Enduring orientations with cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. Enduring orientations with cognitive, affective, and behavioral components



Yüklə 264 Kb.
tarix18.07.2018
ölçüsü264 Kb.
#56293



Enduring orientations with cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.

  • Enduring orientations with cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.

    • Cognitive
    • Affective
    • Behavioral
  • A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings or intended behavior



External Stimuli

  • External Stimuli

  • The Target

  • Intervening Processes

  • The Response



Attitudes as Habits – Carl Hovland (1953)

  • Attitudes as Habits – Carl Hovland (1953)

  • Processes

    • Association
    • Reinforcement
    • Imitation


Message Learning

  • Message Learning

    • Weak relationships
    • Motivation
  • Transfer of Affect

    • Associations between two objects


Rewarded for attitudes that fit with values of group, society, culture

  • Rewarded for attitudes that fit with values of group, society, culture

  • May initially change behavior

    • Then accept the underlying value


Adopt attitude that maximizes gains

  • Adopt attitude that maximizes gains

  • Consider importance and value

  • Cognitive response theory

    • Respond to proposition with thoughts = attitude
  • Expectancy value theory

    • Consider likelihood & value


Model our behaviors (and related attitudes) after others

  • Model our behaviors (and related attitudes) after others

  • Aronson & O’Leary

    • Water conservation
  • Cialdini

    • Littering


  • Gestalt influence: Seek coherence

  • Attitudes must be interpreted in context

    • Balance theory (Heider, 1958)
    • Cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957)


Key

  • Key

    • P = Person (self)
    • O = Other
    • X = Attitude Object (issue, person, etc.)
    • Unit or Sentiment Relations
      • + sign = Link/Like
      • - sign = No Link/Dislike
  • Triads can be:

    • Balanced = signs multiply to positive (+)
    • Unbalanced = signs multiply to negative (-)


Cognitions can have 3 relations

  • Cognitions can have 3 relations

    • Irrelevant
    • Consonant
    • Dissonant


Dissonance = A feeling of discomfort that is caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cognitions

  • Dissonance = A feeling of discomfort that is caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cognitions

  • Dissonance = # and importance



How do you restore a sense of consistency?

  • How do you restore a sense of consistency?

    • Change your behavior
      • To be consistent
      • To compensate
    • Change your cognitions
      • Add consonant cognitions (mis-remember things, rationalize your behavior)
      • Alter importance of cognitions


Participants are asked to engage in a very boring task

  • Participants are asked to engage in a very boring task

  • After that, they either:

    • Were told the study was over
    • Were paid $1 to lie to another participant about the task
    • Were paid $20 to lie to another participant about the task
  • Then, participants’ (real) attitudes about the task were measured



Therapy

  • Therapy

  • Cults

    • Festinger – “When Prophecy Fails”
  • Daily situations



Bem (1972)

  • Bem (1972)

  • Rational cognitive process

  • Behaviorist

  • Infer attitudes for others

  • Zanna & Cooper (1974)



Modes of resolution

  • Modes of resolution

    • Derogating the source
    • Distorting the message
    • Blanket Rejection


Two routes

  • Two routes

    • Central
    • Peripheral
      • Based on thoughtless affective evaluations
      • Leads to acceptance of weak messages
  • Route depends on motivation & opportunity



Counterarguing

  • Counterarguing

    • Active processing
    • Implicit or explicit
    • Verbal or nonverbal
  • Depends on quantity and quality



Credibility

  • Credibility

    • Expert
    • Trustworthy
  • Reciprocity

  • Reference



Discrepancy

  • Discrepancy

  • Motive arousal

    • Anger
    • Fear


Ego involvement

  • Ego involvement

    • Commitment
    • Issue involvement
    • Response involvement
  • Defense – McGuire

    • Supportive
    • Inoculation


Forewarning of position

  • Forewarning of position

  • Forewarning of intent

  • Distraction



Changed norms

  • Changed norms

  • Gradual

  • Powerful leader

  • Unquestioned authority



War

  • War

  • Token economies

  • Presentations

  • Office politics




Yüklə 264 Kb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©genderi.org 2022
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə