaction of the isothymia

  • The last man will inevitably find the life of masterless slavery “boring”

  • Too much equality is dangerous for society, as people will have nowhere to strive for (classless society = complete victory of the ethics of slaves)

  • The end of history has thus caused a thymotic imbalance, in that megalothymia has been oppressed and superseded by isothymia



Deterrence of the Last Man

  • It is important to avoid the disintegration of liberalism by ensuring that megalothymia can be expressed

  • Economic: Entrepreneurship

  • Political: Democratic Competition

  • Social: Sportsmanship

  • International: ???



Two Visible Rivals

  • The Fundamentalist Model

    • Rejection to Capitalist Economy
    • Failure to Revive their Tradition and Glory
  • The East Asian Model

    • Capitalist Economy
    • Social Bonds that are strong enough to withstand the fragmentary forces of liberal democracy
    • Trust: the Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (1995)


Fukuyama’s Acknowledged Fallacy of the Theory of End of History

  • 10th Anniversary Article

  • Biotechnical Revolution Changes the Human Nature (i.e. Ideological Consciousness, basis of Fukuyama’s Dialect)

    • Prozac: Vs Depression
    • Ritalin: Vs Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD)
  • Possible for Every “New Man” to Strive for Megalothymia or Isothymia Only

    •  Erase the Foundation of Liberalism
    •  Other Modifications (e.g. Post-gender Era……)
  • The Posthuman Future (2003)



The Worldview of Fukuyama

  • The Rule of Liberal Democracy

  • Rational Expression of Megalothymia

  • Enemies:

    • Vs Absolute Egalitarianism
    • Vs East Asian Model / New Authoritarianism
    • Vs Revivalism / Fundamentalism
    • Vs Biotechnical Revolution


Project for the New American Century (1997)

  • Chairman: William Kristol (boss: Murdoch)

  • Members:

    • Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz
    • Dan Quayle
    • Jeb Bush
    • Steve Forbes
    • Ellen Bork
    • Francis Fukuyama, Charles Krauthammer
  • The 1998 Petition to Clinton

  • September 2000: Rebuilding America’s Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a New Century



Goals

  • We need to increase defense spending significantly if we are to carry out our global responsibilities today and modernize our armed forces for the future;

  • We need to strengthen our ties to democratic allies and to challenge regimes hostile to our interests and values

  • We need to promote the cause of political and economic freedom abroad

  • We need to accept responsibility for America's unique role in preserving and extending an international order friendly to our security, our prosperity, and our principles.

  • Unilateralism

    • Vs Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty / Spatial Competition / Vs Tokyo Treaty ……
  • Kerry’s Progressive Policy Institute (PPI) [Soft Power Vs Hard Power]



The Post-Cold War World Order

  • Military Redeployment: New Bases / from Europe to Asia-Pacific

  • Pre-emptivism and “Potential Threats”

    • Iraq, Iran, Syria ……
    • KSA
  • Ineffective International Multilateralism

    • United Nations
    • The Old Europe


The Making of New Order

  • From USA to NSA?

    • Washington DC as the Rome of New Conservatism?
    • USA Above Sovereignty of Others
    • “Democratic Transition Office”
  • The Greater Middle East Plan

    • Capitalism
    • Democracy
    • “What Went Wrong”
    • “Individualized Islam”
    •  “Secret” behind the (Abandoned) New Iraqi Flag
  • The Rise of the “New Europe” and the Vilnius Letter

    • The Seven-colored Revolution
  • The Final Containment: Russia and China



Ideals and Rationales

  • Such leadership requires military strength, diplomatic energy and commitment to moral principle

  • American leadership is good both for America and for the world

    • Dahl’s Democratic Peace Theory
    • Kindleberger’s Hegemonic Stability Theory
    • The Chosen Citizen Theory
    • Fukuyama’s the End of History Theory


References

  • Olasky, Marvin. The Tragedy of American Compassion. Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1992.

  • Magnet, Maron. The Dream and the Nightmare. New York: W Morrow, 1993.

  • Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.

  • Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David. Destructive Generation. New York: Free Press, 1996.

  • Collinicos, Alex. The New Mandarins of American Power: the Bush Administration’s Plans for the World. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004.



References

  • Fukuyama, Francis. Trust: the Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press, 1995.

  • Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press, 1992. Chapter 4: The Worldwide Liberal Revolution (P.39-54).

  • Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Picador, 2003. Chapter 6: Why Should We Worry (P.84-104).



THE END




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