Theme 3 Philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome



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Theme 3

Philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome.



3.1 . Technology of training at lecture

Students: no more than 25

Time: 2 hours


Form of lesson

Information lecture with use of the "training together" method and a graphic organizer the table K/W/L


Lecture plan

1.Main periods of ancient philosophy.

2 . Philosophy of Ancient Greece.

3 . Philosophy of Ancient Rome.



Purpose of educational occupation: to create knowledge of emergence and development of ancient philosophy.


Pedagogical tasks:

- to organize activities for studying of emergence and development of ancient philosophy;

- to show specifics of ancient philosophy.



Results of educational activity:

The student has to:

- to give definition to concept "antiquity;

- to list the periods of ancient philosophy;

- to characterize essence of ancient philosophy;


Training methods


Lecture, "training together", technicians: Insert, quiz, presentation, graphic organizer: table K/W/L

Tutorials

Computer, laser projector, screen, markers, adhesive tape, A32 sheets of paper

Forms of education

Frontal, individual, work in groups

Training conditions

Audience with a hardware, adapted for the organization of group work


Monitoring and assessment

Supervision, oral control (a question-answer form), rating/ball assessment.

Technological card of lecture

Stages, time

Content of activity

teacher

of students

I stage.

Introduction in educational occupation

(5 min.)


1.1. Reports a subject and the plan of lecture occupation (displays), acquaints with planned educational results of lecture occupation and regulations of work

1.1. Listen.

Write down




2 stage.

The main


(65 min.)

2.1 . Displays table K/W/L and the comment to work with it. Gives a task to draw the table in workbooks and to fill a column 2 according to the lecture plan.

2.2 . Offers students, using the marks made by them in text fields during its reading, to answer questions:

(1) What they already know? (i.e. can independently tell)

(2) What remained not acquired, not understood?

(3) What is required additional information?

according to what to fill 3 and 4th column of the table.

2.3 . Carries out quiz. Thus listens to only some answers and reports that work will be continued in mini-groups.

2.4 . Breaks students into 4 mini-groups on any sign and gives a task:

(1) to analyse individual information in columns 4 of table K/W/L by a subject fragment, according to group number: 1 group - on 1 question, the 2nd group – on the 2nd question, etc.;

(2) to generalize undigested in 1-2 question;

(3) in common to prepare answers, using any available sources (the textbook, the lecture text);

(4) to be prepared for presentation of results of work - to issue answers on presentation sheets in the form of table K/W/L on the subject matter.

Declares the work beginning in groups.

2.5 . Will organize process of presentation, collective discussion.

2.6 . After a statement of the reply of each group;

(I) asks a question on definition of level of comprehensibility of all audience: "What did we learn? ",

(2) carries out quiz.

2.7 . Generalizes results of educational activity, suggests to fill the 5th column of individual table K/W/L.



2.1 . Redraw table K/W/L, bring in the 2nd column of the table questions of the plan of lecture.

2.2 . Fill 3 and 4th column of the table.

2.3 . Will read

results.


2.4 . Work in groups:

- the leader of group will organize

process of a formulation and record of questions of 4 columns;

- collectively discuss, find and write down the answer in a column 5 of the generalizing table K/W/L;

- make out the answer on a presentation leaf.

2.5 . Presentation of results of work:

leaders of groups

- attach

to a board a leaf (A format not less A32) with completed table K/W/L on the question also makes comments on it; answer on

questions;

prove opinion.

2.6 . Answer questions.

2.7 . Fill (till 2 min.)

5 column of individual table K/W/L.




3 stage.

The final

(10 min.)


3.1. Sums up, generalizes results, estimates speeches of leaders, encourages active participants;

3.2 . Suggests students to estimate work of groups.

3.3 . Gives a task for independent work:

To answer test questions.



3.1 . Listen

3.2 . Each group estimates work of other groups

3.3 . Write down.


1 . Educational and methodical material.

1.1 The visualized training material:

1.2 . Recommended literature:

1 . The book for reading on philosophy stories. In 2 t. T.1. - M, 1924. Page 16.

2 . Anthology of world philosophy. T. 1.4 . 1 . - M, 1969. Page 295-296.

3 . Philosophy//Philosophical encyclopedia. T. 5 . - M, 1970. Page 332.

4 . Philosophy questions. - 1995 . - No. 10.

5 . Philosophy and outlook. - M, 1990. Page 57.

6 . Ovchinnikov B.C. Outlook as phenomenon of spiritual life of society. L. 1978 .

7 . Introduction in philosophy. M: Politizdat, 1989.

8 . Spirkin's "philosophy".

9 . Balashov L. E. Philosophy. M: 2003 .

10 . "ancient philosophy" of Mantises.

11 . "Introduction in philosophy" Vundt.

12 . Lavrinenko's "philosophy".

13 . "Philosophy history. West-Russia-East" Motroshilova.

14 . Saifnazarov I. и.др. Philosophy bases. T. : Shark, 2005.

15 . Philosophy bases. T. : Fan, 2005.




2 . Educational tasks.

2.1 . "Quiz" table:




Questions

Answers

1.

1 . Whom in the history of philosophy call "the first teacher"?





2.

2 . Who offered the first classification of sciences in Ancient Greece?





3.

3 . Call the main stages of development of philosophy in Ancient Greece





2.2 . To fill in table K/W/L (I know/want learns/learned).

N

Question of a subject

I Know

I Want to learn

Learned




2

3

4

5

1









2









3









4










2.3 . "Quiz" table:




Questions

Answers

1.

What is apeyron of Anaksimandr?




2.

What is Lagos Heraclitus?





3.

What contribution was made by Heraclitus in dialectics formation?




4.

What did Pythagoreans understand as number?




5.

What contribution to development of philosophy brought eliates?




6.

What contribution to development of philosophy was brought by sophists?




7.

What characteristics Democritus's atom possesses?





8.

What types of eidoses are allocated by Platon?




9.

How Platon treats the doctrine about soul and knowledge?




10.

What is Aristotle's form?




11.

What objections were put forward by Aristotle to Platon?




12.

. Whether Aristotle overcame "shortcomings" of philosophy of Platon?






3 . Directory material.

3.1 . I ruled works in groups:


Everyone has to listen to the companions, showing politeness and goodwill;

- Everyone has to work actively, in common, responsibly to treat the charged task;

- Everyone has to ask about the help when it is necessary to it;

- Everyone has to assist if it about it ask;

- Everyone has to take part in an assessment of results of work of group;

- Everyone has to understand accurately:

- Helping another, we study!

- We in one boat: either we come up together, or we will drown together!






3.2 . Equipment Insert:


Insert is an interactive system of marks in the text for effective reading and thinking.

Insert is a procedure which begins with updating of the previous knowledge and statement of questions for marks in the text. Then there is a marking of different types of information which meets in the text.

Insert is the powerful tool providing opportunity with being trained actively to trace own training in the course of work with the text.

Insert is an equipment of training which is used for the solution of complex problems of assimilation and fixing of a training material, development of educational abilities of work with the book.



System of marks in the text

() – confirms that I know,

(+) – new information,

(-) – contradicts that I know,

(?) – puzzled me. Additional information is necessary to me about it.
3.3 . I ruled works with use of equipment K/W/L:



1 . Read the text, using equipment Insert.

2 . Received information individually systematize

- "carry" in table columns according to the marks made in the text.




4 . Material for self-checking.

4.1 . To answer test questions:

1 . Who is considered the first antique dialectician?

a) Anaksimen; b) Pythagoras; c) Socrat; d) Heraclitus; e) Platon.

2 . For whom their antique philosophers the person became the main subject of philosophy?

a) Fales; b) Heraclitus; c) Platon; d) Parmenida; e) Socrat.

3 . Platon's what main philosophical achievement?

a) the doctrine about eidoses; b) classification of sciences; c) development of an inductive method; d) concept of numerical harmony of the world; e) maevtica.

4 . What Aristotle in Platon's doctrine most of all criticized?

a) physiophilosophical views; b) the doctrine about soul; c) the doctrine about ideas; d) concept of World soul.

5 . What of the called reasons isn't considered in Aristotle's philosophy? a) the material; b) the target; c) the formal; d) the ideal; e) the making

6 . Who is the author of the term "philosophy"?

a) Pythagoras; b) Fales; c) Platon.

7 . The physiophilosophy is

And. nature philosophy; B. philosophy in which center there is a person;

Century life philosophy.

8 . The problem was the central question of philosophy досократиков:

And. space. B. fundamental principles. Century of the person.

9 . Apeyron it:

And. indivisible particle; The B. boundless; Century idea.

10 . "Lagos" in Heraclitus's doctrine is:

And. word; B. argument; Century law.

11 . The knowledge of Socrat is identical:

And. to feelings; B. virtues; Century to moral laws.

12 . "Death of the earth – the water birth, death of water – the air birth,

death of air – fire birth, and back". Define on

to the statement of Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus that at it

is a substance (a world fundamental principle)

And. earth; B. water; Century air; Fire.

13 . Parmenid claimed:

And. "life not movably"; B. "earth шарообразна"; Century "everything flows, all

changes".

14 . The aphorism "The person – a measure of all things" belongs:

To A.Protagora; To B. Socrat; To V. Aristotle.

15 . Dialectics in Socrat's understanding it:

And. ability to address with concepts; B. art of dispute with the purpose

achievements of truth; Century means of resolution of conflicts, with which

the knowledge at the level of the single faces.

16 . For the first time the concept "life" was entered into philosophy:

A.Parmenid; B. Platon; V. Aristotle.

17 . The statement that idea of a thing exists in the thing belongs:

To A.Aristotle; To B. Parmenida; To V. Platon.

18 . Platon believes that at the heart of knowledge lies:

And. feeling; B. recall; Century doubt.

19 . About 4 prime causes of the world I spoke:

A.Platon; B. Democritus; V. Aristotle; G. Heraclitus.

20 . In the doctrine about the state Aristotle claimed that:

And. the wealth is useful if it own; The B. wealth is useful, if it

use; Century the wealth isn't necessary, it disturbs justice.

21 . In ethics Aristotle proceeds from the principle:

And. "golden mean"; B. moral reason; Century of contemplation.

22 . Who from the called philosophers didn't treat the Athenian school?

A.Platon. B. Fales. V. Socrat.

23 . Aphorism "Live imperceptibly! " belongs:

To A.Democritus; To B. Zenon Katiyskomu; To V. Epicurus; To G. Diogenes

To the Sinonsky;

24 . The antique philosopher dividing inhabitants of the ideal state

on their moral qualities:

A.Socrat; B. Platon; V. Aristotle.



.2 . Technology of training at a seminar


Students: no more than 25

Time: 2 hours

Form of lesson

an expansion and increasing knowledge Seminar with "training together" method use

Questions for discussion at a seminar



1. Ionic physiophilosophy.

2 . Atomism and sophists.

3 . Platon and Aristotle's philosophy.

4 . Hellenism.




Purposes of educational occupation: to fix and deepen knowledge of ancient philosophy.


Pedagogical tasks:

- to fix and deepen knowledge of a subject;

- to organize process of formation and a statement of the position;

- to develop skills of communication, work in groups/couples



Results of educational activity.

The student has to:

- to give definition to the concept "physiophilosophy"

- to call stages of development of ancient philosophy;

- to distinguish schools of ancient philosophy.


Training methods

Discussion, question-answer equipment, "training together" method


Tutorials

Text of lectures, training materials, computers.

Form of education

Frontal, collective work, work in groups

Training conditions

Audience with a hardware, adapted for the organization of group work.


Monitoring and assessment

Supervision, oral control (a question-answer form), performance of educational tasks, mutual testing, ball or rating assessment



Technological card of a seminar



Stages, time

Content of activity

teacher

of students

1 stage.

Introduction in educational occupation

(5 min.)


1.1 . Reports a subject of occupation, its purpose and planned results, proves their importance and relevance.

1.2 . Declares that classes will be given with "training together" method application. Acquaints with work rules in groups.



1.1 . Write down a subject.

1.2 . Listen

Get acquainted with the instruction


2 stage.

The main

(65 min.)


2.1 . With the purpose to staticize knowledge of students asks focusing question: Call the common and distinctive features of an early form of religion? Will organize collective discussion.

2.2 . Breaks listeners into groups.

2.3 . Suggests groups to answer the questions posed.

2.4 . Will organize work in groups. Acts as the observer. But thus:

- supervises working groups, but doesn't direct them;

- pays attention to individual work, formation of the abilities necessary for performance of a concrete task. Asks open questions: "Why you so think? ", "Why you agree or don't agree with the author of this work? ", with the purpose to learn, work on the solution of tasks is how done;

- make comments on a course of work of listeners, gives them the concrete information concerning an assessment of their achievements. Does concrete remarks.

2.4 . Declares the presentation beginning. Appoints representatives of groups for the message on results of work of joint discussion.

2.5 . Will organize mutual testing of results of work of groups for definition of assimilation of a material during performance of tasks.

2.6 . Gives a task to solve tests.




2.1 . Answer a question

2.2 . Share on groups

2.3 . Work in groups:

- get acquainted with a training material, the instruction and a card of individual results.

Plan work in group. Distribute task questions in group. Individually carry out them.

Discuss individual results.

Form the general result of group work on an educational task and prepare it for presentation.

2.4 . Representatives of groups report about results of work.

2.5 . Each group prepares and asks questions to other group for mutual testing.

Receive, carry out a task and report results of work

2.6 . Solve tests


3 stage

Conclusion

(10 min.)


3.1. Analyzes results of work of groups.

3.2 . Sums up performance of tasks.

Draws a conclusion about achievement of a goal.

3.3 . Gives a task for independent work: to solve tests.



3.1 . Listen

3.2 . Listen

3.3 . Receive a task




1 . Educational and methodical material.

1.1 . Visual training material of the main concepts:

1 slide


Ancient philosophy we call the doctrines which have arisen in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It was preceded by the mythology of Ancient Greece which has found the expression, mainly, in epic works of Homer of "Illiad" and "Odyssey", and also Hesiod (the VI—VII centuries BC).

2 slide


In the history of ancient philosophy it is possible to allocate three main stages.

The miletsky school, Heraclitus, and also eleysky school treat the first (philosophy of the period of the VI—V centuries BC). The second stage (the V—IV centuries BC) developments of Ancient Greek philosophy is connected with names of thinkers Socrat, Platon, Aristotle, school of atomist (Levkipp, Democritus), sophists (Protagor, Gorgy). Three main currents belong to the third stage - the Hellenistic philosophy-: scepticism, epikureizm and stoicism (the IV-III centuries BC).


3 slide

The Fales (apprx. 624 — 547 BC) was the first Ancient Greek philosopher and the founder of miletsky school. It is considered the founder of the European science and philosophy. Together with Anaksimandr and Anaksimen on whom he has a great impact, the Fales developed the first philosophical frame of reference.


4 slide

Eleysky school (V century BC). One of philosophical schools of this time - eleysky (by the name of the cities of Eleys in the Southern Italy). It is presented by philosophers: Parmenid, Ksenofan and Zenon.


5 slide

"... Platon's doctrine... plays in historical destinies of medicine especially important role. The ancient, sublime, ideal and vitalistic doctrine according to which life consists in continuous interaction of a body and spirit which operates comes to the end with this doctrine and uses a matter for the purposes... " — about it the known historian of medicine Kovner so writes Of this year.


6 slide

Aristotle (384 — 322 BC) was the son of the doctor (Nikomakh), got a medical education. Some years I was the tutor and Alexander the Great teacher. In 336 g BC I opened in a grove Lycia the philosophical school which has received the name peripompous (walking philosophers).


7 slide

The Hellenism covering period from Alexander the Great gain and before falling of the Western Roman Empire characterizes itself the subsequent antique philosophy. Having kept a lot of things from antique classics, the Hellenism, in essence, finished it.


8 slide

Approximately at the time of Alexander the Great four philosophical schools were founded: kinik, sceptics, stoics and epicureans. The most prominent representatives of school of kinik – Socrat Antisfen's pupil (apprx. 450-apprx. 360 BC) and Diogenes (400-apprx. 325 BC).


2.1 . Recommended literature:

1 . The book for reading on philosophy stories. In 2 t. T.1. - M, 1924. Page 16.

2 . Anthology of world philosophy. T. 1.4 . 1 . - M, 1969. Page 295-296.

3 . Philosophy//Philosophical encyclopedia. T. 5 . - M, 1970. Page 332.

4 . Philosophy questions. - 1995 . - No. 10.

5 . Philosophy and outlook. - M, 1990. Page 57.

6 . Ovchinnikov B.C. Outlook as phenomenon of spiritual life of society. L. 1978 .

7 . Introduction in philosophy. M: Politizdat, 1989.

8 . Spirkin's "philosophy".

9 . Balashov L. E. Philosophy. M: 2003 .

10 . "ancient philosophy" of Mantises.

11 . "Introduction in philosophy" Vundt.

12 . Lavrinenko's "philosophy".

13 . "Philosophy history. West-Russia-East" Motroshilova.

14 . Saifnazarov I. и.др. Philosophy bases. T. : Shark, 2005.

15 . Philosophy bases. T. : Fan, 2005.



2 . Educational tasks.
1 group:

1 . Attentively read statements of ancient philosophers and try to explain them: "Platon to me the friend, but truth is dearer" (Aristotle).

2 . State the opinion: Aristotle speaks: as person who lives for itself, call free, and philosophy − only free science as exists for the sake of itself. All other sciences are more necessary, than philosophy, he adds, but there is no better. Your opinion?
3 . Who from philosophers of antiquity possesses these statements and aphorisms: "The knowledge is a recall seen in the other world".

(Zenon, Pythagoras, Platon, Protagor, Socrat)

4 . Answer questions:

1 . Why Aristotle isn't satisfied with one essence at things and allows the second essence of things? In what it consists?

2 . In what similarity and distinction between Platon's "idea" and Aristotle's "form"?

3 . What was the new brought by Epicurus and an epikureizm in antique atomism?


2 group:

1 . Attentively read statements of ancient philosophers and try to explain them: "It is impossible to enter into the same river twice" (Heraclitus).

2 . State the opinion: Aristotle speaks: as person who lives for itself, call free, and philosophy − only free science as exists for the sake of itself. All other sciences are more necessary, than philosophy, he adds, but there is no better. Your opinion?
3 . Who from philosophers of antiquity possesses these statements and aphorisms: "The person is a measure of all things, to existence existing and to not existence nonexistent".

(Zenon, Pythagoras, Platon, Protagor, Socrat)

4 . Answer questions:

1 . How Socrat's life is connected with his philosophy? In what similarity and distinction between Socrat's philosophy and philosophy of sophists?

2 . What is the sophisms (for example, "Liar", "Bald", etc.) and how they can be разрешимы?

3 . Than ethics of the classical period (Socrat, Platon, Aristotle) differ from ethics of the Hellenistic period of antiquity?


3 group:

1 . Attentively read statements of ancient philosophers and try to explain them: "From anything nothing can arise, any thing can't be destroyed" (Democritus);

2 . State the opinion: Aristotle speaks: as person who lives for itself, call free, and philosophy − only free science as exists for the sake of itself. All other sciences are more necessary, than philosophy, he adds, but there is no better. Your opinion?
3 . Who from philosophers of antiquity possesses these statements and aphorisms: "There is only one benefit – knowledge and one only the evil – ignorance".

(Zenon, Pythagoras, Platon, Protagor, Socrat)

4 . Answer questions:

1 . By means of what arguments Platon proves immortality of soul ("метампсихоз")? ("Fedon's" dialogue).

2 . Whether "the Platonic love" to Platon has the relation? Love as a way to truth, the benefit and beauty (dialogue "Feast").

3 . In what crisis of ancient art at the beginning of a new era consisted?


4 group:

1 . Attentively read statements of ancient philosophers and try to explain them: "I know that I know nothing" (Socrat).

2 . Comment on Aristotle's statement: "Surprise induces people to philosophize". How this judgment with the general way and style of philosophizing of antiquity corresponds?

3 . Who from philosophers of antiquity possesses these statements and an aphorism: "That moves, doesn't move in that place where it is, in where it isn't present".

(Zenon, Pythagoras, Platon, Protagor, Socrat)

4 . Answer questions:

1 . What place in Platon's cosmology is occupied by "world soul"? (dialogue "Timey").

2 . Whether Platon's state is socialist? (dialogue "State").

3 . In what the nature of movement on Aristotle consists?
5 group:

1 . Attentively read statements of ancient philosophers and try to explain them: "It is better to know superfluous, than to know nothing". (Seneca)

2 . Comment on Aristotle's statement: "Surprise induces people to philosophize". How this judgment with the general way and style of philosophizing of antiquity corresponds?

3 . Who from philosophers of antiquity possesses these statements and an aphorism:

"Life is similar to merrymakings: others come to them to compete, others – to trade, and the happiest – to look; and in lives others, similar to slaves, are born greedy to glory and a profit, meanwhile as philosophers – to uniform only truth"

(Zenon, Pythagoras, Platon, Protagor, Socrat)

4 . Answer questions:

1 . In what similarity and distinction between Democritus's "atom" and Platon's "idea"?

2 . In what sense of a known metaphor about Platon's "cave"?

3 . What place in a cosmological picture of the world occupies Mind from Aristotle - Pervodvigatel?



3 . Directory material.

3.1 . I ruled works in mini-groups:


1Students have to have a certain knowledge for work performance.

2 . Concrete tasks have to be given to groups.

3 . For performance of tasks in small groups sufficient time is defined.

4 . It is necessary to warn that ideas aren't limited and aren't criticized.

5 . The teacher has to give the instruction that the group knew about result of work.


4 . Material for self-checking.

4.1 . Questions and tasks for independent preparation:

1 . Fales "water":

a) treats a number of the physicist – chemical elements;

b) there is that we drink;

c) means liquid, fluid properties of the prime cause.

2 . General fundamental principle at Anaksimandr is:

a) air;

b) apeyron;



c) fire.
3 . Heraclitus's main idea which was illustrated with it in an image of the river:

a) "everything flows, everything changes";

b) "everything is full of gods";

c) "everything has the beginning and the end".

4 . Heraclitus Efessky considered that a pervoelement is:

a) water;

b) fire;

c) earth.

5 . The major principle for Parmenid is the truth that:

a) "life is also a non-existence too is";

b) "the person is a measure of all things";

c) "life is, the non-existence isn't present".

6 . Socrat's main problem was:

a) universe origin;

b) cognoscibility of the world;

c) essence of the person.

7 . "Mayevtika" Socrat means no other than:

a) ability to force to recognize itself as the ignoramus;

b) method of the birth of truth;

c) charitable clarification.

8 . Socrat in youth was trained at school:

a) sophists;

b) Pythagoreans;

c) Eliates.

9 . Socrat spoke: "I know that I know nothing, but …":

a) knowledge increases grief;

b) to know everything and it is impossible;

c) others don't know also it.

10 . "It is impossible to enter into the same river twice", - I spoke:

a) Fales;

b) Anaksimandr;

c) Heraclitus.

11 . In the center of attention of Pythagoreans there was that as they considered, it underlies all real:

a) order;

b) reason;

c) number.

12 . According to Platon ideas are:

a) essence of things;

b) simply concepts;

c) thoughts.

13 . That in the head of state there have to be philosophers, I spoke:

a) Socrat;

b) Platon;

c) Aristotle.

14 . "The person – part of the nature and as any nature, consists of atoms", - considered:

a) Aristotle;

b) Platon;

c) Democritus.

15 . The metaphysics, from the point of view of Aristotle, investigates:

a) world of people;

b) world phenomena;

c) first or highest reasons.

16 . According to Aristotle, the person is:

a) biped without feathers;

b) soul in a body dungeon;

c) public animal.

17 . The ideal of wise man Stoi is:

a) coolness and tranquillity;

b) sanctity;

c) truth hunter.

18 . Seneca, Epiktet and Mark Avrely – the chief representatives:

a) late Stand;



b) Epicureanschool;

c) kinik.

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