Ядерная энергетика



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tarix05.03.2018
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Тема: Ядерная энергетика

Тест № 1 (английский вариант)


The purification step involves purification of the plutonium solution in pulsed columns by solvent extraction (tri-butyl phosphate in dodecane). Nitrate impurities such as americium, gallium, and silver remain in the aqueous phase and are routed to an acid recovery unit after dodecane washing. The plutonium and uranium stream is scrubbed with nitric acid; the plutonium is reduced to trivalent plutonium by hydroxylamine nitrate and stripped (i.e., the plutonium is removed from solution) in another pulsed column using a solution of nitric acid, hydrazine nitrate, and HAN. The organic solvent, now without the plutonium, is mixed with an additional stripping solution in a plutonium barrier that assures that all plutonium is removed, before the organic solvent is transferred to the uranium stripping process, where the uranium is removed from solution using dilute nitric acid. The uranium stream is diluted with depleted uranium before being transferred to SRS. The remaining solvent stream, now without uranium, is routed to solvent recovery mixer-settlers to be recycled. In the purified plutonium stream, the plutonium valence is adjusted back to plutonium (IV) by driving nitrous oxide fumes through the plutonium solution in a column. The offgas is routed through an offgas treatment system and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

In the conversion step, the plutonium (IV) is converted to a powder oxide using a continuous oxylate conversion process. In this step, the plutonium (IV) reacts with excess oxalic acid to precipitate plutonium oxalate. The plutonium oxalate is collected on a filter, dried in a screw calciner to produce purified PuO2 powder which is then blended and stored in sealed cans. The oxalic mother liquors are concentrated, reacted with manganese to destroy the oxalic acid, and recycled to the beginning of the extraction cycle.

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