1. Main periods of ancient philosophy



Yüklə 445 b.
tarix23.11.2017
ölçüsü445 b.
#12037



1. Main periods of ancient philosophy.

  • 1. Main periods of ancient philosophy.

  • 2. Philosophy of ancient Greece.

  • 3. Philosophy of ancient Rome.



Ancient Philosophy

  • Ancient Philosophy

  • Medieval philosophy

  • The philosophy of the Renaissance and Enlightenment

  • The philosophy of modern times

  • German classical philosophy

  • Non-classical philosophy

  • postnonclassical philosophy



  • Ancient philosophy we call the doctrine arose in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. It was preceded by the mythology of ancient Greece, which found its expression mainly in the epics of Homer "Iliad" and "Odyssey" and Hesiod (VI-VII centuries BC.).





1. Ionian philosophers (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus)

  • 1. Ionian philosophers (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus)

  • 2. Italic philosophy (Pythagorean union, Eleatic school and Empedocles)

  • 3. Levkipta atomic philosophy and Democritus

  • 4. Sophistry (Protagoras, George)

  • 5. Philosophy of Socrates and the Socratic Schools (Antisthenes, Aristippus, Diogenes of Sinope)

  • 6. Philosophical teachings of Plato

  • 7. Aristotle's philosophical system

  • 8. Hellenistic philosophy (Epicureans, Skeptics, Stoics)











Common features:

  • Common features:

  • - At the heart of all things is "primordial", it was not created by anyone and it is eternal;

  • - The main feature "primal" is a movement;

  • - The world has resulted from the movement of matter;

  • - There is only matter in motion, therefore, everything changes;

  • - Every thing is the "unity of opposites



The founder of the Milesian school, Thales

  • The founder of the Milesian school, Thales

  • (G 640-562 BC).

  • Came from a wealthy family. according to

  • Diogenes Laertius: "Thales was the son Eksamiya

  • and Kleobuliny kind of felids, and this kind of

  • Phoenician, notably, the neighbors children

  • Cadmus and Agenor. "Date of death of the first philosopher

  • unknown. Diogenes Laertius says: "Died

  • Thales, looking at gymnastic competitions, from

  • heat, thirst and senile weakness. the tomb

  • it is written: This tomb is small, but the glory of the

  • It is immense: it before you hidden, many

  • Thales is reasonable. "

  •     Thales was a major political figure of his

  • time, geography, philosophy.



1. Astronomical discoveries

  • 1. Astronomical discoveries

  • 2. Geometry-discovery and proof of a number of theorems

  • 3. "The beginning and end of the universe-water, all of the water and all the water is decomposed"

  • 4. "The world is full of gods"



Astronomy

  • Astronomy

  • opening as

  • explanation of the reason

  • solar eclipses

  • Timing

  • solstice and

  • equinox

  • determine the length of the year in

  • 365 days.

  • Tradition has it that

  • Thales predicted

  • eclipse of the sun, which

  • occurred on May 28 585g BC.





1. Vertical angles are equal

  • 1. Vertical angles are equal

  • 2. Angles at the base of an isosceles triangle are equal.

  • 3. Triangle defined by side and adjacent to it two angles.

  • 4. Diameter divides a circle into two equal parts.



Why water?

  • Why water?

  • Aristotle in the IV century BC, had

  • wonders why Thales came to the

  • conclusion without knowing the reasoning. we also

  • can only repeat the arguments

  • Aristotle and other ancient

  • commentators, underpins

  • philosopher from Miletus. Thales to its

  • inference could induce the following

  • observation of natural phenomena:





Each person can see that when

  • Each person can see that when

  • freezing of the liquid turns into a solid

  • body, and the evaporation-to gaseous. so

  • , all quite solid and gaseous

  • could arise from liquid or, in the terminology

  • ancient, from the water. "All forms of water

  • by its solidification (freezing) and

  • evaporation. "If the water can become steam

  • and ice, why it can turn in

  • earth and stone, and then in the plant,

  • animals?



2. Liquids can take any shape.

  • 2. Liquids can take any shape.

  • Water is poured into the vessel, takes the shape of the vessel.

  • Wet substance, easily transformed by

  • into all sorts of (body) takes a motley

  • variety of forms. Evaporating a part of his

  • drawn into the air, thin air

  • flares in the form of ether. Dropping into the sediment and

  • turning into mud, the water goes to the ground. "

  • Instability, mobility, water can

  • explain a constant variability

  • things.



3.Rasteniya and animals can not

  • 3.Rasteniya and animals can not

  • go without drinking. deprived of water

  • they die and wither. "Any food

  • saturated juices. And what each

  • being is, the more it eats. "

  • Moreover Thales believed that eating

  • water, in addition to plants and animals have

  • and inorganic substances. "The very fire

  • sun and stars powered water

  • vapors, as well as the space itself. "





Can it be called a materialist Thales,

  • Can it be called a materialist Thales,

  • declares that "the beginning and end of the universe-

  • water ", that is, material principle, known nursery

  • his statement that "over all things-God, for

  • He was not born, "that" more beautiful than-space, for

  • it is the creation of God, "and God is" that he has no

  • beginning and no end. "

  • On the surface, creates a contradiction: what came first, water or a god?

  • But this contradiction is only apparent. Thales

  • God saw the water itself, the very primary element. and Soul

  • matter seemed to him a single and indivisible

  • whole.



2. In ancient times, people believed the soul

  • 2. In ancient times, people believed the soul

  • source of life. As long as the soul is in

  • body, it is alive and able to move.

  • When the soul leaves the body, comes

  • death, the lifeless body of the movement is not

  • capable. Hence the conclusion that

  • source movement is the soul. Thales

  • took this view, which

  • subsequently attributed to him.



3. Thales believed that "the universe

  • 3. Thales believed that "the universe

  • animated "that elementary moisture

  • permeates the divine power

  • causing the water to move. upon

  • expressed are the following exercises

  • Miletus philosopher:

  •   "Thales ... in his water, scientists announced the beginning of all things and the source from which all things are created and the Great Unseen () that is God: the cause of a movement ... the spirit, breeding in the water."



Первоначалом и основой всего является беспредельное ( архэ - «апейрон»). Все вещи возникают путем выделения из первоначала и противоположны друг другу: воздух холоден, огонь горяч, вода влажна. «Апейрон» как бы соединяет в себе все эти противоположности, выделение которых и обусловливает все развитие в различных формах. Это движение вещей вечно, и через вечное движение происходит бесконечная смена мироздания.

  • Первоначалом и основой всего является беспредельное ( архэ - «апейрон»). Все вещи возникают путем выделения из первоначала и противоположны друг другу: воздух холоден, огонь горяч, вода влажна. «Апейрон» как бы соединяет в себе все эти противоположности, выделение которых и обусловливает все развитие в различных формах. Это движение вещей вечно, и через вечное движение происходит бесконечная смена мироздания.



Original and everything is based on air (pneumatic).

  • Original and everything is based on air (pneumatic).

  • Everything is made out of thin air, and the change of the universe is due to the perpetual movement of air masses.





Parmenides, Xenophanes, and Zeno.

  • Parmenides, Xenophanes, and Zeno.

  • Xenophanes (570 - 478 years. BC). -

  • all the gods - the fruit of the human imagination,

  • people invented gods in their

  • image, assigning them their physical

  • traits and moral shortcomings.



Gods of antiquity he opposed one god, that is one with nature. Here's his view of the world:

  • Gods of antiquity he opposed one god, that is one with nature. Here's his view of the world:

  • "All that is the whole universe, there is one ";

  • "One God";

  • "Deity spherical and not like a man";

  • "It is the mind, thinking and eternity";

  • "All is one and the same, and it is God, never born, eternal, spherical shape."

  • People are not created by the gods, and were born out of the ground and water.



- There are still only being and non-being does not exist

  • - There are still only being and non-being does not exist

  •   - God is motionless, is finite and is a sphere

  • - There are two philosophies: one is true, and the other - opinion

  • - The criterion of truth is the mind

  • - The universe - one that exists, without beginning and spherical, motionless.



Trying to prove the unity and stillness of being.

  • Trying to prove the unity and stillness of being.

  • Zeno's argument: "Moving [subject] does not move either in the place where he was, nor where it is not."

  • Aporia (an insoluble problem.) "Flying Arrow", "Achilles and the Tortoise", "stadium", "Dichotomy."



Aporia - an insoluble problem, predefined contradiction between observation and attempt their interpretation in terms.

  • Aporia - an insoluble problem, predefined contradiction between observation and attempt their interpretation in terms.

  • As an example, the first proposition: a flying arrow is at rest (as it is at every moment, that rests in a place). "The flying arrow is motionless," because "the time is made up of individual" now. "



"The world is one of all, not created by any god or by any of the people, was, is and will forever live fire, naturally flammable, naturally dying."

  • "The world is one of all, not created by any god or by any of the people, was, is and will forever live fire, naturally flammable, naturally dying."

  • "Everything flows, everything changes."

  • Changes in the nature of Heraclitus regarded as the result of the struggle of opposites, which are interconnected, vzaimopolagayut and into each other.



Leucippus (500-440 years. BC)

  • Leucippus (500-440 years. BC)

  • Democritus (460-330 years. BC).

  • Leucippus first proposed the theory of "atoms" and "emptiness."

  •   Democritus shared being and nothingness, emptiness. Everything in the world is made of atoms and their movement, the movement is the nature of atoms.





Все, изучавшие творения Гиппократа, видят его историческое значение в двух следу­ющих важных заслугах:

  • Все, изучавшие творения Гиппократа, видят его историческое значение в двух следу­ющих важных заслугах:

  • 1) в том, что он положил начало соб­ственному методу медицины — «наблюдению у постели больного»;

  • 2) в том, что он является автором учения об основных ти­пах телосложения и темперамента у людей, давшего тем самым ключ к пониманию физиологии и патологии человека, и, следовательно, к его врачеванию.



Based on the ideas of Democritus that the basis of all things are atoms with their eternal motion and his theory of human nature, Hippocrates identified and described the main types of people depending on their temperament and physique. They are, according to Hippocrates, four:

  • Based on the ideas of Democritus that the basis of all things are atoms with their eternal motion and his theory of human nature, Hippocrates identified and described the main types of people depending on their temperament and physique. They are, according to Hippocrates, four:

  • sanguine (blood in the body prevails);

  • 2) choleric (in the body prevails yellow bile);

  • 3) phlegmatic (phlegm in the body prevails);

  • 4) melancholic (in a body dominated by black bile).





Each person should follow the rule: Run from any tricks that cut off from the body of disease, ignorance of the soul, from the womb - the exuberant, from the city - confusion, from a family quarrel.

  • Each person should follow the rule: Run from any tricks that cut off from the body of disease, ignorance of the soul, from the womb - the exuberant, from the city - confusion, from a family quarrel.

  • Things worth striving for and which

  •      should ensure that there is light at three:

  • 1) beautiful and glorious,

  • 2) good for life -

  • 3) a delight. But pleasure is meant not vulgar and misleading, not luxuries soothes our gluttony and lust, and the other directed to the perfect, righteous and necessary for life.



  • Pythagoreans, surrendering math classes, is considered the beginning of the numbers, because the numbers they found a lot of similarities with what happens there, and among the primary elements of all mathematical principles.





The main place in Socratic philosophy belongs to the doctrine of knowledge and ethics.

  • The main place in Socratic philosophy belongs to the doctrine of knowledge and ethics.

  • Right knowledge should be determined by two methods:

  • method of allocation of the total number of special cases,

  • to identify signs, lost in the overall analysis.

  • Socrates himself called his method of teaching maieutics - "midwife art."







created his own school, called the Academy.

  • created his own school, called the Academy.

  • In the philosophical system of Plato is quite clearly you can see all four of the philosophical knowledge of the time: the ontology, cosmology, epistemology, and ethics.

  • Plato believed that the condition of moral acts is true knowledge. It has a soul of true knowledge, which consists of three parts:

  • reasonable;

  • strong-willed;

  • sensual.



-discovered in his grove Lyceum School (Peripatetics - walking philosophers).

  • -discovered in his grove Lyceum School (Peripatetics - walking philosophers).

  •   - The first time science has drawn a distinction by providing each of them a special field of research.

  •   - Established the difference between the theoretical (metaphysics, physics, mathematics), practical (ethics, economics, politics) and creative (poetics, rhetoric) sciences.



"Organon", "Nicomachean Ethics"

  • "Organon", "Nicomachean Ethics"

  • "Physics," "History of Animals"

  • "Mechanics", "Rhetoric"

  • "Metaphysics,“ "Politics"

  • "On the Soul" "Athenians"

  • "Poetics."



theoretical, studies the problems of life, different spheres of life, the origin of all things, the reasons for the various phenomena (called "primary philosophy");

  • theoretical, studies the problems of life, different spheres of life, the origin of all things, the reasons for the various phenomena (called "primary philosophy");

  •   practical - of human activities, the device of the state;

  •   poetic.



1. essence

  • 1. essence

  • 2. number

  • 3. quality

  • 4. attitude

  • 5. place

  • 6. time

  • 7. position

  • 8. possession

  • 9. action

  • 10. suffering



vegetative soul;

  • vegetative soul;

  •   animal soul;

  •   rational soul.



monarchy;

  • monarchy;

  •   tyranny;

  •   aristocracy;

  •   extreme oligarchy;

  •   ochlocracy (mob rule, extreme democracy);

  •   polity (a mixture of mild and moderate oligarchy, democracy).



  • The best form of government, according to Aristotle, is the polity - a set of mild and moderate oligarchy, democracy, the state of the "middle class" (the ideal of Aristotle)



1) has made significant adjustments to certain provisions of Platonic philosophy, criticizing the doctrine of "pure ideas", No. 2) gave a materialistic interpretation of the origin of man and the world, R3) has allocated 10 of philosophical categories, No. 4) defined by the category of being;? 5) defined the essence of matter;? 6) identified six types of state and gave the concept of the ideal type - the polity;? 7) made ​​a significant contribution to the development of logic (given the concept of the deductive method - from private to general, justified the system of syllogisms - output of two or more parcels conclusion)

  • 1) has made significant adjustments to certain provisions of Platonic philosophy, criticizing the doctrine of "pure ideas", No. 2) gave a materialistic interpretation of the origin of man and the world, R3) has allocated 10 of philosophical categories, No. 4) defined by the category of being;? 5) defined the essence of matter;? 6) identified six types of state and gave the concept of the ideal type - the polity;? 7) made ​​a significant contribution to the development of logic (given the concept of the deductive method - from private to general, justified the system of syllogisms - output of two or more parcels conclusion)



preached the simplification of life, making no demands. He mingled with the common people, considered a refined philosophy worthless. He urged that in order to be closer to nature. By Antisthenes, there should be no government, no private property, no marriage. His followers sharply debated slavery. Not being a complete ascetic Antisthenes despised luxury and desire for pleasure.

  • preached the simplification of life, making no demands. He mingled with the common people, considered a refined philosophy worthless. He urged that in order to be closer to nature. By Antisthenes, there should be no government, no private property, no marriage. His followers sharply debated slavery. Not being a complete ascetic Antisthenes despised luxury and desire for pleasure.



chased virtue, believed that moral freedom is to free from desire. He claimed that the gods had done right, so to punish Prometheus legendary: he brought to mankind art that created confusion and artificiality of human existence. The world is bad, so you have to learn to live independently.

  • chased virtue, believed that moral freedom is to free from desire. He claimed that the gods had done right, so to punish Prometheus legendary: he brought to mankind art that created confusion and artificiality of human existence. The world is bad, so you have to learn to live independently.



A Perrons philosopher - is the one who pursue happiness, and it is of equanimity and in the absence of suffering. Perron principle: "To follow the principle of refraining from any kind of judgment was about something!". Perron skepticism - it is not a complete agnosticism: absolutely reliable for us our sensory perception, when we see them only as a phenomenon. If something seems sweet or bitter, it should be expressed as follows: "It seems to me bitter or sweet." Abstinence from categorical judgments about the true nature of things, creates a feeling of calmness and serenity. That this is the highest level available philosopher true happiness.

  • A Perrons philosopher - is the one who pursue happiness, and it is of equanimity and in the absence of suffering. Perron principle: "To follow the principle of refraining from any kind of judgment was about something!". Perron skepticism - it is not a complete agnosticism: absolutely reliable for us our sensory perception, when we see them only as a phenomenon. If something seems sweet or bitter, it should be expressed as follows: "It seems to me bitter or sweet." Abstinence from categorical judgments about the true nature of things, creates a feeling of calmness and serenity. That this is the highest level available philosopher true happiness.





Stoicism as a specific direction philosophically thought existed from the 3rd century BC to the third century AD

  • Stoicism as a specific direction philosophically thought existed from the 3rd century BC to the third century AD

  • Stoicism - this is the least "Greek" of all the schools of philosophy.

  • Earlier Stoics mostly Syrians Zenon Kitionsky from Cyprus, Cleanthes, Chrysippus.

  •   By the late Stoics are Plutarch, Cicero, Marcus Aurelius - it's mostly the Romans.

  • Stoics in his views put in the forefront the concept of a peaceful and always balanced, even "unconscious" sage. This reflects the ideal of inner freedom from the passions which nurtured almost all the Stoics.



Ancient philosophy was a real social power of the ancient world, and then the world-historical development of philosophical culture and every generation, graduating, is designed to plunge into this ever-fresh flow of young, first identify the philosophical thought itself. Ancient philosophy is intriguing every curious person that worries philosophical questions. Many of the problems on which the ancient philosophers speculated, are still relevant to this day.

  • Ancient philosophy was a real social power of the ancient world, and then the world-historical development of philosophical culture and every generation, graduating, is designed to plunge into this ever-fresh flow of young, first identify the philosophical thought itself. Ancient philosophy is intriguing every curious person that worries philosophical questions. Many of the problems on which the ancient philosophers speculated, are still relevant to this day.




Yüklə 445 b.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©genderi.org 2022
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə