Exploitation of Oil a history of Entrepreneurs Who Made it Happen Texts on History of Petroleum Exploitation



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Exploitation of Oil A History of Entrepreneurs Who Made it Happen


Texts on History of Petroleum Exploitation



Current Middle East Reserves



World Petroleum Exploitation



Iraq's Role?



World Petroleum Exploitation



Commodity Scarcity



Oil Time Line – Important Events

  • 1850 - 1910: Kerosene the fuel of choice

  • 1869: Suez Canal opens

  • 1878: Electric Light

  • 1908: Auto Boom starts

  • 1912: UK Navy uses Oil

  • 1914 – 1918: WWI

  • 1920: 9 million vehicles U.S

  • 1938 – 1945: WWII

  • 1948: Israel born

  • 1948: 1st Arab Israeli War



History of Petroleum Exploitation

  • How: Seeps (Oil Springs), & Wells - Hand Dug & Drilled (Percussion & Rotary)

  • Where: Asia, Middle East, Europe & America

  • Use: Heat, Paving, Light, Kerosene, Transport (Ships and Automobiles)

  • Entrepreneurs: John Rockefeller, Nobels, Rothschilds, Marcus Samuel, William D’Arcy, Henri Deterding, Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian

  • Movers: Stalin, Ford, Fisher, Churchill, Ibn Saud, Mossadegh, Shah Reza Pahlavi, Nasser, Khomeini, Mohammar Qaddafi, Saddam Hussein



The Players

  • John Rockefeller

  • Rothschild

  • Nobles Robert, Ludwig, & Alfred

  • Marcus Samuel

  • William D’Arcy

  • Henri Deterding

  • Calouste Gulbenkian



Movers & Shakers

  • Henry Ford

  • Jackie Fisher

  • Winston Churchill

  • Ibn Saud

  • Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh

  • Shah Reza Pahlavi

  • Gamal Abdel Nasser

  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

  • Mohammar Qaddafi

  • Saddam Hussein



Early History of Oil Monopolies

  • Appalachians: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of US (1830-1860)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1850)
    • Oil Boom after Drake’s well (1859)
    • Standard Oil Incorporated (1870)
    • Light bulb of Thomas Edison (1878)
  • Baku: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of Russia (1830-1917)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1830)
    • Oil Boom with Nobel Brothers Incorporation (1875)
    • Tanker "Zoroaster" (1877) & Pipeline (1897-1907)
  • World Wide: Key Elements – Spindletop (1901)

    • Suez Canal Built (1869)
    • Henry Ford Mass Produces Cars (1908) 9m – (1922) Royal Navy Converts to Oil (1912)


Early History - Appalachians



Standard Oil Monopoly Grows

  • 1867: Rockefeller & Andrews absorbed William Rockefeller's refinery, & Henry M. Flagler joins partnership

  • 1870: Standard Oil Company forms - John D. Rockefeller president, William Rockefeller, Flagler, Andrews & Stephen Harkness

  • 1870: Uses South Improvement Company secret rebates for better rates with Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), Eire, & New York Central

  • Standard Oil organization buys-up opposing interests, or guarantees financial security & jobs as partners gaining a monopoly on oil production in US

  • 1882: Separate companies organized in each state

  • 1890: Standard Oil controlled over 90% of refined oil in USA

  • 1895: Rockefeller retires from active business but keeps his title as president till 1911



Standard Oil Monopoly Ends

  • 1900: Mergers made Standard Oil the largest company in U.S. with fields located in U.S. Began exporting products to Europe & Far East competing with "Shell" Transport & Trading Company & Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.

  • 1901: Jan 10 Spindletop's discovery & uncontrolled exploitation busted Standard Oil) monopoly in U.S. so now it competed with Shell Transport & Trading, (begun life ferrying oil produced by Rothschilds and Nobles in Baku to Far East and Western Europe) and Royal Dutch

  • 1903: Royal Dutch & Shell Oil established the jointly owned Asiatic Petroleum Company Limited to combat Standard Oil.

  • 1911: May 15 Supreme Court US sees Standard Oil, now holding 64% of oil market, as a monopoly & orders form some 37 new companies



Early History of Oil Monopolies

  • Appalachians: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of US (1830-1860)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1850)
    • Oil Boom after Drake’s well (1859)
    • Standard Oil Incorporated (1870)
    • Light bulb of Thomas Edison (1878)
  • Baku: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of Russia (1830-1917)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1830)
    • Oil Boom with Nobel Brothers Incorporation (1875)
    • Tanker "Zoroaster" (1877) & Pipeline (1897-1907)
  • World Wide: Key Elements – Spindletop (1901)

    • Suez Canal Built (1869)
    • Henry Ford Mass Produces Cars (1908) 9m – (1922)
    • Royal Navy Converts to Oil (1912)


Caspian Sea



Early History - Baku



Baku Oil Monopoly Grows

  • 1873: Russia used Nobel’s guns which needed a supply of walnut wood for gunstocks from Caucasus region. Oil fever just began in Baku & Robert saw profit & brought a small refinery & kerosene plant with "walnut money"

  • 1879: With his younger smarter brother Ludwig founded Nobel Brothers' Oil Producing & Extracting Company.

  • Ludwig, organized & engineered modern technology related to oil production. Built 1st tanker, Zoroaster, in Caspian Sea reducing transport expenses. Success led to tanker fleet (including Moses, Spinoza, & Darwin) further increasing turnover with Nobel’s supplying Russia with Baku oil via rivers & Caspian Sea. Ludwig 1st to introduce railway tanks for oil transport.

  • 1879: Built a pipeline reducing transport expenses by five, paying for itself in a year. Built iron oil reservoirs with tank parks in Baku & other cities.

  • 1880's Rothschild's interests in Baku supply their refinery on Adriatic with Russian oil. In exchange built a railroad from Baku to Black Sea port of Batum. Baku oil now major world supplier & new railroad meant Rothschilds had more oil than they could sell & now competing with Standard oil, sought markets east of Suez.

  • 1890: Baku now busiest port in world.



Baku Oil Monopoly Lives

  • 1878: Marcus Samuel expanded from antiques, curios, bric-a-brac, & exotic sea shells to selling cased Russian kerosene in Far East, top-selling fuel in world & used for lamps and stoves

  • Standard Oil under priced competitors to defend its Asian markets & controlled almost all world’s supplies.

  • 12 years later Samuel visited Baku with Rothschilds & thought to export oil to Far East via Suez Canal (opened in 1869), countering Standard Oil competition in region. Built eight tankers that met safety regs. of canal to Singapore & Bangkok after noticed harbor in Constantinople jammed with tankers loading Russian oil. Rejected Standard's acquisition overtures, Samuel created "Shell" Transport & Trading in 1897.

  • 1898: Rothschild brothers formed Mazut Transportation Society & by 1912 owned 13 large tankers in Caspian with auxiliary ships; partnered with Shell to transport excess kerosene to Far East.

  • 1900: Nobel Brothers & Rothchild's have oil production exceeding US

  • 1901: Jan 10 Spindletop's discovery meant that Shell Transport & Trading, that had been ferrying oil produced by the Rothschilds and Nobles in Baku to the Far East & Western Europe could compete directly Standard Oil at a favorable rate

  • 1903: Royal Dutch & Shell established jointly owned Asiatic Petroleum Company Limited



Joseph Stalin

  • 1879: December 9 - Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili (Stalin) was born in Gori, Georgia.

  • 1888-94: Elementary clerical school in Gori.

  • 1894: Begins studies at Tiflis Theological Seminary.

  • 1895: Contacts groups of Russian Marxists exiled to Transcaucasia by tsarist government.

  • 1896-1898: At Theological Seminary in Tiflis gathers Marxist students & studies Marx, Engels, & Lenin.

  • 1898: January formed workers' Marxist circle in Central Railway Workshops of Tiflis.

  • 1899: May 29 Stalin expelled from Tiflis Theological Seminary for propagating Marxism.

  • 1898-1904: Organized, directed revolutionary activities, writes leaflets, lead strikes & sent to Siberia; received letter from Lenin & escaped back to Baku to lead general strike of Baku workers.



Baku Oil Monopoly Dies

  • 1903 & 1904: Oil worker strikes common against Tsar

  • 1904: Baku kerosene supplied 47% of needs of UK & 71 % of France

  • 1905: Revolution halts production at Baku by oil worker strikes; Josef Dzhugashvili (Josef Stalin) exiled to Siberia

  • 1911: Musavat party urges a Muslim state with Azerbaijan under Turkey

  • 1914-18: Baku oilfields & oil refineries control by Shell & Nobel Brothers, supply Russian Army. UK interest in Transcaucasia & oil-rich area

  • 1917: Armed intervention, aimed at Bolsheviks in Transcaucasia & East to gain control of Baku's oil, discussed in London. Henri Deterding, Shell president, buys shares of largest oil producers who fled Baku after Oct revolution. Sets up military-political mission in Iran with General Dunsterville

  • 1918: March pogroms against Azerbaijanis by Armenians & Bolsheviks in Baku. Declaration of Baku Commune establishes links with Moscow & recognizes role of Russian Federation .

  • 1920: April 28, Bolsheviks seize power in Baku & Nobels sell most of Russian holdings to Standard Oil (NJ). Standard Oil protests nationalization refuses cooperation with Soviet government. Mobil, invests in Russia. Continued inflow of Western funds help Russian oil production to recover, & by 1923 oil exports climb back to pre-revolutionary levels.

  • 1920: Roughly 9 million gas-burning vehicles now in the U.S



Early History of Oil Monopolies

  • Appalachians: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of US (1830-1860)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1850)
    • Oil Boom after Drake’s well (1859)
    • Standard Oil Incorporated (1870)
    • Light bulb of Thomas Edison (1878)
  • Baku: Key Elements

    • Rail Boom of Russia (1830-1917)
    • Refining of Oil for Kerosene (1830)
    • Oil Boom with Nobel Brothers Incorporation (1875)
    • Tanker "Zoroaster" (1877) & Pipeline (1897-1907)
  • World Wide: Key Elements – Spindletop (1901)

    • Suez Canal Built (1869)
    • Henry Ford Mass Produces Cars (1908) 9m – (1922)
    • Royal Navy Converts to Oil (1912)


Central Asian & Middle East Oil



British Navy & Petroleum

  • John Arbuthnot “Jackie” Fisher: 1st Baron Fisher (Jan 25, 1841 – July 10, 1920), joined Navy in 1854 & as 3rd Sea Lord built 1st destroyers, 1902 2nd Sea Lord, in 1905 1st Sea Lord when Germany & Britain in naval arms race. Preferred battlecruiser with speed not amour, introduced submarines & converted from coal to oil fueling

  • Winston Churchill: After career as journalist, in army and then parliament, in 1912 became 1st Lord of Admiralty & ordered conversion from coal to oil

  • 1901: Spindletop's discovery lead to Shell Transport & Trading needing sales





Zagros Mountains



Iranian Negotiations Begin



Masjid-i-Suleiman

  • 1905: Burma Oil Comp supplies D'Arcy with more finance

  • 1908: Oil at Masjid-i-Suleiman

  • 1907: Royal Dutch Shell incorporated (60%RD - 40%Sh)

  • 1909: Anglo-Persian Oil Company” forms to develop field

  • 1911: 138 mile pipe Masjid-I-Suleiman - Abadan refinery

  • 1912: Anglo-Persian 10-year contract with Royal Dutch-Shell as outlet for crude & oil products

  • 1914: Anglo-Persian contract to supply Navy’s ships & UK government invest £2 million becomes major shareholder

  • 1915: Anglo-Persian forms British Tanker Company & at end of WW I owns a shipping fleet

  • 1917: Anglo-Persian buys British Petroleum Company, acquiring a marketing organization for products & founds a research centre at Sunbury-on-Thames in UK



Calouste Sarkis 5% Gulbenkian

  • 1869. March 29th: Wealthy Armenian family in Istanbul, Banker father imported Russian kerosene to Ottoman empire. Educated in Turkey, & France

  • 1897: Engineering degree, London Kings's College

  • 1898: Financial & oil advisor to Turkish embassies Paris & London

  • 1902: Becomes British Citizen

  • 1907: Helped form Royal Dutch Shell (60%RD - 40%Sh)

  • 1908: Organized UK & Dutch Oil Co’s as Turkish Petroleum Co. Called Mr. 5% from holdings

  • 1910: Consultant to Turkish National Bank pushing Oil exploration in Iraq & opening up Middle East



Calouste Sarkis 5% Gulbenkian

  • 1928: Post WWI architect of Red Line Agreement with British (Persian Oil), Anglo-Dutch (Shell), French (CFP) & US (Exxon & Mobil) joint venture in former Ottoman empire producing areas except Kuwait & Iran for 5% of all oil found.

  • Oil in Iraq & Saudi Arabia made him one of world's richest men.

  • Avoided taxes by shuttling between Ritz Hotel in London & Ritz in Paris.

  • Diplomatic status as accredited to Iraqi embassy of London exempting from taxation

  • Formed Gulbenkian Foundation in Portugal and supported the Arts



Red Line Map of Gulbenkian



The Gulbenkian TPC Agreement









The Way it was! Results of Treaty of Sevres





History of Petroleum Exploration



Oil Time Line – Important Events

  • 1850 - 1910: Kerosene the fuel of choice

  • 1869: Suez Canal opens

  • 1878: Electric Light

  • 1908: Auto Boom starts

  • 1912: UK Navy uses Oil

  • 1914 – 1918: WWI

  • 1920: 9 million vehicles U.S

  • 1938 – 1945: WWII

  • 1948: Israel born

  • 1948: 1st Arab Israeli War



History of Petroleum Exploration













































History of Petroleum Exploration



History of Petroleum Exploration



History of Petroleum Exploration



































History of Petroleum Exploration



World Petroleum Exploitation



History of Petroleum Exploration



“World Petroleum Reserves”



Iraq's Role



Iraq's Role



Iraq's New Petroleum Laws



Iraq's Role



Iraq's Role



Chokepoints



IRAQ’s Role



Conclusions



Long-term Conclusions



National integrated oil companies

  • National integrated oil companies

  • National refineries






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