Some notes 9/22/11



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Some notes 9/22/11


  1. Generally SVO – is this right?? //Cf. PJS comment: “나마어는 주어 목적어 동사를 주요 어순으로 하는데 어순은 좀 자유롭게 변화할 수 있습니다.”

    1. Does the pragmatic status of nominals determine the order of constituents? (non-specific, indefinite first?)

    2. To look out for: does order vary with respect to tense or definiteness of object?

      1. Yend sènonjo [wèngem alet]

I now [go-1sg fut hunt]

‘I’m going hunting now’



      1. Enjela, nansi, saman [alet fengèm]

Angela Nansi Saman [hunting go-pst]
‘Angela, Nansi, Saman went hunting’

// Btw, is ‘alet’ a V? Could it be a N?



    1. Verb final in some imperative constructions? 

      1. Tane buk tenuman

My book bring-IMP

//Really? If so, this is very strange…




  1. Head-final (with postpositions?)

    1. Examples of postpositions?

      1. Gimb təkem jamɛ təndon

Pig put(down it) mat, sign beside, side

//is this a postposition?

//distinguish between LOC Case markers and postpositions.

//if a language has case markers, the distinction between case markers and adpositions may be problematic.



    1. GEN precedes head noun:

      1. Táf Elisabet -ene ámbirosi sú ghèrarean

During Elizabeth-of ? pregnant months

      1. What about Táf? Is this language also prepositional?




    1. (Strong) evidence to verify head-finality: (look for the following: )

      1. Does Relative Clause (RC) and Numeral precede N (e.g., "[[책상위에 있는] 연필]")?

      2. Is Causative expressed by suffixation or by light verbs (e.g., Korean ‘-하다’)?

      3. Is there a question particle? (So far, no)

    2. Also, a suffixing language. No prefixation (so far) ~ no head-initiality




  1. Weak evidence for wh in-situ; no strong evidence for wh-raising (YET...)

    1. Especially, why (namamè) & how (namamèn) in-situ? //Check general WO – SVO or SOV?

      1. Fa namamèn nekwu yam?
        He why angry be-3sg pr

      2. Fa namamèn euan yam?
        He how happy be-3sg pr




  1. Wh-phrases:

whose

who

what

which

Where

when

endene

Efe

nama

arkamunum

ande? / nai?

njam

how

how many

why










namamèn

yènam

namamè













  1. Case markers:

-an

‘in’

LOC

akw-an ‘morning-in’

ndawan ‘garden-in’



-on

‘in’

LOC

mong-on ‘house-in’

-am

‘on’

LOC

kitarakitar-am ‘shelf-on’

-mun

‘from’




nai-mun ‘where(+wh)-from’

mata-mun ‘Mata-from’



-ot

‘to’




ndaw-ot ‘garden-to’

mong-ot ‘house-to’

yuw-ot ‘region-to


-am




SUBJ (Nom/Erg?)

amaf-am ‘mother(+subj)

mbermber-am ‘wind(+subj)



-ene

‘of’

GEN

Elisabet-ene ‘Elisabeth’s’

-efaf

‘to’ roughly

DAT?

yàràitamànt Josef-éfaf ‘engaged to Joseph’




  1. Ergativity?




  1. Verbal constructions I: Dative/double object construction

    1. Ngánjánam yáfáretam enjol Gabril mèrèsoefaf Najareèt Galili yuw-ot.

God sent angel Gabriel to virgin

  1. Verb conjugations







SINGULAR

PLURAL




1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

PRESENT

-an

-e

-e

-am

-ati?

-at

PAST

-un

-am (5)

-eng (3)


-am(5)

-eng (3)


-um




-end

FUTURE

-g-

-g-

-g-

-g-

-g-

-g-

Identifying syncretisms in verbal morphology: 




SINGULAR

PLURAL




1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

PRESENT

















PAST

















FUTURE




















  1. Observations concerning verbs:

    1.  2sg 3sg syncretism in the present tense (13/23 = 57%)

    2.  2sg 3sg syncretism in the past tense (12/23 = 52%)

    3.  2sg 3sg syncretism in the future tense (14/23 = 61%)

    4. n-/k- alternation.

      1. Does /k-/ prefix mark past?

    5. Verbs seem to categorize into either ye- type or nu-/ne- type.

      1. Is ye- some sort of object agreement? //I think so.

      2. Nu-/ne- seems to be one-place predicates…verify.

    6. –n for singular; -m for plural?

    7. Analytic marking: yend, fa, fem morphemes before some plural verbs.

    8. What is the w- morpheme?




    1. Present  Past:

      1. n/k alternation

      2. /k-/ prefix = PAST

      3. /n/ = ELSEWHERE

      4. n/k/t alternation

    2. Future tense:





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