Must have one, and only one, capital letter



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tarix05.03.2018
ölçüsü569 b.
#30183









must have one, and only one, capital letter

  • must have one, and only one, capital letter

  • represent elements (there are 118 currently)

  • some come from Latin or Greek [which is why the symbol is not from 1st letter(s)]

    • Au (gold) “aurum” (means “shining dawn”)
    • Ag (silver) “argentum”
    • Fe (iron) “ferrum”
    • K (potassium) “kalium”
    • Hg (mercury) “hydrargyrum” (means liquid silver)
    • Pb (lead) “plumbum”
    • Sn (tin) “stannum”
    • Na (sodium) “natrium”
    • Cu (copper) “cuprum”
    • W (tungsten) “wolfram”
    • Sb (antimony) “stibium”


nil = 0

  • nil = 0

  • un = 1

  • bi = 2

  • tri = 3

  • quad = 4

  • pent =5

  • hex = 6

  • sept = 7

  • oct = 8

  • enn = 9







John Newlands (1864) proposed an arrangement where elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass.

  • John Newlands (1864) proposed an arrangement where elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass.







Moseley rearranged the table by increasing atomic number, and resulted in a clear periodic pattern with no exceptions.

  • Moseley rearranged the table by increasing atomic number, and resulted in a clear periodic pattern with no exceptions.

  • Periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number is called periodic law.

  • “periodic” means repeating.





















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A full outer shell is most stable

  • A full outer shell is most stable

    • atoms with a full “s” and full “p” [2+6=8]
    • atoms with 8 e- in outer shell have an octet
    • octet rule says 8 e- in outer shell make the atom very stable and unreactive [noble gases]
  • any full subshell is pretty stable

    • p6, d10, f14 atoms tend to be stable (note: s2 atoms are not stable
  • half full subshells are kind of stable

    • p3, d5, and f7 atoms are a little stable
  • some atoms deviate from predicted configurations because they rearrange their electrons to be more stable Ex: Copper predicted to be: [Ar]4s23d9

  • but really is: [Ar]4s13d10



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