1. In one section of this work, women sing of their desire for red cheeks so that young men will unwilling love them, and another section claims that well-being fades into nothing and fate is monstrous and empty. Estuans Interius opens the section In Taberna, and Ave Formosissima comprises the section Blanziflor et Helena. The prequel to a work in the same genre setting poems of Catullus, this work opens and closes with the oft-excerpted O Fortuna. For 10 points, name this cantata based on a collection of medieval poems composed by Carl Orff.
ANSWER: Carmina Burana
2. For a current-carrying coil of wire, this quantity is equal to the product of magnetic field, number of coils, current, area, and sine of theta, which is equivalent to the cross product of magnetic dipole moment and magnetic field. Work associated with rotation is the integral of this quantity with respect to angular displacement, and although it is not energy, it is measured in Newton-meters. Defined as the cross product of the position vector and force, For 10 points, name this action on a body which produces twisting.
3. The protagonist of this work is sent to recover the bones of Fresleven, his predecessor, and tears a postscript reading “Exterminate all the brutes!” from a pamphlet he delivers to his superiors. Narrating from aboard the Nellie, the protagonist suffers from a lack of rivets for his ship prior to meeting a Russian traveler that admires a character who decorates the Inner Station with human heads and whose last words are “The Horror!”. For 10 points, name this novel in which Marlow seeks out the ivory trader Mr. Kurtz in the Congo, a work of Joseph Conrad.
ANSWER: Heart of Darkness
4. A lake sacred to Hindus, Lake Mapam, is located in this region, and rivers with sources in this region include the Tsangpo and Salween. It borders the disputed regions of Aksai Chin and the Tawang Valley, and the Ladakh range sits on this region’s western border with Kashmir. The Kunlun Shan form this region’s border with Sinkiang and Qinghai, and the Potala Palace is a notable structure located in this region. For 10 points, name this autonomous Chinese region north of the Himalayas which is situated on a namesake plateau and has its capital at Lhasa.
5. The Fontainebleau Memorandum criticized some of this treaty’s initial proposals and warned against the threat of “spartacism”. This treaty granted Saarland a referendum over its status, and Article 10, a guarantee against future aggression, caused Henry Cabot Lodge to oppose it. One power was forced to cede the Polish Corridor, reduce its army to one hundred thousand men, and pay twenty billion marks in reparations. Resulting in the return of Alsace-Lorraine, For 10 points, name this treaty negotiated by Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Woodrow Wilson which ended World War I.
ANSWER: Treaty of Versailles
6. In the poem The Curse of Agade, this figure refuses to support Naram-Sin after allowing his predecessor to rise to power, and this figure stole the me prior to making a journey in which she was required to shed an article of clothing at each of a series of seven gates. This goddess was included with Sin and Shamash in a celestial triad when identified with Venus, and she journeyed to the underworld to rescue her lover Tammuz. Symbolized by a lion, this goddess sent the Bull of Heaven to attack Enkidu after unsuccessfully attempting to seduce Gilgamesh. For 10 points, name this Mesopotamian goddess of war and love.
ANSWER: Ishtar [accept Inanna]
7. The Purnell equation analyzes this procedure which can be quantified in terms of theoretical plate number and graphically depicted with van Deemter plots. The overlap of peaks in this procedure is measured by resolution, and each component has a unique ratio of two concentrations called a partition coefficient. Differences in charge are exploited in the ion-exchange variant, and adsorbent materials are used in the thin-layer type. Performed by passing a mobile phase through a stationary phase, For 10 points, name this method of separating mixtures named for its initial application to colored dyes.
8. This author’s works include one in which Ken Keaton is romanced by a woman whose cancer renews her menstrual cycles, Rosalie von Tümmler, and another in which the protagonist works as a hotel operator under the name Armand. In addition to The Black Swan and Confessions of Felix Krull, he wrote a novel in which Herr Grünlich marries Tony, the daughter in the titular merchant family, and a novella following a man who falls in love with the Polish boy Tadzio on vacation, Gustav von Aschenbach. For 10 points, name this German novelist who wrote Buddenbrooks and Death in Venice.
ANSWER: Thomas Mann
9. In one work, this author proposed cyclical fluctuations in the marginal efficiency of capital as the cause of the “trade cycle”. In another work, this author cited Lenin’s idea of debauching capitalist currency in his predictions of starvation in post-World War I Europe. This author of The Economic Consequences of the Peace also wrote a work emphasizing the relationship between economic output and aggregate demand. For 10 points, name this British economist who advocated deficit spending in The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
ANSWER: John Maynard Keynes
10. The visit of Archbishop Bedini to the U.S. and the appointment of James Campbell as Postmaster General helped propel this group to prominence. Major victories for this group included Robert Conrad winning the Philadelphia mayoral election and a sweep of Massachusetts state elections in 1854. Originally founded as the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, this group won only Maryland in the 1856 presidential elections with nominee Millard Fillmore. For 10 points, name this secret society and later political party known for its espousal of nativist, anti-immigrant, and anti-Catholic views.
ANSWER: Know-Nothing Party [accept American Party]
11. One adherent of this school of thought used a conditional related to the death of Dion to refute the “master argument” of Diodorus Cronus, and members of this school of thought analyzed speech in terms of underlying meanings called lekta, or “sayables”. This school of thought holds that fear and passion arise from false judgments and that virtue alone is sufficient for happiness. Advocated by the author of Meditations, For 10 points, name this philosophical school of thought embraced by Chrysippus, Zeno of Citium, and Marcus Aurelius.
12. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, an instability strip characterized by GW Vir stars contains stars which later evolve into this class of stars. Variable-luminosity stars of this type include DBV and DAV, or ZZ Ceti, stars. These stars which are composed of electron-degenerate matter occupy a strip across the bottom-left of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and one of these stars may collapse into a neutron star if it exceeds 1.4 solar masses, known as the Chandrasekhar limit. For 10 points, name this class of dwarf stars.
ANSWER: White Dwarf [prompt on Dwarf]
13. Every item on this character’s grocery list is listed as “Amazing Thing”, and a Swedish girl named Agnes instigates a botched attempt to saw him in half. This character is identified with DJ Mankiewicz when he challenges another character’s popularity. A spokesman for Fluffy Puff Marshmallows, this character’s puppet is betrayed by his “pile manager” Bubs. In addition, this character has an on-and-off relationship with Marzipan, and he usually wears a red and blue propeller cap. For 10 points, name this namesake of a cartoon website whose other characters include The Cheat and Strong Bad.
ANSWER: Homestar Runner
14. In one work by this author, one character believes his wife’s interest in feminist literature to be God’s punishment for fornication with Eskimos, and another sees Dr. Sartorius experimentally prolong the lives of tycoons such as Augustus Pemberton. In another, the title character escorts Drew Preston after joining the gang of Dutch Schultz. This author of TheWaterworks and Billy Bathgate also wrote a work in which the pianist Coalhouse Walker is murdered and the wife of a fireworks manufacturer adopts a black child found half-buried in her garden. For 10 points, name this American novelist of Ragtime.
ANSWER: E.L. Doctorow
15. The celebration of this doctrine was advocated in a letter by Peter Comestor in response to one attacking it written by St. Bernard, and this doctrine was defended with the axiom “potuit, decuit, ergo fecit”, which originated from Eadmer. A feast celebrating this doctrine takes place on December 8, and in the papal bull Ineffabilis Deus, this doctrine was defined ex cathedra in 1854 by Pius IX. For 10 points, name this Catholic doctrine which maintains that the Virgin Mary was free from original sin.
ANSWER: Immaculate Conception
16. The slave trade in this country was dominated by Zubayr Pasha and combated by the former leader of the Ever-Victorious Army. A confrontation between Jean-Baptiste Marchand and Horatio Kitchener created an international incident at Fashoda in this country. That incident occurred after Kitchener won a battle in this country that saw a charge of the 21st Lancers against the Dervishes of the Mahdi’s successor at Omdurman in 1898. For 10 points, name this country where Egypt’s Governor-General Charles “Chinese” Gordon died after the fall of this country’s capital, Khartoum.
ANSWER: The Sudan
17. One figure in this painting twists his body to the right with his right hand resting on the back of his stool, across which a sheathed sword dangles from his left thigh. In this painting, a window with an open shutter in the back wall is illuminated by a shaft of light coming from the painting’s top-right corner, and on the right, Christ’s head with a thin gold halo is visible over the shoulder of Saint Peter. The title figure points to himself with his left hand as his right rests on a coin he had been counting. For 10 points, name this Baroque painting depicting Jesus summoning a tax collector to become his disciple, a work of Caravaggio.
ANSWER: The Calling of Saint Matthew [accept La Vocazione di San Matteo]
18. In one poem by this author, the narrator states that “Fallen leaves gather and scatter” as “This hour, this night, my feelings are hard”, and another poem claims that “Listless, my shadow creeps about at my side”. In a very brief poem, this poet imagines frost on the ground before dreaming of home. This poet of “Quiet Night Thoughts” also wrote a poem expressing his wish to meet his friends “on the cloudy river of the sky” and begins with the image of “A cup of wine under the flowering trees”. For 10 points, name this contemporary of Wang Wei and Du Fu who wrote “Drinking Alone by Moonlight”.
ANSWER: Li Bai [accept Li Bo; accept Li Po]
19. One compound present in these organisms is composed of an alternating chain of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid. A virus transports DNA from one of these organisms to another in the process of transduction, though they can also transfer DNA via conjugation. The Gram stain is used to divide these organisms based on the presence of peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Contrasted with Archaea, For 10 points, name this group of single-celled prokaryotes, examples of which include Clostridium and Salmonella.
ANSWER: Bacteria [accept Eubacteria]
20. This man tells of a “boar of monstrous size” which ravishes some fields before killing the son of Croesus. Later on he describes the fall of Croesus and his kingdom, and one of his works concludes with the defeat of Mardonius at Plataea. A contemporary of Pericles, his critics included Plutarch, who wrote On the Malignity of [this man], and Thucydides, but Cicero praised him. Providing the only written account of Thermopylae, Salamis, Marathon, and the rest of the Greco-Persian Wars, For 10 points, name this first ancient Greek historian.
TB. In one work by this artist, the title animal wears a red harness as it stands in the front of a transport boat manned by three men, and his portraits include ones of Mary Freer and his wife, Maria Bicknell. This artist of The White Horse and Hadleigh Castle also painted two versions of Salisbury Cathedral “from the Bishop’s Grounds” and “from the Meadows”. Another painting features Willy Lott’s cottage on the left and depicts the titular conveyance traversing the River Stour. For 10 points, name this British landscape painter of Dedham Vale and The Hay Wain.
ANSWER: John Constable Bonuses
1. One theorem from this field, the Heine-Borel theorem, states that a subset of Euclidean space is compact only if it is closed and bounded. For 10 points each:
 Name this branch of mathematics dealing with properties of an object which are preserved regardless of twisting, stretching, and deforming the object.
 Topological surfaces can be described by their Euler characteristic, which for polyhedra is the number of vertices plus the number of faces minus the number of these.
 This number is the Euler characteristic for all convex polyhedra.
ANSWER: Two 2. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy attempted to revive this school in Chicago, and its other teachers included Paul Klee and Josef Albers. For 10 points each:
 Name this German school of architecture founded by Walter Gropius in 1919 and shut down by the Nazis in 1933.
ANSWER: Staatliches Bauhaus
 This final Bauhaus Director taught at the Illinois Institute of Technology, stated that “less is more”, and designed the Barcelona Pavilion and the Farnsworth House.
ANSWER: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
 Together with Philip Johnson, Mies designed this thirty-eight-story glass, steel, and bronze box in Manhattan. It is one of the best examples of the International Style.
ANSWER: The Seagram Building 3. This philosopher included his essays “Reflex Action and Theism” and “The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life” in The Will to Believe. For 10 points each:
 Name this American philosopher who theorized “neutral monism” and delineated four qualities of mysticism in The Varieties of Religious Experience.
ANSWER: William James
 Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, William James was a founder of this school of thought which stressed the importance of an idea’s practical consequences.
 This later pragmatist advocated epistemological behaviorism and rejected the idea of knowledge as a representation of external reality in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.
ANSWER: Richard Rorty 4. This war was sparked in Spain when Carthaginian forces attacked Saguntum. For 10 points each:
 Name this war between Rome and Carthage during the late 200s B.C. which saw Hannibal defeat the Romans at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his defeat at Zama.
ANSWER: Second Punic War [prompt on Punic War]
 Hannibal was defeated by this Roman general at Zama. This general had earlier driven the Carthaginians out of Spain by defeating them at Ilipa.
ANSWER: Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus [prompt on Scipio]
 Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal died at this 207 B.C. battle in northern Italy where he was defeated by consuls Marcus Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero.
ANSWER: Battle of the Metaurus River
5. This novel ends with the festival for the rebirth of Krishna. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which Mrs. Moore dies after being forced to leave the title location by her son Heaslop and Adela accuses Dr. Aziz of raping her but recants at the trial.
ANSWER: A Passage to India
 This British novelist of Where Angels Fear to Tread and The Longest Journey wrote A Passage to India.
ANSWER: Edward Morgan Forster
 Forster also wrote this novel which describes the relationship between the sisters Margaret and Helen Schlegel and the Wilcox family, who own the title location.
ANSWER: Howards End 6. For 10 points each, answer the following about the “Theatre of the Absurd”.
 In this play by Eugene Ionesco, Berenger becomes the only human left after all the other townspeople are transformed into the title animal.
ANSWER: Rhinoceros  This other Absurdist included a revolver called “Brownie” belonging to the buried Winnie in Happy Days. Hamm’s parents live in trashcans in his play Endgame.
ANSWER: Samuel Beckett  This other French Absurdist wrote the novel Our Lady of Flowers but is better known for plays such as Deathwatch, The Screens, The Blacks, and The Maids.
ANSWER: Jean Genet 7. Planck’s constant divided by momentum gives this man’s namesake wavelength. For 10 points each:
 Name this French physicist who proposed wave-particle duality.
ANSWER: Louis de Broglie
 This inequality states that any measurement of a particle’s position or momentum decreases the accuracy with which we know the other.
ANSWER: Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
 The energy-time version of the uncertainty principle was used by Yukawa to predict these mesons, an example of which is composed of an up quark and anti-down quark.
ANSWER: Pions [accept Pi Mesons]
8. This British general served successfully as Governor-General of India after the American Revolution. For 10 points each:
 Name this man who was forced to surrender to the French and Americans at Yorktown.
ANSWER: Lord Charles Cornwallis
 Before Yorktown, Cornwallis won a Pyrrhic victory at this battle against American forces under Nathanael Greene, who arranged his forces in three successive lines.