Filtering and Blocking, Including Heuristic and Bayesian Tools 10
Hueristic Spam Detection 11
Bayesian Filtering 11
MDaemon’s AntiSpam Tools 12
Pluses and Minuses for Server Spam Tools 12
Spam Blocking 13
Spam Filtering 14
Address Suppression 15
IP Screening 16
Host Screening 17
IP Shielding 18
SMTP Authentication 19
POP Before SMTP 20
Site Policy 21
Relay Blocking 22
Trusted Hosts 23
Reverse Lookup 25
To help stop Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE), also known as spam, modern email servers must have configuration options to prevent unauthorized relaying of email messages. In addition, cost-effective and secure email servers should be able to detect and optionally block incoming spam before it reaches email account holders.
Fighting spam is important. More than 50% of all email messages are unsolicited and usually unwelcome. Spam costs enterprises and individuals billions of dollars each year by consuming time and resources while delivering content of limited, if any, value.
MDaemon includes the required options to stop unauthorized relaying, while permitting legitimate account holders to use the server from any location in the world.
In addition, MDaemon fights incoming spam through the use of black listing, white listing, heuristic pattern matching, Bayesian filtering and content filtering, plus domain and address blocking. These tools, plus others, make up the next phase in spam detection. Any email server without these types of tools is not serious about fighting the spam problem.
MDaemon offers these options in a package designed for both IT professional and email beginners.
From a direct marketing point of view, sending introductory sales literature to bulk email lists makes good business sense. It is a very economical way of developing leads and it provides a service to the email recipients. To the sender, email canvassing is the electronic equivalent of cold call selling, only the return on investment is much higher.
So why are so many people upset about e-sales representatives making honest incomes?
The Junk Mail Analogy
Unsolicited email marketing, the senders say, is the e-commerce complement to direct sales literature arriving via old-style mail. Literally tons of unsolicited printed advertising travels through postal systems worldwide each day. These communications arrive addressed to individuals or current occupants. The parcels attempt to inform, entertain and persuade the recipients to buy, sell or donate. This unsolicited junk mail is a fact of life. Everyone more or less accepts it and just lives with it. While more than 95 percent of junk mail goes directly to the trash, as many as five in 100 recipients respond to the offers. To these buyers, junk mail is a welcome service. For the sellers, enough revenue comes from the buyers to make direct mail marketing remarkably profitable.
So what is the problem with taking the same approach with unsolicited email?
Why Junk Email Hurts the Internet
Traditional direct mail marketing pays its own way, plus a little bit of yours. The cash and risk for creating, printing and sending direct mail advertising comes from the senders. In addition, even though they pay low-cost bulk rates, senders spend enough with postal services to help keep other personal and business mail rates at lower levels. Without direct mail marketing, your personal and business letters would cost more to send, perhaps much more.
By contrast, the cost of unsolicited direct email is almost free to the sender and quite expensive for everyone else. While senders still pay for creating their advertising, all other enterprises and users on the Internet support most of their e-trafficking costs. How can that be?
The illustration shows how direct email spreads its cost from one sender to thousands of receivers.
The message originator, highlighted in orange, sends a single email with 50, 100, 1,000 or more recipients, for example. This sender could be paying as little as $10 monthly for a dial up account. The one email goes from the sender to the email server and personal computer of each person on the “TO” list, highlighted in red.
As it multiplies and spreads out to the recipients, this one email consumes resources from many Internet carriers, service providers, businesses and customers. It expends bandwidth, router backplanes, computer processing time and disk space, plus the time of Internet workers and email patrons. When multiplied by millions of messages from thousands of spammers each day the cost of unsolicited bulk email becomes a burden for all but the senders.
Spamming remains popular with direct email advertisers because there are no incremental charges. Reaching one million people costs the same as targeting one individual. Printed advertising, by comparison, has incremental price boosts. Printing and mailing costs increase when the intended audience grows from 1,000 to one million.
Like the print advertisers, Internet carriers and service providers pay incrementally for what they use. The more bandwidth, hardware and personnel they require the more they pay. Some ISPs say as much as half the email they handle is resource-wasting spam. The price for handling this spam eventually gets passed along to the everyday customers who receive the unsolicited offerings.
Other Problems with Spam
Success Through Resource Displacement
Spam exists because senders have a marketplace – a relatively small one, but profitable nonetheless. While direct mail marketing typically receives one to five percent response, email spammers sell to one in a thousand or one-tenth of one percent. Spammers can afford to sell in such weak markets by using the bandwidth and hardware of other people. They pass on the incremental expenses to Internet carriers, service providers and users. If spammers paid more, they would sell less and possibly disappear.
Various countries and states within countries have drafted legislation to make spamming more difficult, but few laws have passed. Besides, enforcement is difficult at best because of the international nature of the Internet. Being clever people, spammers can also be difficult to physically locate because all they need to operate is a notebook computer equipped with a modem. Moving around to avoid detection is no problem. So spamming and its related ills continue to grow.
Very few reputable marketing companies use spam. Research indicates the majority of spam products and services consist of:
Pyramid schemes, including chain letters
Sex and pornographic materials
Easy money strategies
Spamming software and mailing lists
Stock in “sure thing” business ventures
Unbelievable health remedies
And the list goes on.
Stealth and Fraud
Not all spammers are cheats and frauds. For example, some natural health remedies do indeed have benefits. Also, some people make good, honest livings selling high quality products through multilevel marketing.
However, because so much spam offers questionable products and services, spammers frequently mask their intentions with deceptive subject lines, such as:
Also, spammers typically forge their return addresses to try and keep ISPs and others from finding their physical locations. Anyone can test this by replying to a spam message and seeing if it can be delivered. Honest people use their real return email addresses.
Spam as an Overwhelming Nuisance
For some service providers, spam can comprise up to half of the email they handle. If these quantities continue, spam could overthrow the value of email and ruin it as a useful way to communicate.
People who use email generally pay for the service. Even with free email accounts, the users “pay” by making themselves available to the advertisers sponsoring the service. In addition, almost everyone pays for their Internet connection. In all cases, spammers are using someone’s paid resources to deliver their messages, without permission.
Nearly 95 percent of people surveyed say they would stop spam if they could.
How Spammers Send Their Email
Spammers send their messages through SMTP mail servers the same as anyone else. Because of the nature of their work, spammers must sometimes use stealth to keep operating. To stay hidden they switch among servers from these sources:
Open Relay Servers
Public Free Email Servers
To operate regularly from an ISP requires cooperation from the service provider. This means the ISP looks to spammers as sources of revenue. In turn the marketers obtain high performance email service.
Some spammers run one or more email servers from their desktop or notebook computers. They can then connect to the Internet, send their messages, disconnect and be gone. Return mail is not required if the spam message routes users to a website, post office box or phone number.
Open Relay Servers
Some ISPs, organizations and businesses unknowingly provide spammers with free email services by allowing their SMTP servers to relay messages from any sender to any receiver. These are called open relay servers and were very common before the advent of spam. Having an open relay means neither the sender nor the receiver of a message must have an account on the server doing the relaying. To counteract this, several Internet organizations specialize in testing email servers and black listing those with open relays. Enterprises hoping to fight spam can use the lists to block all incoming email from open-relay servers. This helps pressure server administrators to close their open relays.
Free Email Servers
Some spammers employ the servers of free email providers to send spam. They do this by setting up an account, spamming several thousand people, abandoning the account and setting up another account. If caught in the act, spammers are often banned from the free service, but that is difficult to enforce.
Must You Surrender to Spam?
Can Spam be Moderated?
Many people, including some civil libertarians, believe spam should be legal and unregulated. These supporters say they like the diversity created by spam. It is part of the free market, they argue. Some in particular are concerned about the restraints on freedom of expression any restrictions might impose. They also question the potential for success of any legislation aimed at controlling a worldwide communications system.
These arguments, of course, ignore the increased networking capacities Internet carriers and ISPs must provide to handle the additional traffic generated by spam, plus the waste of the time for the email recipients.
Both people for and against spam have suggested several non-legislative methods to counteract spam:
Deleting the offensive mail
Opting Out or In for spam
Filtering for content
Blocking by sender, email server or ISP.
Deleting spam is just that. If you don’t like what you see, press the delete key. This is the primary recommendation from the spammers themselves. It’s good advice for most junk email. Yet, it does not stop spam. The spam still arrives and imposes its penalties on bandwidth, equipment, carriers, service providers and users.
Also what happens when you personally receive10 or 50 or 100 spams a day? What does this do to your email server and the hundreds of other people using email on that server? What does it do to your productivity, sorting through UBE to find personal email to you?
Opting In or Out
Opting in and opting out are options proposed by opponents and proponents of spam, respectively.
Spam foes say no one should receive bulk email unless they specifically seek it out. They propose opting in, where users sign up to receive periodic email from a vendor or organization. Spam supporters say this is overly restrictive and limits the ways they can contact new people. They suggest opting out as an alternative.
Under opting out, spammers are free to send email to anyone anytime. To protect people who do not want to receive the mail, they include a link or reply address to say, “No more mail, please.” Some spammers include bogus opt-out addresses or use the replies just to see if an email address is active. Others may honor a request for no more unsolicited email, but then sell the active email address to additional spammers.
Filtering and Blocking, Including Heuristic and Bayesian Tools
Filtering means checking both incoming and outgoing mail for objectionable content and then keeping it from coming or going.
Blocking can also eliminate emails based on sender names or IP addresses or both, for example.
While filtering works fine, email must be regularly monitored to check for new filtering needs. Filtering can work at both the server and client levels. Filtering catches spam after it arrives at the email server or client.
Blocking can be set up manually or by using one of the open relay server lists.
Two new filtering methods have recently become available for enterprises serious about stopping spam. These are heuristic spam detection and Bayesian filtering.
Hueristic Spam Detection
Heuristic spam detection uses feature-matching rules, gained through experience, to identify spam. Through detailed analysis of incoming email based on carefully designed rules, heuristic filtering assigns a numerical value or “score” to each message. This “score” is used to determine whether the message is likely to be spam or not. Through years of “learning” what spam (and non-spam) messages typically look like, the default set of rules -- and therefore the scores assigned by them -- have become very reliable and effective in detecting what is and what is not spam.
As a spam-fighting tool, Bayesian filtering ”learns” to detect junk mail and legitimate mail by analyzing the header, subject and content of received messages known for sure to be either spam or non-spam. The Bayesian process assigns a spam-probability to each word, domain name, HTML code or other ”token” in each message. Bayesian filtering then uses this data to determine if new incoming messages are likely spam or non-spam. Because Bayesian filtering analyzes messages received at each email server, the ”token” probabilities are site-specific.
As part of the Bayesian process, MDaemon has tools for setting up separate folders to receive copies of messages known to be spam and known to be legitimate mail. Bayesian filtering obtains its data by analyzing the messages in these folders. During its initial setup, Bayesian filtering should have 200 or more messages of each type for its first analysis. By regularly adding new known spam and non-spam into the Bayesian system, spam filtering ”learns” to be more reliable in distinguishing between the two over time for each email server.
MDaemon uses the Bayesian results to further refine the ”scores” it assigns to messages.
MDaemon’s AntiSpam Tools
Pluses and Minuses for Server Spam Tools
Using email server tools to fight spam raises controversy among those for and against spam.
Supporters of spam say if you don’t want the email, filter it out and block the source IP addresses. Spamming antagonists say these tools do not work well enough and simply allow the spammers to continue by working around the restraints. In addition, by the time spam reaches an email server it has already used most of the bandwidth and router resources, the opponents say.
While the critics’ comments are partly true, filters and blocking both work against spam. Using some of these tools requires checking logs to see if the filters and blocks are still accomplishing their purposes. Others run pretty much unattended.
For MDaemon, most of the antispam commands are available through the Security menu.
Spam blocking can be configured to use the black lists containing the IP addresses of spamming servers or open relays or both. When enabled, this function matches the IP addresses of incoming email to the addresses in the black lists. If they match, the messages can be delivered, isolated or deleted. The inbound SMTP session can also be immediately terminated when the sending server is on a blacklist, refusing the email. The dialog contains input areas for specifying which black lists to use.
Spam filtering involves setting up heuristic and Bayesian tools, plus white listed sites, black listed sites and sites excluded from any processing. Spam filtering works for incoming and outgoing messages. Recent experience shows Bayesian filtering to be particularly effective at blocking spam while allowing legitimate mail through.
MDaemon uses address suppression to prohibit specified addresses from sending mail to a server. Each address can apply to all domains or to any single domain. Addresses can use wildcards. Examples include: @spam.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, or @spam.???. This is useful for prohibiting access by specific individuals or groups.
IP screening sets permissions for attaching to the server from specific addresses and address ranges. Wildcards apply. Examples are: 203.*.*.5, 203.*.*.* and 203.120.14.*. This is useful for enabling and prohibiting access from IP address ranges.
Host screening determines whether an SMTP session can connect to the local server. Permission can be granted or denied by host name. Wildcards apply. Examples include: mail.a*.com, *.altn.* and company.com. This is useful for enabling and prohibiting SMTP host access by DNS name.
IP Shielding sets up a list of email domain names and their corresponding IP address ranges. When an SMTP request comes from one of these domain names, MDaemon checks to make sure the corresponding IP address matches. This is useful for blocking mail from forged addresses.
SMTP Authentication enables local users to connect remotely, without regard for their IP address. Another setting in this command overrides POP before SMTP for authorized users. This is also the command for setting up required authorization for relaying email from the server postmaster address, an often overlooked security problem.
POP Before SMTP
The settings for this command can be used to force users to check their mail before sending messages through the SMTP server. Overrides are available for ATRN connections, authorized users and trusted IP addresses.
A site policy consists of a text message transmitted to the sending email server at the beginning of each email session. The policy itself does not filter or block spam but it can let the sender know you are watching the use of your email server. Typical content might say “Unauthorized relay prohibited!” or “All transactions and IP addresses are logged.”
Relay settings are for making sure your server is not operating as an open relay. Exceptions to the rule are available for authorized accounts and trusted IP addresses.
Trusted hosts are exempt from relay blocking.
Tarpitting consists of a deliberate delay inserted into SMTP processing if the sending server contacts MDaemon repeatedly during a user-specified number of seconds. Rapid successive contact is often the result of someone attempting to relay through your server or send spam to your user accounts.
Reverse lookup is one way of detecting forged IP addresses and domain names in incoming mail. This command enables MDaemon to compare MX records to incoming mail. If the records do not match the information in the email, MDaemon can refuse the connection.
MDaemon, through its various security tools, can limit who can access the email server. While these tools use system resources, including time, they provide strong counter-measures to spam and potential security problem. A server set up to resist spam is also typically secure from other types of attacks.
1 SPAM is canned meat from Hormel Food Corporation. Hormel has taken a somewhat whimsical attitude towards the use of their trademarked named being used to describe a practice destructive to the Internet. For example, they say the name spam itself was adopted for unsolicited bulk email (UBE) because of a Monty Python skit. In the skit, a group of Vikings sing a chorus of "spam, spam, spam . . . " increasing louder, drowning out other conversation. The analogy applies because UBE is drowning out normal email on the Internet. When used in reference to UBE, “spam” should be used as any other lower-case word, to distinguish it from the meat product trademark, SPAM™. For more info, see Hormel’s SPAM and the Internet web site: http://www.spam.com/ci/ci_in.htm.