1. Use 300mg (0.300g) cyclohexanol, NOT 0.150g.
2. Use 160mg (0.160g) acetic acid. Not 0.080g.
3. Use 3.0ml of 5.25% NaOCl solution (Bleach). Not 2.3 ml.
*Once you’ve added everything, swirl it around and check to see if it’s acidic or not. (Red=acidic, Blue=basic). If the solution is not acidic, add more acetic acid dropwise until it is acidic; check after each addition.
*At this point the temperature should rise to 45 oC. If it doesn’t reach this temperature and is decreasing in temperature, do not worry, put it in a warm water bath at 45 oC. Hint: hot tap water gets close to 45 oC, just make sure you keep it warm on a sand bath for the 15 min.
4. Add 2-3 drops of sodium bisulfite solution. Not 1-2 drops * Test for positive test using starch-iodide paper, positive=blue-purple color. If it is still positive add dropwise sodium bisulfite solution until it is not positive.
*Thymol Blue Indicator:
A. When you add this, the solution should be yellow.
B. Neutralize this until you see a slight tinge of blue.
5. After salting out and extracting the product with ether it tells you to dry the ether layer through a column. DO NOT DO THIS!
A. The first one occurs after neutralizing the solution with 6M NaOH. You will be using figure 22.2.
*The liquid you are distilling over into the vial is what you will be using to do the
next step (‘salting out’).
B. The second distillation occurs after you dried the ether solution over
anhydrous sodium sulfate. Use figure 22.3.
*This is a quick distillation, you are distilling off ether (b.p. 35 oC), the product, cyclohexanone (b.p. of 157 oC), stays in the round bottom flask.
What you need in the end:
1. End weight of product & calculated % yield
2. IR of product
Hint: To obtain final weight make sure you know the weight of the round bottom +
boiling chip before you put the ether solution in the flask!
Oxidation: Cyclohexanone from Cyclohexanol by Hypochlorite Oxidation
Experimental Procedure. 1. Add 0.300 g cyclohexanol, 0.160 g acetic acid and 3.0 mL of 5.25% NaOCl solution (bleach) into a 5 mL long-necked, round-bottom flask.
2. Once you have added everything, swirl it around and check to see if it is acidic or not. (use indicator; Red=acidic, Blue=basic). If the solution is not acidic, add more acetic acid dropwise until it is acidic; check after each addition.
3. Put the flask in a warm water bath at 45 °C. Make sure you keep it warm on a water bath for 15 min.
4. Add 2-3 drops of sodium bisulfite solution. Test for the presence of unreacted hypochlorite using starch-iodide paper, positive=blue-purple color. If it is still positive, add dropwise sodium bisulfite solution until it is not positive.
5. Add a drop of thymol blue indicator to the solution. When you add this, the solution should be yellow.
6. Neutralize this by adding 6M NaOH solution (add dropwise + swirl), until you see a slight tinge of blue (observe versus white paper).
7. Now, you are ready to do the first distillation. Use Fig 22.2 (p. 382) to set up the distillation system. ADD BOILING CHIPS INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO DISTILLATION. Distill about 1.5-2 mL of a mixture of water and cyclohexanone.
8. Transfer the distillate to a clean reaction tube, add 0.1 g NaCl to the distillate, stir and shake till most of it dissolves.
9. Extract the solution with three 0.4 ml portions of tBuOMe (ether; add 0.4 mL ether, shaking the tube, allow the layers to separate, take off the upper layer—ether layer and placing it in a clean, dry reaction tube, repeat 3 times)
10. Thereafter, put the ether layer in the dry test tube, add anhydrous sodium sulfate, and stir. It should look like a snowball, and let it stand for 5 min. It should be dry now.
11. Weigh a dry and clean evaporation tube; transfer the dry ether layer to it. Evaporate ether in the evaporator. Ether should evaporate very fast, the product, cyclohexanone (b.p. 157 oC), stays in the reaction tube. Weigh again, calculate the weight of your product, yield (%) and run IR of your product.