Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag Herxheimer A, Petrie kj

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Arendt J, Aldhous M, Marks V. Alleviation of jet lag by melatonin: preliminary results 

of controlled double blind trial. Br Med J 1986;292:1170. 

88 Arendt (published data only)  

* *Arendt J, Aldhous M. Further evaluation of the treatment of jet lag by melatonin: a 

double blind crossover study. Ann Rev Chronopharmacol 1988;5:53-55.  

Skene DJ, Aldhous M, Arendt J. Melatonin, jet lag and sleep-wake cycle. In: Horne J, 

ed. Sleep '88. Proceedings of the 9th European Congress of Sleep Research, Jerusalem 

1988. :39-41. 

89 Petrie (published data only)  

Petrie K, Conaglen JV, Thompson, Chamberlain K. Effect of melatonin on jet lag after 

long haul flights. BMJ 1989;298:705-707. 

91 Nickelsen (published data only)  

Nickelsen T, Lang A, Bergau L. The effect of 6-, 9- and 11-hour time shifts on circadian 

rhythms: adaptation of sleep parameters and hormonal patterns following the intake of 

melatonin or placebo. In: Arendt J, Pevet P, editor(s). Advances in Pineal Research. Vol. 

5. 1991:303-6. 

92 Claustrat (published data only)  

Claustrat B, Brun J, David M, Sassolas G, Chazot G. Melatonin and jet lag: 

confirmatory result using a simplified protocol. Biological Psychiatry 1992;32:705-711. 

93 Petrie (published data only)  

Petrie K, Dawson AG, Thompson L, Brook R. A double-blind trial of melatonin as a 

treatment for jet lag in international cabin crew. Biological Psychiatry 1993;33:526-530. 

97 Spitzer (published data only)  

*Spitzer RL, Terman M, Williams JBW, Terman JS, Malt UF, Singer F, Lewy AJ. Jet 

lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response 

to melatonin in a randomized double-blind trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 


Spitzer RL, Terman M, Malt U, Singer F, Terman JS, Williams JBW, Lewy AJ. Failure 

of melatonin to affect jet lag in a randomized double blind trial. Society for Light 

Treatment and Biological Rhythms: SLTBR Abstracts 1997;9:1. 

98 Suhner a (published data only)  

Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R, Tschopp A, Steffen R. Comparative study to 

determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. 

Chronobiology International 1998b;15:655-666. 

98 Suhner b (published data only)  

Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Hoefer I, Johnson R, Tschopp A, Steffen R. Efficacy and 

tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet-lag. In: Suhner A. 

Melatonin and jet-lag. Dissertation ETH No. 12823. Zurich, Switzerland: Swiss Federal 

Institute of Technology, 1988:85-103.  

Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Hoefer I, Johnson R, Tschopp A, Steffen R. Efficacy and 

tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet-lag. In: Book of 

Abstracts, 6th Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine, Montreal, 

Canada, June 6-10,1999. 1999:95, abs G03. 

* indicates the major publication for the study  

References to studies excluded from this review  

Arendt 95, 97a, 97b  

Arendt J, Deacon S. Treatment of circadian rhythm disorders. Chronobiology 

International 1997;14:185-204.  

Arendt J, Deacon S, English J, Hampton S, Morgan L. Melatonin and adjustment to 

phase shift. J Sleep Res 1995;4(Suppl 2):74-79.  

Arendt J, Skene DJ, Middleton B, Lockley S, Deacon S. Efficacy of melatonin treatment 

in jet lag, shift work and blindness. J Biol Rhythms 1997;12:604-17. 

Comperatore 96  

Comperatore CA, Lieberman HR, Kirby AW, Adams B, Crowley JS. Melatonin efficacy 

in aviation missions requiring rapid deployment and night operations. Aviation, Space 

and Environmental Medicine 1996;67:520-524. 

Additional references  

Armstrong 86  

Armstrong SM, Cassone VM, Chesworth MJ, Redman JR, Short RV. Synchronizaion of 

mammalian circadian rhythms by melatonin. J Neural Transm (Suppl) 1986;21:375-94. 

Bardazzi 98  

Bardazzi F, Placucci F, Neri I, D'Antuono A, Patrizi A. Fixed drug eruption due to 

melatonin. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1998;78(1):69-70. 

Cochrane Handbook 99  

Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook. 4.0 Edition. Cochrane 

Collaboration, 1999. 

Comperatore 90  

Comperatore CA, Krueger GP. Circadian rhythm desynchronosis, jet lag, shift lag and 

coping strategies. In:. In: Scott I, ed. Occupational Medicine: state of the art reviews. 

Vol. 5. 1990:323-342. 

Dalton 00  

Dalton EJ, Rotondi D, Levitan RD, Kennedy RH, Brown GM. Use of slow-release 

melatonin in treatment-resistant depression. J Psychiatry & Neuroscience 2000;25:48-


Ellis 96  

Ellis CM, Lemmens G, Parkes JD. Melatonin and insomnia. J Sleep Research 


Force 97  

Force RW, Hansen L, Bedell M. Psychotic episode after melatonin. Annals of 

Pharmacotherapy 1997;31:1408. 

Lewy 92  

Lewy AJ, Ahmed S, Jackson JM, Sack RI. Melatonin shifts human circadian rhythms 

according to phase response curve. Chronobiology International 1992;9(5):380-392. 

Lewy 95  

Lewy AJ, Sack RL, Blood ML, Bauer VK, Cutler NL, Thomas KH. Melatonin marks 

circadian phase position and resets the endogenous circadian pacemeaker in humans. In: 

Circadian clocks and their adjustment. Vol. Ciba Foundation Symposium 183. 

Chichester: Wiley, 1995:303-321. 

Martindale 99  

Martindale. The complete drug reference. 32nd Edition. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 


Pennebaker 82  

Pennebaker JW. The psychology of physical symptoms. New York: Springer Verlag, 


SED 96  

Dukes MNG, ed. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. 13th Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 



Aronson JK, ed. Side Effects of Drugs Annual. Vol. 10-23. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986 

to 1999. 

Sheldon 98  

Sheldon SH. Pro-convulsant effects of oral melatonin in neurologically disabled 

children. Lancet 1998;351:1254. 

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