Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor,
& Doctor of the Universal Church
ITINERARIUM MENTIS IN DEUM
THE JOURNEY OF THE MIND INTO GOD
Textus transcriptus ex editione Quarrachi
Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae
Vol. V., 1891, pp. 295-316
cum notatis et Scholio.
Translated from the Quarrachi Edition
of the Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae
Vol. V, 1891, pp. 295-316
with original notes and Scholium.
ITINERARIUM MENTIS IN DEUM
HERE BEGINS THE PROLOGUE
THE JOURNEY OF THE MIND INTO GOD
1. In principio primum principium, a quo cunctae illuminationes descendunt tanquam a Patre luminum, a quo est omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum,1 Patrem scilicet aeternum, invoco per Filium eius, Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, ut intercessione sanctissimae Virginis Mariae, genitricis eiusdem Dei et domini nostri Iesu Christi, et beati Francisci, ducis et patris nostri, det illuminatos oculos2 mentis nostrae ad dirigendos pedes nostros in viam pacis illius, quae exuperat omnem sensum; quam pacem evangelizavit et dedit dominus noster Iesus Christus; cuius praedicationis repetitor fuit pater noster Franciscus, in omni sua praedicatione pacem in principio et in fine annuntians, in omni salutatione pacem optans,3 in omni contemplatione ad exstaticam pacem suspirans, tanquam civis illius Ierusalem, de qua dicit vir ille pacis, qui cum his qui oderunt pacem, erat pacificus: Rogate quae ad pacem sunt Ierusalem.4 Sciebat enim, quod thronus Salomonis non erat nisi in pace, cum scriptum sit: In pace factus est locus eius, et habitatio eius in Sion.
1. In the beginning the First Principle, from whom all other [cunctae] illuminations descend as from the Father of lights, by whom is every best gift and every perfect gift,1 that is the Eternal Father, I do invoke through His Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ, with the intercession of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, the Mother [genetricis] of Our same God and Lord Jesus Christ, and (the intercession) of blessed Francis, our leader and father, to grant that the eyes2 of our mind (be) illumined to direct our feet in the way of His peace, which exceeds [exuperat] every sense; which peace Our Lord Jesus Christ has proclaimed [evangelizavit] and has given; the repeater [repetitor] of whose preaching was our Father Francis, announcing at the beginning and end of all his preaching peace, in every salutation choosing peace,3 in every contemplation longing towards ecstatic peace, as a citizen of that Jerusalem, concerning which that man of peace speaks, who with those who hate peace, was peaceable: Ask for those things which are for the peace of Jerusalem.4 For he knew, that the throne of Solomon was not but in peace, since it was written: In peace is made His place, and His dwelling in Sion.
2. Cum igitur exemplo beatissimi patris Francisci hanc pacem anhelo spiritu quaererem, ego peccator, qui loco ipsius patris beatissimi post eius transitum septimus in generali fratrum ministerio per omnia indignus succedo; contigit ut nutu divino circa Beati ipsius transitum, anno trigesimo tertio5 ad montem Alvernae tanquam ad locum quietum amore quaerendi pacem spiritus declinarem, ibique existens, dum mente tractarem aliquas mentales ascensiones in Deum, inter alia occurrit illud miraculum, quod in praedicto loco contigit ipso beato Francisco, de visione scilicet Seraph alati ad instar Crucifixi.6 In cuius consideratione statim visum est mihi, quod visio illa praetenderet ipsius patris suspensionem in contemplando et viam, per quam pervenitur ad eam.
2. When therefore by the example of most blessed Father Francis I sought with a panting spirit this peace — I a sinner, who, unworthy in all things [per omnia] ascend to the place of the most blessed father himself as seventh in the Minister generalship after his transitus; it happened that with the divine permission [nutu] about the (time of) the Transitus of the Blessed himself, in the thirty-third year5 (of its celebration), I turned aside with the love [amore] of seeking peace of spirit towards mount Alverna as towards a quiet place, and staying [existens] there, while I considered in mind some mental ascensions into God, among others there occurred (to me) that miracle, which in the aforesaid place happened to blessed Francis himself, that is, of the vision of the Seraph winged after the likeness [ad instar] of the Crucified.6 In the consideration of which it suddenly seemed to me, that that vision showed the suspension of our father himself in contemplating Him and the way, through which one arrives at that (suspension).
3. Nam per senas alas illas recte intelligi possunt sex illuminationum suspensiones, quibus anima quasi quibusdam gradibus vel itineribus disponitur, ut transeat ad pacem per exstaticos excessus sapientiae christianae. Via autem non est nisi per ardentissimum amorem Crucifixi, qui adeo Paulum ad tertium caelum raptum7 transformavit in Christum, ut diceret: Christo confixus sum cruci, iam non ego; vivit vero in me Christus; qui etiam adeo mentem Francisci absorbuit, quod mens in carne patuit, dum sacratissima passionis stigmata in corpore suo ante mortem per biennium deportavit. Effigies igitur sex alarum seraphicarum insinuat sex illuminationes scalares, quae a creaturis incipiunt et perducunt usque ad Deum, ad quem nemo intrat recte nisi per Crucifixum. Nam qui non intrat per ostium, sed ascendit aliunde, ille fur est et latro.8Si quis vero per ostium introierit, ingredietur et egredietur et pascua inveniet. Propter quod dicit Ioannes in Apocalypsi: Beati qui lavant vestimenta . . .
3. For through those six wings there can be rightly understood six suspensions of illumination, by which the soul as if to certain steps or journeys is disposed, to pass over to [ad] peace through ecstatic excesses of Christian wisdom. The way is, however, naught but through the most ardent love [amore] of the Crucified, who to this extent [adeo] transformed Paul rapt7 to the third heaven into Christ, that he said: to Christ I have been crucified, now not I; but Christ lives in me; who also to this extent absorbed the mind of Francis, since (his) mind lay in the flesh, while he bore about the most sacred stigmata of the Passion in his own flesh for two years before his death. The likenesses [effigies] of the six seraphic wings intimates [insinuat] six stair-like [scalares] illuminations, which begin from creatures and lead through even unto God, to Whom no one rightly enters except through the Crucified. For he who does not enter through the gate, but ascends by another way, that one is a thief and mercenary [latro].8If anyone indeed goes inside through the gate, he will step in and out and find pasture. On which account John says in the Apocalypse: Blessed are they who wash their vestments . . .
1 Iac. 4, 17. — Superius pro illuminationes C D E F illustrationes. 2 Eph. 1, 17. seq. — Seq. locus est Luc. 1, 79; tertius Phil. 4, 7. — Subinde respicitur Ioan. 14, 27: Pacem relinquo vobis, pacem meam do vobis etc. 3 Cfr. Vitae primae S. Franc. pars 1, a Thoma de Celano, c. 19; Legenda trium sociorum, c. 8 et Legenda S. Francisci a Bonav. Scripta, c. 3. 4 Psalm. 119, 7. et Ps. 121, 6. — Seq. locus est Ps. 75, 3. 5 Scilicet 1259. — Ed. 1 anno 32. Edd. Post Beati ipsius transitum, codd. refragantibus (verba: crica . . . transitum, qui fuit 4. Octob. 1226, determinat tempus autumni). Inferius pro locum quietum [D G K L quietis] A substituit montem quietum.
6 Cfr. Vitae primae S. Francis., pars II. c. 3; Legenda trium sociorum, c. 17. et Legenda S. Francisci a Bonav. Scripta, c. 13, ubi etiam insinuatur, quod visio haec et stigmatizatio Francisci fuerit biennio ante ipsius mortem, scil. anno 1224. — De Seraph alato cfr. Isai. 6, 2. — Mox post In cuius A C addunt rei, qui etiam inferium cum 1, 2 venitur pro pervenitur. 7 Epist. II. Cor. 12, 2. (A B D E F M omittunt tertium). — Seq. locus est Gal. 2, 19. seq. — Superius post ut transeat D F H K L M N addunt ex hoc mondo (Ioan. 13, 1.). 8 Ioan. 10, 1. Edd. post ostium addunt in ovile, cui Vulgata subnecit ovium. — Seq. locus est ibid. v. 9; tertius est Apoc. 22, 14. Pro ingredantur civitatem Vulgata intrent in civitatem.
1 James 4:17. — Above this in place of illuminations [illuminationes] C D E F have brightenings [illustrationes]. 2 Eph. 1:17 ff. — The next citation is Lk. 1:19; the third is Phil. 4:7. — Then there is reference to Jn 14:27: Peace I leave you, My peace I give you etc.. 3 Cf. The First Life of St. Francis, part 1, by (Bl.) Thomas of Celano, ch. 19; The Legend of the Three companions, ch. 8, and The Life of St. Francis, written by St. Bonaventure, ch. 3. 4 Psalm 119:7 and Ps. 121:6. — The following citation is Ps. 75:3.
5 That is, A. D. 1259. — Edition 1 has in the 32nd year [anno 32]. The editions read After the transit of the Blessed himself [Post Beati ipsius transitum], the codices disagree (the words: about (the time of) . . the Blessed himself [circa . . transitum], which was Oct. 4, 1226, determine that the season was autumn). Below this in place of a quiet place [locum quietum] - D G K L have a place of quiet [quietis] - A substituted quiet mountain [montem quietum]. 6 Cf. The First life of St. Francis, part II, ch. 3; The Legend of the Three Companions, ch. 17, and The Life of St. Francis, written by St. Bonaventure, ch. 13, where there is also hinted at, that this vision and stigmatization of (St.) Francis took place two years before his death, namely, in the year 1224. — Concerning the winged Seraph, cf. Isaiah 6:2. — Then after In the consideration of which [In cuius] A and C add matter [rei], which manuscripts also below this together with 1 and 2 read one comes [venitur] in place of one arrives [pervenitur]. 7 2 Cor. 12:2. (A B D E F M omit the third [tertium]). 8Jn. 10:1. The editions after gate add in the sheep pen [in ovile], to which the Vulgate subjoins of the sheep [ovium]. — The citation following is from the same chapter, v. 9; the third is Apoc. 22:14. In place of step into the city [ingredantur civitatem] the Vulgate has enters into the city [intrent in civitatem].
in sanguine Agni, ut sit potestas eorum in ligno vitae, et per portas ingrediantur civitatem; quasi dicat, quod per contemplationem ingredi non potest Ierusalem supernam, nisi per sanguinem Agni intret tanquam per portam. Non enim dispositus est aliquo modo ad contemplationes divinas, quae ad mentales ducunt excessus, nisi cum Daniele sit vir desideriorum.1 Desideria autem in nobis inflammantur dupliciter, scilicet per clamorem orationis, quae rugire facit a gemitu cordis, et per fulgorem speculationis, qua mens ad radios lucis directissime et intensissime se convertit.
in the Blood of the Lamb, to have power in the Tree of life, and to step into the city through the gates; as if he said, that through contemplation one cannot step into the supernal Jerusalem, unless he enter through the Blood of the Lamb as through a gate. For one has not been disposed in any manner [modo] to divine contemplations, which lead towards mental excesses [excessus], except with Daniel one be a man of desires.1 Moreover desires are inflamed in us in a two-fold manner, that is through the clamor of praying, which makes one roar from a groan of the heart, and though the lightning of speculation, by which the mind thoroughly turns itself [se convertit] most directly and most intensely towards the rays of light.
4. Igitur ad gemitum orationis per Christum crucifixum, per cuius sanguinem purgamur a sordibus vitiorum,2 primum quidem lectorem invito, ne forte credat quod sibi sufficiat lectio sine unctione, speculatio sine devotione, investigatio sine admiratione, circumspectio sine exsultatione, industria sine pietate, scientia sine caritate, intelligentia sine humilitate, studium absque divina gratia, speculum absque sapientia divinitus inspirata. — Praeventus igitur divina gratia, humilibus et piis, compunctis et devotis, unctis oleo laetitiae3 et amatoribus divinae sapientiae et eius desiderio inflammatis, vacare volentibus ad Deum magnificandum, admirandum et etiam degustandum, speculationes subiectas propono, insinuans, quod parum aut nihil est speculum exterius propositum, nisi speculum mentis nostrae tersum fuerit et politum. Exerce igitur te, homo Dei, prius ad stimulum conscientiae remordentem, antequam oculos eleves ad radios sapientiae in eius speculis relucentes, ne forte ex ipsa radiorum speculatione in graviorem incidas foveam tenebrarum.
4. Therefore to the groan of praying through Christ crucified, through whose Blood we are purged from the filth of vices,2 I indeed first invite the reader, lest perhaps he believes that reading without unction, speculation without devotion, investigation without admiration, circumspection without exultation, industry without piety, knowledge [scientia] without charity, understanding without humility, study apart from divine grace, gaze [speculum] apart from divinely inspired wisdom is sufficient for him. — Anticipated, therefore, by divine grace, for the humble and pious, the compunct and devout, for those anointed with the oil of gladness3 both for the lovers of divine wisdom and for those inflamed with desire for it, I propose the following speculations to be free for those willing to magnify, admire and even take a taste of God, intimating, that too little or nothing is the proposed, exterior gaze [speculum], unless the mirror [speculum] of our mind has been wiped and polished. Exert yourself, therefore, man of God, before [prius ad] the sting of conscience bites again, and before you raise your eyes towards the rays of wisdom glittering in His reflections [speculis], lest by chance from the sight [speculatione] itself of His rays you fall into the graver pit of shadows.
5. Placuit autem distinguere tractatum4 in septem capitula, praemittendo titulos ad faciliorem intelligentiam dicendorum. Rogo igitur, quod magis pensetur intentio scribentis, quam opus, magis dictorum sensus quam sermo incultus, magis veritas quam venustas, magis exercitatio affectus quam eruditio intellectus. Quod ut fiat, non est harum speculationum progressus perfunctorie transcurrendus, sed morosissime ruminandus.
5. Moreover it is pleasing to divide [distinguendum] the tract4 into seven chapters, by previewing [praemittendo] their titles for [ad] an easier understanding of the things to be said. I ask therefore, that the intention of the one writing be thought of more, than the work, more the sense of the things said than the uncultured speech, more its truth than its charm, more the exercise of affection than the erudition of the intellect. Because as it is, one must not run perfunctorily through the course of these speculations, but ruminate (on them) with the greatest of lingering [morosissime].
HERE ENDS THE PROLOGUE
HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTER TITLES
Primum capitulum, de gradibus ascensionis in Deum et de speculatione ipsius per vestigia eius in universo.
The First Chapter, on the steps of the ascension into God and on the sight of Him through His vestiges in the universe.
Secundum capitulum, de speculatione Dei in vestigiis suis in hoc sensibili mundo.
The Second Chapter, on the sight of God in His vestiges in this sensible world.
Tertium capitulum, de speculatione Dei per suam imaginem naturalibus potentiis insignitam.
The Third Chapter, on the sight of God through His image marked [insignitam] upon the natural powers.
Quartum capitulum, de speculatione Dei in sua imagine donis gratuitis reformata.
The Fourth Chapter, on the sight of God in His image reformed by gratuitous gifts.
Quintum capitulum, de speculatione divinae unitatis per eius nomen primarium, quod est esse.
The Fifth Chapter, on the sight of the Divine Unity through Its primary name, which is ‘Being’.
Sextum capitulum, de speculatione beatissimae Trinitatis in eius nomine, quod est bonum.
The Sixth Chapter, on the sight of the Most Blessed Trinity in Its Name, which is ‘the Good’.
Septimum capitulum, de excessu mentali et mystico, in quo requies datur intellectui, affectu in Deum per excessum totaliter transeunte.
The Seventh Chapter, on the mental and mystical excess, in which rest is given to the intellect, by an affection passing-over into God totally through excess.
HERE ENDS THE CHAPTER TITLES.5
INCIPIT SPECULATIO PAUPERIS IN DESERTO
HERE BEGINS THE SIGHT OF THE POOR MAN IN THE DESERT
DE GRADIBUS ASCENSIONIS IN DEUM ET DE SPECULATIONE IPSIUS PER VESTIGIA EIUS IN UNIVERSO
ON THE STEPS OF ASCENSION INTO GOD AND ON THE SIGHT OF HIM THROUGH HIS VESTIGES IN THE UNIVERSE
1. Beatus vir, cuius est auxilium abs te, ascensiones in corde suo disposuit in valle lacrymarum, in loco, quem posuit.6 Cum beatitudo nihil aliud sit, quam summi boni fruitio; et summum bonum sit supra nos: nullus potest effici beatus, nisi supra semetipsum ascendat, non ascensu corporali, sed cordiali. Sed supra nos levari non possumus nisi per virtutem superiorem nos elevantem. Quantumcumque enim gradus interiores disponantur, nihil fit, nisi . . .
1. Blessed the man, whose assistance is from Thee, he has arranged ascensions in his own heart in the vale of tears, in the place, which he put (them).6 Since beatitude is nothing other, than the enjoyment of the Most High Good; and the Most High Good is above us: no one can become [effici] blessed, unless he ascends above his very self, not by an ascent with the body [corporali], but with the heart [cordiali]. But we are not able to be raised above ourselves unless by means of a superior virtue raising us. For however much as interior steps are arranged, nothing is done, unless . . .
1 Dan 9, 23. — Inferius respicitur Ps. 37, 9: Rugiebam a gemitu cordis mei. — Superius pro Non enim dispositus est [K L N disponitur] H Nullus enim potest disponi. 2 Hebr. 4, 3, dicitur « purgationem peccatorum faciens ». I. Ioan. 2, 20. et 27, ubi insinuatur, quod unctio divina docet de omnibus. 3 Psalm. 44, 8. — Edd. divinae laetitiae, quae etiam post pauca pro admirandum substituunt amandum. Inferius pro nihil est 1 nihil prodest, et pro remordentem G K L M N remordentis. 4 E P tractatulum. Inferius voci venustas edd. praefigunt sermonum. 5 Haec capitula cum quibusdam nullius momenti variantibus lectionibus hic ponuntur in codd. et 1, 2, 3, 4; B aliique codd. non hic, sed in ipso textu ad cc. 3. 4. 5 post vocem capitulum adiiciunt et tertius (quartus . . . quintus) gradus; Verba Incipit speculatio pauperis in deserto habentur in B E F K P Q et 1, 2, 3, 4. 6 Psalm. 83, 6. seq.
1 Dan. 9:23. — Below this is a reference to Ps. 37:9 : I roared from the groaning my heart. — Above this in place of For one has not been disposed [Non enim dispositus est] - K L N have is not disposed [disponitur] - H has For no one can be disposed [Nullus enim potest disponi]. 2 In Heb. 4:3 there is said, « working a purgation of sins » [purgationem peccatorum faciens]. Cf. 1 Jn. 2:20, 27, where there is insinuated, that the divine unction teaches concerning all (things). 3 Psalm 44:8. — The editions read of divine gladness [divinae laetitiae], which also after a few words in place of admire [admirandum] substitute love [amandum]. Below this in place of nothing is [nihil est] 1 has nothing profits, and in place of of conscience bites again [conscientiae remordentem] G K L M N have of the conscience biting again [conoscientiae remordentis]. 4 E and P read the little tract [tractatulum]. Below this in stead of its charm [venustas] the editions have the charm of sermons [sermonum venustas]. 5 These chapter titles with certain variant readings of no moment are placed in this position by the codices and editions 1, 2, 3, and 4; manuscript B and the other codices place them not here, but in the text itself before chapters 3, 4 and 5, after the word Chapter [capitulum] they add and the third (fourth . . . fifth) step [et tertius (quartus . . . quintus) gradus]; The words Here begins the sight of the poor man in the desert [Incipit speculatio pauperis in deserto] are had in manuscripts B E F K P Q and editions 1, 2, 3, 4. 6 Psalm 83:6 ff.
divinum auxilium comitetur. Divinum autem auxilium comitatur eos qui petunt ex corde humiliter et devote; et hoc est ad ipsum suspirare in hac lacrymarum valle, quod fit per ferventem orationem. Oratio igitur est mater et origo sursum-actionis. Ideo Dionysius in libro de Mystica Theologia,1 volens nos instruere ad excessus mentales, primo praemittit orationem. Oremus igitur et dicamus ad Dominum Deum nostrum: Deduc me, Domine, in via tua, et ingrediar in veritate tua; laetetur cor meum, ut timeat nomen tuum.
the Divine Assistance accompanies. However the Divine Assistance accompanies those who seek it from their heart humbly and devoutly; and this is to long for it in this vale of tears, which is done through fervent praying. Therefore prayer is the mother and origin of upwards-action. For that reason (St.) Dionysius (the Areopagite) in his book On Mystical Theology1 wanting to instruct us regarding mental excesses, first prefaces a prayer. Let us pray therefore and say to the Lord Our God: Lead me forth, Lord, in Thy way, and let me step in Thy truth; let my heart be glad, that it fears Thy Name.
2. In hac oratione orando illuminatur ad cognoscendum divinae ascensionis gradus. Cum enim secundum statum conditionis nostrae ipsa rerum universitas sit scala ad ascendendum in Deum; et in rebus quaedam sint vestigium, quaedam imago,2 quaedam corporalia, quaedam spiritualia, quaedam temporalia, quaedam aeviterna, ac per hoc quaedam extra nos, quaedam intra nos: ad hoc, quod perveniamus ad primum principium considerandum, quod est spiritualissimum et aeternum et supra nos, oportet, nos transire per vestigium, quod est corporale et temporale et extra nos, et hoc est deduci in via Dei; oportet, nos intrare ad mentem nostram, quae est imago Dei aeviterna, spiritualis et intra nos, et hoc est ingredi in veritate3Dei; oportet, nos transcendere ad aeternum, spiritualissimum, et supra nos aspiciendo ad primum principium, et hoc est laetari in Dei notitia et reverentia maiestatis.
2. In praying this prayer one is illumined so as to become acquainted with [ad cognoscendum] the steps of the divine ascension. For since according to the state of our condition that university of things is the stairway to ascend into God; and among things there are a certain vestige, a certain image [imago],2 certain corporal things, certain spiritual things, certain temporal things, certain aeviturnal things, and for this reason [per hoc] certain ones outside of us, certain ones inside us: for this purpose [ad hoc], that we arrive at considering the First Principle, which is most spiritual and eternal and above us, it is opportune, that we pass-over through the vestige, which is corporal, temporal and outside of us, and this is to be lead in the way of God; it is opportune, that we enter into our mind, which is an aeviturnal image [imago] of God, spiritual and within us, and this is to step in the truth3of God; it is opportune, that we transcend to the eternal, most spiritual, and above us by looking towards the First Principle, and this is to be glad in the knowledge [notitia] of God and the reverence of His Majesty.
3. Haec est igitur via trium dierum in solitudine;4 haec est triplex illuminatio unius diei, et prima est sicut vespera, secunda sicut mane, tertia sicut meridies; haec respicit triplicem rerum existentiam, scilicet in materia, in intelligentia et in arte aeterna, secundum quam dictum est; fiat, fecit, et factum est;5 haec etiam respicit triplicem substantiam in Christo, qui est scala nostra, scilicet corporalem, spiritualem et divinam.
3. This is therefore the way of three days in the solitude;4 this is the threefold illumination of one day, and the first is as Vespers, the second as morning, the third as midday; this looks back to [respicit] the threefold existence [existentiam] of things, that is in matter, in understanding and in the Eternal Art, according to what is said: Let it be, He has made and it has been made;5 this also looks back to the threefold substance in Christ, who is our Stairway, that is the corporal, the spiritual, and the Divine.
4. Secundum hunc triplicem progressum mens nostra tres habet aspectus principales. Unus est ad corporalia exteriora, secundum quem vocatur animalitas seu sensualitas: alius intra se et in se, secundum quem dicitur spiritus; tertius supra se, secundum quem dicitur mens. — Ex quibus omnibus disponere se debet ad conscendendum in Deum, ut ipsum diligat ex tota mente, ex toto corde et ex tota anima,6 in quo consistit perfecta Legis observatio et simul cum hoc sapientia christiana.
4. According to this threefold progress our mind has three principle powers of sight [aspectus]. One is towards exterior corporals, according to that which is named the animal [animalitas] or the sensory [sensualitas]: the other within the self and in the self, according to that which is called the spirit; the third above the self, according to that which is called the mind. — From all of which it ought to arrange [disponere] itself to climb thoroughly [conscendendum] into God, to love [diligat] Him with a whole mind, and with a whole heart, and with a whole soul,6 in which consists the perfect observance of the Law and, at the same time with this, Christian wisdom.
5. Quoniam autem quilibet praedictorum modorum geminatur, secundum quod contingit considerare Deum ut alpha et omega,7 seu in quantum contingit videre Deum in unoquoque praedictorum modorum ut per speculum et ut in speculo, seu quia una istarum considerationum habet commisceri alteri sibi coniunctae et habet considerari in sua puritate; hinc est, quod necesse est, hos tres gradus principales ascendere ad senarium, ut, sicut Deus sex diebus perfecit universum mundum et in septimo requievit; sic minor mundus sex gradibus illuminationum sibi succedentium ad quietem contemplationis ordinatissime perducatur. — In cuius rei figura sex gradibus ascendebatur ad thronum Salomonis;8 Seraphim, quae vidit Isaias, senas alas habebat; post sex dies vocavit Dominus Moysen de medio caliginis, et Christus post sex dies, ut dicitur Matthaeo, duxit discipulos in montem et transfiguratus est ante eos.
5. Moreover since whatever of the aforesaid manners is joined together, according to which one happens [contingit] to consider God as the Alpha and the Omega,7 or inasmuch as one happens to see God in any one of the aforesaid manners [modorum] as through a mirror [per speculum] and as in a mirror [in speculo], or because one of these considerations has to be mixed up [habet commisceri] with the other conjoined with itself, and has to be considered [habet considerari] in its purity; hence it is, that it is necessary, that these three principle steps ascend towards a group of six, so that, as God in six days perfected the entire world [universum mundum] and on the seventh rested; so the microcosm [minor mundum] is itself lead forth in six steps of illumination proceeding upwards [succedentium] in a most ordered manner [ordinatissime] towards the quiet of contemplation. — In the figure of which one ascended in six steps towards the throne of Solomon;8 the Seraphim, which Isaiah saw, had six wings; after six days the Lord called Moses from the midst of gloom [caliginis], and Christ after six days, as is said in Matthew, led the disciples unto the mountain and was transfigured before them.
6. Iuxta igitur sex gradus ascensionis in Deum, sex sunt gradus potentiarum animae per quos ascendimus ab imis ad summa, ab exterioribus ad intima, a temporalibus conscendimus ad aeterna, scilicet sensus, imaginatio, ratio, intellectus, intelligentia et apex mentis seu synderesis scintilla.9 Hos gradus in nobis habemus plantatos per naturam, deformatos per culpam, reformatos per gratiam; purgandos per iustitiam, exercendos per scientiam, perficiendos per sapientiam.
6. Therefore alongside [iuxta] the six steps of ascension into God, there are six steps of the soul's powers [potentiarum] through which we climb thoroughly from the depths towards the heights, from exterior things towards things most interior, from temporal things we ascend together towards eternal, that is the sense, the imagination, the reason, the intellect, the intelligence, and the apex of the mind or the spark of synderesis.9 These steps we have planted [habemus plantatos] in us by nature, deformed by fault, reformed by grace; are to be purged by justice, exercised by knowledge [scientia], perfected by wisdom.
7. Secundum enim primam naturae institutionem creatus fuit homo habilis ad contemplationis quietem, et ideo posuit eum Deus in paradiso deliciarum.10 Sed avertens se a vero lumine ad . . .
7. For according to the first institution of nature there was created a man fit [homo habilis] for the quiet of contemplation, and for that reason God placed him in the paradise of delights.10 But turning himself away from the true Light towards . . .
1 Cap. 1. §. 1. Vide infra c. 7. n. 5. — Seq. locus est Ps. 85, 11. Cfr. Breviloq. p. V. c. 1. et 10. — Superius pro sursum-actionis A D G M sursum-ascensionis; edd. sursum-actionis in Deum, H K L sursum tendentis actionis in Deum. Nostra lectio est ex B C I K L N P. Inferius A D G M et 1, 2 omittunt orando.
2 Cfr. supra Breviloq. p. II. c. 12. — Inferius (bis occurit) pro aeviterna non pauci codd. perperam aeterna (praeter subnexa, cfr. etiam II. Sent. d. 2. p. I. a. 1. q. 1.), et pro perveniamus plures codd. perveniatur.
3 Ita A C G L M N; quae lectio respondet verbis Psalmi superius allegati; edd. veritatem; paulo superius et inferius post oportet fide plurimorum et meliorum codd. bis omisimus etiam.
4 Exod. 3, 18: Ibimus viam trium dierum in solitudinem [ita etiam K L], ut immolemus Domino Deo nostro. — Plures codd. omittunt igitur.
5 Gen. 1, 3. seqq. Cfr. supra pag. 230, nota 5.
6 Marc. 12, 30. Cfr. Matth. 22, 37; Luc. 10, 27. — Superius post alius A addit ad spiritualia, et post tertius cum 1 et 2 ad aeterna. Pro conscendendum plures codd. ascendendum.
7 Apoc. 1, 8. — De differentia, quae est inter cognitionem Dei per speculum creaturarum et in speculo, cfr. I. Sent. d. 3. p. I. q. 3. — De senario creationis vide supra Breviloq. Prolog. §. 2. et p. II. c. 2. — Inferius pro una edd. unaquaeque, et pro ascendere plures codd. non bene conscendere.
8 Libr. III. Reg. 10, 19. — Subinde respicitur Isai. 6, 2; Exod. 24, 16. et Matth. 17, 1. seq. Post inmontem Vulgata addit excelsum seorsum.
9 Cfr. de Spiritu et anima (inter opera August.), c. 10-14. et 38. — Inferius pro exercendos L illuminandos.
10 Gen. 2, 15. Secundum septuaginta interpretes, Vulgata voluptatis pro deliciarum. — De originali peccato cfr. Breviloq. p. III. c. 5. seq. Subinde respicitur Tob. 5, 12: Et ait Tobias: Quale gaudium mihi erit, qui in tenebris sedeo et lumen caeli non video? — Superius pro enim Vat. etiam. Mox post Sed avertens se K L addunt a summo bono.
1 Chapter 1, § 1. See below ch. 7, n. 5. — The following citation is Ps. 85:11. Cf. Breviloquium, p. V, chs. 1 and 10. — Above this in place of upward-action [sursum-actionis] A D G M have upward-ascension [sursum-ascensionis]; the editions read upward-action into God [sursum-actionis in Deum]; H K L have of action tending upward into God [sursum tendentis actionis]. Our reading is from B C I K L N P. Below A D G M and 1, 2 omit praying [orando].
2 Cf. above Breviloquium, p. II, ch. 12. — Below this (twice occurring) in place of aeviturnal [aeviterna] not a few codices faultily read eternal [aeterna] (in addition to the Scholium, cf. also Sent., Bk. II, d. 2, p. I, a. 1, q. 1), and in place of we arrive [perveniamus] very many codices have one arrives [perveniatur].
3 Thus A C G L M N; which reading corresponds to the words of the Psalm alluded to above; the editions have into the truth [in veritatem]; a little above and below this after it is opportune [oportet] trusting the very many and better codices we have twice omitted also [etiam].
4 Ex. 3:18 : We shall go three days into the solitude [thus do K L even have it], to immolate (a sacrifice) for the Lord Our God. — Very many codices omit therefore [igitur].
5 Gen. 1:3 ff. Cf. above p. 230, footnote 5.
6 Mk. 12:30. Cf. Mt. 22:37; Lk. 10:27. — Above this after the other [alius] A adds according to spiritual (things) [ad spiritualia], and after the third [tertius] together with 1 and 2 it has according to eternal (things) [ad aeterna]. In place of climb thoroughly [conscendendum] very many codices have ascend [ascendenum].
7 Apoc. 1:8. — On the difference, which there is between the cognition of God through the mirror of creatures and in the mirror, cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 3, p. I, q. 3. — On the six days of creation see above Breviloquium, Prologue § 2, and part II, ch. 2. — Below this in place of one [una] the editions have anyone . . . whatsoever [unaquaque], and in place of ascend [ascendere] very many codices read poorly climb thoroughly [conscendere].
8 3 Kings 10:19. — The next refers to Isaiah 6:2; Ex. 26:16, and Mt. 17:1 ff. After upon the mountain [in montem] the Vulgate adds high above.
9 Cf. De Spiritu et anima (among the works of St. Augustine), ch. 10-14 and 38. — Below this in place of exercised [exercendos] L has illumined [illuminandos].
10 Gen. 2:15 according to the Septuagint; the Vulgate has of pleasure [voluptatis] in place of of delights [deliciarum]. — Concerning Original Sin, cf. Breviloquium, p. III, ch. 5 ff. The next refers to Tob. 5:12 : And Tobias said: What kid of joy shall be mine, who sit in shadows and see not the light of heaven? — Above this in place of for [enim] the Vatican text has also [etiam]. Next after but turning itself away [Sed avertens se] K L add from the most high Good [a summo bono].
commutabile bonum, incurvatus est ipse per culpam propriam, et totum genus suum per originale peccatum, quod dupliciter infecit humanam naturam, scilicet ignorantia mentem et concupiscentia carnem; ita quod excaecatus homo et incurvatus in tenebris sedet et caeli lumen non videt nisi succurrat gratia cum iustitia contra concupiscentiam, et scientia cum sapientia contra ignorantiam. Quod totum fit per Iesum Christum, qui factus est nobis a Deo sapientia et iustitia et sanctificatio et redemptio.1Qui cum sit Dei virtus et Dei sapientia, sit Verbum incarnatum plenum gratiae et veritatis, gratiam et veritatem fecit, gratiam scilicet caritatis infudit, quae, cum sit de corde puro et conscientia bona et fide non ficta, totam animam rectificat secundum triplicem ipsius aspectum supradictum; scientiam veritatis edocuit secundum triplicem modum theologiae, scilicet symbolicae, propriae et mysticae, ut per symbolicam recte utamur sensibilibus, per propriam recte utamur intelligibilibus, per mysticam rapiamur ad supermentales excessus.
the completely changeable good [commutabile bonum], he was himself stooped down through his own fault, and his whole race by Original Sin, which infects human nature in a twofold manner, that is the mind by ignorance, the flesh by concupiscence; so that man thoroughly blinded and stooped down sits in the shadows and does not see the light of Heaven unless grace succors him with justice against his concupiscence, and knowledge with wisdom against his ignorance. Which is entirely [totum] done through Jesus Christ, who has been made for us by God our wisdom and justice and sanctification and redemption.1 Who though He be the Virtue of God and the Wisdom of God, (and though) He be the Incarnate Word full of grace and truth, has wrought grace and truth, that is has infused the grace of charity, which, since it is from a pure heart and a good conscience and an unfeigned faith, rectifies the whole soul according to its own threefold, above-said power of sight [aspectum]; He has thoroughly taught the knowledge of the truth according to the threefold manner of theology, that is, the symbolic, the proper, and the mystical, so that through the symbolic we rightly use the sensible, through the proper we rightly use the intelligible, through the mystical we be rapt to super-mental excesses.
8. Qui igitur vult in Deum ascendere necesse est, ut vitata culpa deformante naturam, naturales potentias supradictas exerceat ad gratiam reformantem, et hoc per orationem; ad iustitiam purificantem et hoc in conversatione; ad scientiam illuminantem et hoc in meditatione; ad sapientiam perficientem et hoc in contemplatione. Sicut igitur ad sapientiam nemo venit nisi per gratiam, iustitiam et scientiam; sic ad contemplationem non venitur2 nisi per meditationem perspicuam, conversationem sanctam et orationem devotam. Sicut igitur gratia fundamentum est rectitudinis voluntatis et illustrationis perspicuae rationis; sic primum orandum est nobis, deinde sancte vivendum, tertio veritatis spectaculis intendendum et intendendo gradatim ascendendum, quousque veniatur ad montem excelsum, ubi videatur Deus deorum in Sion.3
8. Therefore it is necessary that he who will to ascend into God, as a nature having avoided the deforming fault, exercise his above-said, natural powers in accord with [ad] reforming grace, and this by praying; in accord with justifying purification and this in comportment [conversatione]; in accord with illuminating knowledge and this in meditation; in accord with perfecting wisdom and this in contemplation. Therefore as no one comes to wisdom except through grace, justice, and knowledge; so one does not come2 to contemplation except through perspicacious mediation, holy comportment and devout prayer. Therefore as grace is the foundation of the rectitude of the will and of the perspicacious brightening of the reason; so at first we must pray, then live holily, third understand by the spectacles of truth and by understanding ascend step-by-step, and come at last to the exalted mountain, where there is seen the God of Gods in Sion.3
9. Quoniam igitur prius est ascendere quam descendere in scala Iacob,4primum gradum ascensionis collocemus in imo, ponendo totum istum mundum sensibilem nobis tanquam speculum, per quod transeamus ad Deum, opificem summum, ut simus veri Hebraei transeuntes de Aegypto ad terram Patribus repromissam, simus etiam Christiani cum Christo transeuntes ex hoc mundo ad Patrem,5 simus et sapientiae amatores, quae vocat et dicit: Transite ad me omnes, qui concupiscitis me, et a generationibus meis adimplemini. A magnitudine namque speciei et creaturae cognoscibiliter poterit Creator horum videri.
9. Since therefore first one is to ascend rather than descend upon Jacob's stair,4 let us situate the first step of ascension at the bottom, by considering [ponendo] this whole world sensible to us as a mirror, through which we pass-over to God, the Most High Artisan, so that we may be true Hebrews passing-over from Egypt to the land promised again-and-again to our Fathers, that we may be also Christians passing-over with Christ from this world to the Father,5 that we may be also lovers [amatores] of wisdom, who calls and says: Pass-over to me all you, who desire [concupiscitis] me, and be filled full by my generations. For from the magnitude of beauty [speciei] and creature the Creator of these things could be familiarly [cognoscibiliter] seen.
10. Relucet autem Creatoris summa potentia et sapientia et benevolentia in rebus creatis secundum quod hoc tripliciter nuntiat sensus carnis sensui interiori. Sensus enim carnis aut deservit intellectui rationabiliter investiganti, aut fideliter credenti, aut intellectualiter contemplanti. Contemplans considerat rerum existentiam actualem, credens rerum decursum habitualem,6ratiocinans rerum praecellentiam potentialem.
10. Moreover the highest power and wisdom and benevolence of the Creator glitters in created things according to that which the sense of the flesh announces in this threefold manner to the interior sense. For the sense of the flesh either devoutly serves [deservit] the intellect rationally investigating, or faithfully believing, or intellectually contemplating. Contemplating (the intellect) considers the actual existence of things, believing the habitual descent [decursus] of things,6reasoning [ratiocinans] the potential excellence [praecellentiam] of things.
11. Primo modo aspectus contemplantis, res in se ipsis considerans, videt in eis pondus, numerum et mensuram:7pondus quoad situm, ubi inclinantur, numerum, quo distinguuntur, et mensuram, qua limitantur. Ac per hoc videt in eis modum, speciem et ordinem, nec non substantiam, virtutem et operationem. Ex quibus consurgere potest sicut ex vestigio ad intelligendum potentiam, sapientiam et bonitatem Creatoris immensam.
11. In the first manner the power of sight [aspectus] of the one contemplating, considering the things in themselves [res in se ipsis], sees in them (their) weight, number and measure [mensuram]:7 the weight in regard to the position [quoad situm], where they are inclining, the number, by which they are distinguished, and the measure, by which they are limited. And for this reason it sees in them a standard of measure [modum], a beauty [species], and an order, and also (their) substance, virtue, and activity [operationem]. From which it can rise together, as from a vestige, to understand the power, wisdom and immense goodness of the Creator.
12. Secundo modo aspectus fidelis, considerans hunc mundum attendit originem, decursum et terminum. Nam fide credimus, aptata esse saecula Verbo vitae;8 fide credimus, trium legum tempora, scilicet naturae, Scripturae et gratiae sibi succedere et ordinatissime decurrisse; fide credimus, mundum per finale iudicium terminandum esse; in primo potentiam, in secundo providentiam, in tertio iustitiam summi principii advertentes.
12. In the second manner the power of sight of the believer [fidelis], considering this world tends toward (its) origin, descent and end. For by faith we believe, that the ages have been made ready for the Word of life;8 by faith we believe, that the seasons of the three laws, that is of nature, of Scripture and of grace succeed one another [sibi] and have descended [decurrisse] in a most orderly manner; by faith we believe, that the world must be terminated by a final judgment; adverting in the first to power, in the second to providence, in the third to justice of the Most High Principle.
13. Tertio modo aspectus ratiocinabiliter investigantis9 videt, quaedam tantum esse, quaedam autem esse et vivere, quaedam vero esse, vivere et discernere; et prima quidem esse minora, secunda media, tertia meliora. — Videt iterum, quaedam esse tantum corporalia, quaedam partim corporalia, partim spiritualia; ex quo advertit, aliqua esse mere spiritualia tanquam utriusque meliora et digniora. — Videt nihilominus, quaedam esse mutabilia et corruptibilia, ut terrestria, quaedam mutabilia et . . .
13. In the third manner the power of sight of the one investigating by reasoning [ratiocinabiliter]9 sees, that certain things only are, moreover that certain things are and live, but that certain things are, live, and discern; and indeed that the first things are the lesser, the second ones the middle, the third the best. — Again it sees, that certain things are only corporal, certain things partly corporal, partly spiritual; from which it adverts, that some are merely spiritual as the better and more worthy of both. Nevertheless it sees, that certain things are mutable and corruptible, as (are) terrestrial things, certain things are mutable and . . .
1 Epist. I. Cor. 1, 30. Ibid. v. 24. Apostolus vocat « Christum Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam ». — Subinde allegatur Ioan. 1, 14. Ibid. v. 17: Gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est. Tertius locus est I. Tim. 1, 15.
2 Edd. cum aliquot codd. nemo venit.
3 Psalm. 83, 8: Ibunt de virtute in virtutem, videbitur Deus etc. — Cfr. supra pag. 297, nota 1. — Pro spectaculis 1, 2 speculo.
4 Gen. 28, 12. Cfr. supra pag. 205, nota 2. — De Hebraeis exeuntibus de Aegypto cf. Exod. 13, 3. seq.
5 Ioan. 13, 1. — Seq. locus est Eccli. 24, 26; Vulgata implemini. Tertius est Sap. 13, 5; Vulgata habet enim pro namque.
6 Cfr. supra Breviloq. Prolog. § 2.
7 Respicitur Sap. 11, 21; cfr. supra pag. 54, nota 7. — De seqq., quae I. Sent. d. 3. p. I. dub. 3. explicantur, cfr. supra pag. 82, nota 5; pag. 219, nota 1. et pag. 242, nota 5. — Inferius post potest G H K L M N addunt spiritus.
8 Hebr. 11, 3: fide intelligimus aptata . . . Verbo Dei (E etiam exhibet Dei, C Dei vitae). Cfr. Breviloq. Prolog. § 2. — Superius pro fidelis, considerans, H fideliter considerantis, L fideliter credentis, considerantis. Mox pro trium legum D G M trinae legis, et pro succedere D G K M N successisse, econtra H P decurrere pro decurrisse.
9 Edd. ratiocinantis investigans: fere omnes codd. viri investigantis, K rationabiliter viri investigantis; quo confirmatur nostra lectio sumta ex H L. Infra pro media D G M mediocria; denique Q colligit, quaedam pro advertit, aliqua.
1 1 Cor. 1:30. Ibid., v. 24. The Apostle calls « Christ the Virtue of God and the Wisdom of God ». — Then there is a reference to Jn 1:14. Ibid., v. 17: Grace and truth has been wrought through Jesus Christ. The third citation is 1 Tim. 1:15.
2 The editions with some of the codices have no one comes [nemo venit].
3 Psalm 83:8 : They shall come from virtue unto virtue, God shall be seen etc.. — Cf. above p. 297, footnote 1. — In place of by the spectacles [spectaculis] 1, 2 have by the mirror [speculo].
4 Gen. 28:12. Cf. above p. 205, footnote 2. — Concerning the Hebrews departing Egypt, cf. Exod. 13:3 ff..
5 Jn. 13:1. — The following citation is Eccli. 24:26; the Vulgate reads be filled [implemini]. The third citation is Wis. 13:5; the Vulgate has for [enim] in place of for [namque].
6 Cf. above, Breviloquium, Prologue. § 2.
7 A reference to Wis. 11:21; cf. above p. 54, footnote 7. — On the following, which are explained in Sent., Bk. I, d. 3, p. I, dubium 3, cf. above p. 82, footnote 5; p. 219, footnote 1 and p. 242, footnote 5. — Below this, at can rise together [consurgere potest], G H K L M N preface the spirit [spirit].
8 Heb. 11:3: by faith we understand that the ages . . . for the Word of God ( E also has of God, C of the God of life ). Cf. Breviloquium, Prologue 2. — Above this, in place of of the believer, considering [fidelis, considerans], H has of the one considering faithfully [fideliter considerantis], L has of the believer faithfully, considering [fideliter credentis, considerantis]. Then in place of of the three laws [trium legum] D G M have of the three laws together [trinae legis], and in place of succeed D G K M N have have succeeded, and contrariwise HP have do descend [decurrere] in place of have descended [decurrisse].
9 The editions read investigating of the one reasoning [ratiocinantis investigans]; nearly all the codices have of the man investigating [viri investigantis], K reads of the man reasonably investigating [rationabiliter viri investigantis]; which confirms our reading taken from H L. Below this in place of the middle [media], D G M have mediocre [mediocria]; then Q has it gathers, that certain ones [colligit, quaedam] in place of it adverts, that some [advertit, aliqua].