Using Research on How Students Learn Astronomy to Improve Teaching Tim Slater



Yüklə 4,26 Mb.
tarix28.07.2018
ölçüsü4,26 Mb.
#59278


Using Research on How Students Learn Astronomy to Improve Teaching

  • Tim Slater

  • University of Arizona

  • Department of Astronomy

  • Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team

  • http://caperteam.as.arizona.edu






Overview

  • Recent RESULTS you need to know about how students learn astronomy

  • RESOURCES you can use to measure the impact of your programs

  • Pathways you can use to CONNECT with other people teaching astronomy topics



A Short Video Clip: State of the Union



Students enter the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not fully engaged, they may fail to grasp new concepts in meaningful ways that last beyond the purposes of an exam.

  • Students enter the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not fully engaged, they may fail to grasp new concepts in meaningful ways that last beyond the purposes of an exam.

  • To fully develop competence, students must: (1) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, (2) understand interrelationships among facts and concepts and (3) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application

  • A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning and monitor their own progress.



In other words …

  • Lectures from classroom teachers or visitors, no matter how enthusiastic or articulate have very, very, very limited impact BECAUSE

  • Its not what the instructor does that matters; rather, it is what the students do!



Lecture works… for some things

  • Can you teach someone to swim through lecture?



Lecture works… for some things

  • Can you teach someone to swim through lecture?

  • Can you teach someone astronomy through lecture?

  • Bottom Line

  • Depends on what you want them to learn



Declarative Meaningful Knowledge VS Understanding (FACTS) (CONCEPTS)

  • Which planet is the 3rd rock from the Sun?

  • Which star is the brightest start in the sky?

  • How many miles in an AU?

  • What is the density of Saturn?



Declarative Meaningful Knowledge VS Understanding (FACTS) (CONCEPTS)

  • Which planet is the 3rd rock from the Sun?

  • Which star is the brightest start in the sky?

  • How many miles in an AU?

  • What is the density of Saturn?



Declarative Meaningful Knowledge VS Understanding (FACTS) (CONCEPTS)

  • Which planet is the 3rd rock from the Sun?

  • Which star is the brightest start in the sky?

  • How many miles in an AU?

  • What is the density of Saturn?



What do students struggle with?

  • The Big Three

  • Seasons

  • Moon Phases

  • Gravity



What Causes the Seasons?



What Causes the Seasons?



What Causes the Seasons?



What Causes the Seasons?

  • New Technology Solutions



What do students struggle with?

  • The Big Three

  • Seasons

  • Moon Phases

  • Gravity





What Causes Moon Phases

  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as well as five different possible positions for the Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at the right?



What Causes Moon Phases

  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as well as five different possible positions for the Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at the right?



Some New-Untried Technology

  • http://astro.unl.edu/naap/lps/animations/lps.swf



What do students struggle with?

  • The Big Three

  • Seasons

  • Moon Phases

  • Gravity



The Big Three

  • The Big Three

  • Seasons

  • Moon Phases

  • Gravity



What do students struggle with?

  • The Big Three

  • Seasons

  • Moon Phases

  • Gravity



An Example on Star Formation



Formation of Stars Starting Questions

    • Q1: Describe what you think a star is.
    • Q2: Describe where you think stars come from.
    • Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed.


Preliminary Results Q1: Describe what you think a star is. (N = 120)

  • 74% said something like “a ball of gas” or “a ball of gas and dust”

    • N = 5 made references to The Lion King!


The “Complete” Response Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • If we asked this on a final exam, what might a complete response have to included?

    • Region of gas or gas/dust
    • Gravitational collapse of material in the region
    • Temperature & Pressure increase
    • Fusion begins
      •  And now we have a star!


Preliminary Results Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • Answer Component #1:

  • Region of gas or gas/dust

    • 55% of the students said something about a region of gas or gas/dust
  • Example: “I think stars start from gas and dust. The gas and dust starts in a cloud. The cloud starts out kind of loose and spread out….”



Preliminary Results Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • Answer Component #2:

  • Collapse - Matter comes together in some way

    • 48% included some sort of volume reduction of matter
    • Only 19% of the total specifically include gravity
  • Example: “Stars are formed when there is a large force of gravity somewhere in space that pulls a bunch of little space particles together and they all collide somewhere in the middle of all this gravity and wham bam. .”



Preliminary Results Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • Answer Component #3:

  • Temperature increase

    • Only 11% clearly define a temperature increase
    • Enormous difficulty in distinguishing responses because of how temperature and heat are misused
  • Example: “…These gasses, over a period of time, contract to form a with (sic) high density. After this, as the mass keeps contracting, the temperature becomes hot enough for nuclear fusion to take place….”



Preliminary Results Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • Answer Component #4:

  • Fusion or nuclear reactions occur

    • Only 8% include fusion in response
  • Example: “From a collection of a large amount matter and gasses enough to cause a chain reaction starting the fusion process (sic). Once that has begun the process will continue until the star runs out of fuel in billions of years.”



Preliminary Results Q2: Describe where you think stars come from. Q3: Describe how you think a star is formed. (Ntotal = 203)

  • Other common categories found include:

  • BOTTOM LINE: Students think stars are spherical burning clouds of soup



An Example on Life in the Universe







Question probing students’ beliefs about limiting environments on Earth



Limiting Environments on Earth



Question probing students’ beliefs about necessary elements for life





Summary of students’ ideas





An Example on the Topic of Cosmology – The Big Bang

  • Initial Question

  • Have you ever heard of the Big Bang?

    • Describe what you think it is, and provide a sketch, if possible, to illustrate your answer.




Summary of Students’ Pre-instruction Ideas on the Big Bang

  • 86% of students (N=167) report that they have heard of the Big Bang. Only 54% of these students describe the Big Bang as a theory about the creation of the universe.

  • 69% of students (N=133) describe some configuration of matter existing in the universe prior to the Big Bang.

  • 49% of students (N=133) describe the Big Bang as an explosion that distributes matter throughout the universe.

  • 17% of students (N=133) describe the Big Bang as event that combined matter together to form objects in the universe.



What’s wrong with these students?



Two Models Of Students’ Understanding



Two Models Of Students’ Understanding



Students enter your lecture hall with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom.

  • Students enter your lecture hall with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom.



How Do “Primitive-like” Ideas Impact Teaching and Learning Astronomy?



What’s wrong with our students?

  • What’s underlying their thoughts about the beginning of everything?



You can’t make something from nothing!!



How Do “Primitive-like” Ideas Impact Teaching and Learning Astronomy?



How Do “Primitive-like” Ideas Impact Teaching and Learning Astronomy?



Just the tip of the iceberg



  • 1. Seasons depend on the distance between the Earth & Sun

  • 2. There are 12 zodiac constellations

  • 3. The constellations are only the stars making the patterns

  • 4. The North Star is the brightest star in the night sky

  • 5. Stars last forever

  • 6. All stars are same color

  • 7. Stars really twinkle

  • 8. All stars are isolated

  • 9. Pulsars are pulsating stars

  • 10. Asteroid belt is densely packed, as in “Star Wars”

  • 11. Meteors, Meteorites, Meteoroids, Asteroids, and Comets are the same things

  • 12. A shooting star is actually a star falling through the sky

  • 13. Comet tails are always behind the comet

  • 14. Comets are burning and giving off gas as their tails

  • 15. All planetary orbits are circular



  • 1. Seasons depend on the distance between the Earth & Sun

  • 2. There are 12 zodiac constellations

  • 3. The constellations are only the stars making the patterns

  • 4. The North Star is the brightest star in the night sky

  • 5. Stars last forever

  • 6. All stars are same color

  • 7. Stars really twinkle

  • 8. All stars are isolated

  • 9. Pulsars are pulsating stars

  • 10. Asteroid belt is densely packed, as in “Star Wars”

  • 11. Meteors, Meteorites, Meteoroids, Asteroids, and Comets are the same things

  • 12. A shooting star is actually a star falling through the sky

  • 13. Comet tails are always behind the comet

  • 14. Comets are burning and giving off gas as their tails

  • 15. All planetary orbits are circular



Student (mis)-Understandings the beliefs and reasoning difficulties students bring to the classroom

  • Stuff they can’t name (or simply name incorrectly)

  • Alternative Conceptions

    • Robust, locally consistent, naturally acquired, historically rooted, common default position
  • Reasoning Difficulties

    • Misapplied details of underdeveloped conceptual models; confusion between model results and the model itself


FIRST RESPONSE

  • Buy computer video projectors

  • Provide students with copies of our PowerPoint slides

  • Create JAVA & FLASH simulations so we can demonstrate complicated models to students

  • Create extensive www sites for students to read outside of class



Assumption #1 - Lecture is largely ineffective at promoting deep conceptual change

  • Single group, multiple-measures, quasi-experimental research design (no randomized control group)

  • Non-science majors enrolled in ASTRO 101 at UAz

  • Instrument used: A 68-item, research-based multiple choice questionnaire

  • Pre-Course: two forms, A&B, which each contained a subset of questions

  • Post-Lecture: questions administered in subsets that directly reflected topic of lecture



Celestial Motion of Objects



Celestial Motion of Objects



Celestial Motion of Objects



What Causes Moon Phases

  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as well as five different possible positions for the Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at the right?



What Causes Moon Phases

  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as well as five different possible positions for the Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at the right?



What Causes Moon Phases

  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as well as five different possible positions for the Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at the right?



The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • a)  Star A

  • b)  Star B

  • c)  Star C



The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • a)  Star A

  • b)  Star B

  • c)  Star C



The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra for three different stars. Which of the stars is at the highest temperature?

  • a)  Star A

  • b)  Star B

  • c)  Star C



Volcanoes are usually found in places where a) the low pressure of the atmosphere pulls the lava/magma to the surface. b) earthquakes occur from oceanic plates colliding with continental plates. c) deep-rooted mountains have cracked Earth's crust. d) Earth's rotation has caused weak spots in its crust.



Volcanoes are usually found in places where a) the low pressure of the atmosphere pulls the lava/magma to the surface. b) earthquakes occur from oceanic plates colliding with continental plates. c) deep-rooted mountains have cracked Earth's crust. d) Earth's rotation has caused weak spots in its crust.



Volcanoes are usually found in places where a) the low pressure of the atmosphere pulls the lava/magma to the surface. b) earthquakes occur from oceanic plates colliding with continental plates. c) deep-rooted mountains have cracked Earth's crust. d) Earth's rotation has caused weak spots in its crust.



A planet that still has numerous craters from meteorite impacts visible on its surface likely has a) no ocean to cover the craters. b) no atmosphere to protect the surface. c) a cold, solid interior.



A planet that still has numerous craters from meteorite impacts visible on its surface likely has a) no ocean to cover the craters. b) no atmosphere to protect the surface. c) a cold, solid interior.



A planet that still has numerous craters from meteorite impacts visible on its surface likely has a) no ocean to cover the craters. b) no atmosphere to protect the surface. c) a cold, solid interior.



The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by a) continental plates floating on the ocean. b) mantle material circulating inside Earth. c) Earth's slow shrinking as it cools. d) global wind patterns and sustained ocean currents.



The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by a) continental plates floating on the ocean. b) mantle material circulating inside Earth. c) Earth's slow shrinking as it cools. d) global wind patterns and sustained ocean currents.



The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by a) continental plates floating on the ocean. b) mantle material circulating inside Earth. c) Earth's slow shrinking as it cools. d) global wind patterns and sustained ocean currents.



If you were to build a telescope on Earth's surface, which of the following wavelengths of light would be most easily observed by this telescope? a) gamma ray b) X-ray c) ultraviolet d) radio



If you were to build a telescope on Earth's surface, which of the following wavelengths of light would be most easily observed by this telescope? a) gamma ray b) X-ray c) ultraviolet d) radio



If you were to build a telescope on Earth's surface, which of the following wavelengths of light would be most easily observed by this telescope? a) gamma ray b) X-ray c) ultraviolet d) radio



Assumption #1 - Lecture is largely ineffective at promoting deep conceptual change

  • Instrument used: A 68 items research based multiple choice questionnaire

  • Pre-Course: two forms, A&B, which each contained a subset of questions



Assumption #1 - Lecture is largely ineffective at promoting deep conceptual change

  • Instrument used: A 68 items research based multiple choice questionnaire

  • Pre-Course: two forms, A&B, which each contained a subset of questions



FIRST RESPONSE

  • Buy computer video projectors

  • Provide students with copies of our PowerPoint slides

  • Create JAVA & FLASH simulations so we can demonstrate complicated models to students

  • Create extensive www sites for students to read outside of class



A Commonly Held Inaccurate Model of a Student’s Conceptual Framework



A Commonly Held Inaccurate Model of Teaching and Learning



FIRST RESPONSE

  • Buy computer video projectors

  • Provide students with copies of our PowerPoint slides

  • Create JAVA & FLASH simulations so we can demonstrate complicated models to students

  • Create extensive www sites for students to read outside of class



FIRST RESPONSE

  • Buy computer video projectors

  • Provide students with copies of our PowerPoint slides

  • Create JAVA & FLASH simulations so we can demonstrate complicated models to students

  • Create extensive www sites for students to read outside of class



So What Can You Do About It?

  • Lecture more loudly?



So What Can You Do About It?

  • It’s not what the instructor does that matters; rather, it is what the students do that matters

  • Create an learner-centered environment that promotes the intellectual engagement of students



Development of Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy

  • Based on the topics faculty most often cover

  • Require 15-minutes and are designed for easy implementation into existing traditional lecture courses

  • Socratic-dialogue driven, highly-structured collaborative learning activities designed to:

    • elicit misconceptions
    • confront naïve, incomplete, or inaccurate ideas
    • resolve contradictions
    • demonstrate the power of THEIR conceptual models


Volcanoes are usually found in places where a) the low pressure of the atmosphere pulls the lava/magma to the surface. b) earthquakes occur from oceanic plates colliding with continental plates. c) deep-rooted mountains have cracked Earth's crust. d) Earth's rotation has caused weak spots in its crust.



Volcanoes are usually found in places where a) the low pressure of the atmosphere pulls the lava/magma to the surface. b) earthquakes occur from oceanic plates colliding with continental plates. c) deep-rooted mountains have cracked Earth's crust. d) Earth's rotation has caused weak spots in its crust.



A planet that still has numerous craters from meteorite impacts visible on its surface likely has a) no ocean to cover the craters. b) no atmosphere to protect the surface. c) a cold, solid interior.



A planet that still has numerous craters from meteorite impacts visible on its surface likely has a) no ocean to cover the craters. b) no atmosphere to protect the surface. c) a cold, solid interior.



The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by a) continental plates floating on the ocean. b) mantle material circulating inside Earth. c) Earth's slow shrinking as it cools. d) global wind patterns and sustained ocean currents.



The change in position of the continents over time is primarily caused by a) continental plates floating on the ocean. b) mantle material circulating inside Earth. c) Earth's slow shrinking as it cools. d) global wind patterns and sustained ocean currents.



If you were to build a telescope on Earth's surface, which of the following wavelengths of light would be most easily observed by this telescope? a) gamma ray b) X-ray c) ultraviolet d) radio



If you were to build a telescope on Earth's surface, which of the following wavelengths of light would be most easily observed by this telescope? a) gamma ray b) X-ray c) ultraviolet d) radio



Assumption #1 - Lecture is largely ineffective at promoting deep conceptual change

  • Instrument used: A 68 items research based multiple choice questionnaire

  • Pre-Course: two forms, A&B, which each contained a subset of questions



Assumption #1 - Lecture is largely ineffective at promoting deep conceptual change

  • Instrument used: A 68 items research based multiple choice questionnaire

  • Pre-Course: two forms, A&B, which each contained a subset of questions



Qualitative Results (focus group)

  • Students believe that the tutorials are one of the greatest strength of the class

  • “We are able to discuss topics with other students and therefore, we help each other!”

  • “Why don’t all professors use tutorials during class?”

  • “The tutorials were definitely a big part of my learning in the class.”



Qualitative Results (interview)

  • “And then the tutorials? I don’t know who ever thought of that. But it’s really how classes should be taught….The tutorials [review concepts] because they break it down. You start with something so simple…and then it slowly gets to more.” –Marti



Qualitative Results (interviews)

  • “I know the worksheets are real helpful. I found it sometimes hard to talk to as many people as I wanted to talk to and finish the worksheet in time.” – Joe



Don’t forget …

  • Its not what the instructor does that matters; rather, it is what the students do!



Activity or activity

  • activity = Just having students DO STUFF

  • OR

  • Activity = Repeatedly intellectually engage students with meaningful phenomena to create deep conceptual understanding



Activity or activity

  • activity = Just having students DO STUFF

  • HOW DO YOU KNOW THE DIFFERENCE?

  • Activity = Repeatedly intellectually engage students with meaningful phenomena to create deep conceptual understanding



Activity or activity

  • Rigorous evaluation

    • We made this stuff, they liked it, they had a good time, they manipulated data and got reasonable results


Activity or activity

  • Rigorous evaluation

    • We made this stuff, they liked it, they had a good time, they manipulated data and got reasonable results
    • Assessment of pre-existing student ideas and reasoning difficulties learners bring to the table
    • Repeated evaluation of pre- to –post learning gains cause interactive improvements
    • Triangulated with other data (other diagnostics, interviews, observations, etc.)


Activity or activity

  • Rigorous evaluation

    • We made this stuff, they liked it, they had a good time, they manipulated data and got reasonable results
    • Assessment of pre-existing student ideas and reasoning difficulties learners bring to the table
    • Repeated evaluation of pre- to –post learning gains cause interactive improvements
    • Triangulated with other data (other diagnostics, interviews, observations, etc.)


Activity or activity

  • Active learning is when students take active responsibility for participating in and monitoring of their own learning by engaging in critical reasoning about the ideas presented in the class.

  • The educational effectiveness of activities must be meaningfully evaluated both to make improvements and for our community to make progress.



So what?

  • Research results are impacting the creation of new activities

  • Ranking Tasks

  • Sorting Tasks

  • Vocabulary in Context























Vocabulary in Context











New Tools to Measure Impact

  • Astronomy Diagnostic Test

  • Lunar Phases Concept Inventory

  • Stars and Star Formation Concept Inventory

  • Global Warming Concept Inventory

  • Light and Spectra Concept Inventory



Light and Spectra Concept Inventory



How Do I Keep Up With It All?

  • Astronomy Education Review

    • http://aer.noao.edu
  • ASP/AAE AstroEd_News

    • Send blank email to astroed_news-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
  • National Digital Libraries

    • DLESE.org and AstronomyCenter.org
  • What else?



Using Research on How Students Learn Astronomy to Improve Teaching

  • Tim Slater

  • University of Arizona

  • Department of Astronomy

  • Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team

  • http://caperteam.as.arizona.edu



Yüklə 4,26 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©genderi.org 2023
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə