Clear delineation of



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Clear delineation of

  • Clear delineation of

  • authority

  • Separation of planning

  • from operations

  • Task specialization

  • Responsibility

  • Incentive schemes for workers



Strengths

  • Strengths

  • ~objectivity ~logical

  • ~action oriented ~modes of

  • accountability



Teaching the curriculum

  • Teaching the curriculum

  • chosen by test-designers

  • Creative pedagogy is not

  • rewarded

  • Teachers’ prerogatives are

  • disappearing and the talents

  • that they once utilized daily

  • are increasingly no longer called upon.



Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

    • Cheaper by the Dozen
  • Henry Gantt

    • Gantt Chart
  • Henry Ford

    • Production Assembly Line




Contrary to popular belief, a bureaucracy can be an organizational structure which can deliver productivity.

  • Contrary to popular belief, a bureaucracy can be an organizational structure which can deliver productivity.

    • Rules and policies govern conditions of work and specify standard processes for carrying out tasks.
    • Rules and policies do much to ensure equality, conformity, safety, and order in the workplace.


The very rules and policies which make an

  • The very rules and policies which make an

  • organization successful and productive if

  • carried too far lead to:

  • Lack of flexibility

  • Stifling of creativity

  • Confusion

  • Indecision

  • Reliance on tradition

  • Upper management ignoring lower levels





Two Main Roots:

  • Two Main Roots:

  • Scientific Management – designed to get the most from each worker, for every minute worked (Taylor, 1911, Fayol, 1949, Gulick, 1937 and Urwick, 1937)

  • Patriarchal systems – where father figure has absolute power, gives way to Monocratic Bureaucracy.

  • Bowman and Deal, 2003, p. 45-46.



Fixed division of labor

    • Fixed division of labor
    • Hierarchy of offices
    • Rules governing performance
    • Specific skills or ability
    • Employment is long term


Knowledge or skill based

  • Knowledge or skill based

  • Units of time

  • Organized by product

  • Customer or client

  • Geography

  • By process



Informal communication

  • Informal communication

  • Task forces

  • New technology can support lateral groups



Formal structures enhance morale if it helps get the job done.

  • Formal structures enhance morale if it helps get the job done.

  • Hierarchy is best used if it provides opportunities to use workers’ skills.

  • Systems Thinking

  • Human systems are biological systems.



Simple Structure

      • Simple Structure
  • Example: Mom & Pop operation

  • Positive: Simple/Flexible

  • Negative: Distracted by daily operations; neglects long-range problems; capricious rewards; authority may block changes



Professional Bureaucracy

  • Professional Bureaucracy

  • Example: Harvard University

  • Positive: professional, trained core; insulation from formal interference

  • Negative: problematic coordination & quality control; slow response to external change



Adhocracy

  • Adhocracy

  • Example: DEC

  • Positive: encourages creativity; challenges tradition, legitimizes controversies

  • Negative: Lack of timely coordinated shift may result in downfall



Refers to relationships among social elements including people, positions, and the organizational units to which they belong (e.g., departments, divisions) (Mary Jo Hatch, 1997, p. 161).”

  • Refers to relationships among social elements including people, positions, and the organizational units to which they belong (e.g., departments, divisions) (Mary Jo Hatch, 1997, p. 161).”



Processes and relationships are human traits that infiltrate organizations and may determine their success.

  • Processes and relationships are human traits that infiltrate organizations and may determine their success.

    • Example:
      • The more complex the organization, the more communication is needed to collaborate and produce.


When relationships and processes are the focus of an organization, time is then taken away from the actual functions of the organization.

  • When relationships and processes are the focus of an organization, time is then taken away from the actual functions of the organization.

    • Example:
      • If the majority of organizational development time is designated for relationships, the production procedures and necessary changes may be overlooked.


Differentiation vs. Integration

  • Differentiation vs. Integration

  • Gap vs. Overlap

  • Underuse vs. Overload

  • Lack of Clarity vs. Lack of Creativity

  • Excessive Autonomy vs. Excessive Interdependence

  • Too Loose vs.Too Tight

  • Goalless vs. Goalbound

  • Irresponsible vs. Unresponsive

  • Bolman and Deal, 2003



Positives— Organizational improvement in response to external change

  • Positives— Organizational improvement in response to external change

  • New leadership “stamp”

  • Negatives— Demanding process

  • Poor record of success



Unfreezing

  • Unfreezing

  • Transition

  • Refreezing

  •  

  •  



Change is an inevitable journey. All things are constantly changing, transforming, becoming something different. Guiding change so that it is successful is what leadership is all about. Indeed, the measure of a leader may well be her or his capacity to understand and deal successfully with change—to stimulate it, shape it, guide it, manage it, and keep it going in the right direction.

  • Change is an inevitable journey. All things are constantly changing, transforming, becoming something different. Guiding change so that it is successful is what leadership is all about. Indeed, the measure of a leader may well be her or his capacity to understand and deal successfully with change—to stimulate it, shape it, guide it, manage it, and keep it going in the right direction.

  • California School Leadership Academy



Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2003). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2003). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing professional practice in educational administration. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), p. 186.

  • Taylor, F. W. (1911/1967). The principles of scientific management. New York: W. W. Norton.

  • Weber, M. (1930/1992). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (A. Giddens, Trans.). New York: Routledge.




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