▪Being a good example is the best way to build a child’s conscience.
The 8 Stages of man
Studied the stages of personality development throughout the life cycle.
This is always redeveloping itself. Each level defines a new social awareness and
interaction possible for the individual.
MEMORY JOGGER: ERICKSON = 8 letters for 8 stages of man (hold up 8 fingers)
Letter E = Erickson, Eight, Emotional
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy)
The degree to which a child learns to trust or mistrust others.
Determined by the type and amount of care the child receives.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4 years)
The degree to which a child is allowed and encouraged freedom and self-direction
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6 years)
The degree to which a child is allowed control of his/her body, choices, fantasy, motor activities, and language activities.
Begins to develop social skills (cooperating, leading, following)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (school age)
The degree to which they learn that work is worthwhile and meaningful.
They learn to discipline themselves and to get along with others
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
The degree and ability to which the individual can bring together all the things learned about him/herself and integrate these different roles into a whole that shows continuity with the past while preparing for the future.
Mature, view the world differently, establish identity, require good role models
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)
The degree to which they can share with and care about another person without fear of losing oneself in the process.
Influences friendships, marriage, relationship with children, with own parents
Determines self-acceptance, a level of confidence, a feeling of being worthwhile.
7. Generativity vs. self-absorption (Adulthood)
The degree of concern for family and other people beyond the immediate family
8. Integrity vs. Despair (Aging)
The degree to which the individual can look back on their life with satisfaction and acceptance.
He Researched and defined the cognitive / Intellectual skills of
children and how they learn
MEMORY JOGGER: Notice his last name ends with “Get” and he taught how children GET SMART – point to head and say “Get smart”
4 Cognitive Stages 1. Sensorimotor (birth -2 years old)
MEMORY JOGGER: Stick out your tongue to help you
Children (babies) learn about and experience the world through their senses
(see, touch, hear, taste, and smell). This is why everything goes in their mouth.
2. Preoprational (2-7 years old)
MEMORY JOGGER: The word operate is part of Preoperational
and you Need smarts to OPERATE.
The child begins to form concepts (wondering about the reality of people like Santa Clause) and use symbols as words. This allows the child to communicate and gain language development
(police) (nike) (no smoking) (bathroom) (stop) M (McDonalds) 3. Concrete Operational (7-11 years old)
Children learn to reason and use simple deductive logic to arrive at conclusions.
The child is able to imagine what another person might be thinking or feeling,
therefore their thinking becomes more flexible.
4. Formal Operational (11 years old - adult)
Highest level of mental development-thinking abstractly.
5. Self-actualization: being able to think beyond one’s self, doing what one is suited for and capable of
doing. Doing one’s best.
Three Theoretical Components of Personality:
ID – Pleasure Principle, ID wants whatever needs seem
satisfying and wants it now
EGO - Reality Principle, mediator between unbridles passions of
ID and the limits imposed by the real world and the
ideas of the SUPEREGO.
SUPEREGO- Right from Wrong principle. Like a conscience.
PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY
Freud believed that how a child experienced various conflicts determined their personality.
1. ORAL (first 5 or 6 years)
Child activities and needs are dominated by the mouth.
Child learns to experience and know the world with the mouth
2. ANAL (first 5 or 6 years)
The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations. Toilet training
3. Phalic (first 5 or 6 years)
Genitals are most important body part
4. Latency (ages 7-11)
Sexual needs are quiet or not important. Energy and interests are put into academic learning and extra-curricular activities.
5. Genital (adolescence and adulthood)
Genitals are focus of pleasurable sensation and individuals seek stimulation and satisfaction.
The biological function of the genitals is for reproduction.
Goal of healthy adult was to love and to work.
The first stage is the Oral Stage. It runs from birth to age 2. In the oral stage infants and toddler explored the world primarily with their most sensitive area, their mouths. They also learn to use their mouths to communicate. The next stage is the Anal Stage. In the anal stage, children learned to control the elimination of bodily wastes. The Phallic Stage (3-5 years of age) is probably the most controversial. The word phallic means penis-like. In this stage, children discover their sexual differences. The phallic stage is followed by a Latency Period in which little new development is observable. In this stage, boys play with boys, and girls with girls, typically. Sexual interest is low or non-existent. The final stage is the Genital Stage. It started around 12 years of age and ends with the climax of puberty. Sexual interests re-awaken at this time (there were sexual interests before, dormant and repressed from the phallic stage).
Structural Model (id, ego, superego)
The Id The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infants needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.
However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.
The Ego The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.
The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.
The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process.
The Superego The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.
There are two parts of the superego:
The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value, and accomplishment.
The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments, or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
The Interaction of the Id, Ego, and SuperegoWith so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego, and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting.
According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.