Theme 6 Modern western philosophy and its main currents

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Modern western philosophy and its main currents.

6.1. Technology of training at lecture

Students: no more than 75

Time: 2 hours

Form of lesson

Lecture conference with visualization elements

Plan of lecture

1 . Essence of philosophy of the XIX-XX century.

2 . Main representatives and currents of modern western philosophy.

3 . Features of modern philosophy.

Purpose: to create complete idea of the western philosophy of the XIX-XX century.

Pedagogical tasks:

- to give concept about voluntarism, positivism, an empiriokrititsizm;

- to open essence of concepts rationalism and an irrationalism, idea unconscious and psychoanalysis, existentialism, a neotomizm;

- to show features of synergetrics - the self-organization concept.

Results of educational activity:

The student has to:

- to give definition to concepts: voluntarism, positivism, empiriokrititsizm;

- to tell about rationalism, an irrationalism, idea unconscious and psychoanalysis, existentialism, a neotomizm;

- to explain essence of synergetrics.

Training methods

Lecture, conference, discussion, equipment of presentation


Text of lectures, reports, visual materials, laser projector, computer, screen

Forms of education

Frontal, collective, individual work

Training conditions

the Audience having conditions for the organization of work in groups

Monitoring and assessment

Supervision, quiz, oral control in a question-answer form, a rating or ball assessment

Technological card of lecture

Stages, time

Content of activity



1 stage.


(5 min.)

1.1. Reports a subject and the plan of lecture, the purpose and planned results of educational activity, feature of carrying out occupation, represents speakers

1.2 . Declares an order and the regulations of carrying out discussion, indicators and criteria of an assessment of participants of discussion and reminds rules of carrying out discussion.

1.1 . Listen

1.2 . Get acquainted with

order and regulations of carrying out discussion, indicators and criteria of an assessment of participants of discussion.

2 stage.

The main

(65 min.)

2.1. Will organize performances of students with the prepared reports and messages:

- watches closely logic of expansion of the maintenance of a material;

- at emergence of requirement to discuss a being stated material, stops the speaker for some time and transfers a seminar to the course of collective discussion – discussions.

Shows democratic character and interest in statements, creates conditions for intellectual relaxedness, uses a trustworthy tone of communication.

Estimates, as far as the maintenance of a subject clearly to students (according to the maintenance of the questions asked to the speaker during discussion and on answers to questions).

2.2 . Discussion of each report as a whole finishes short generalization with use of a visual material – slides and the Power Point mode.

2.1 . The speaker, will read to the report. Collectively discuss contents of the report, discuss.

2.2 . Listen, get acquainted with visual materials

3 stage.


(10 min.)

3.1. Sums up:

- generalizes results of educational activity, encourages active participants;

- estimates readiness of speakers and participants of lecture conference, their activity during discussion;

- in brief allocates highlights and formulates the conclusion;

- declares that marks will be put down in the column of the current control of the corresponding subject, notes importance of the received knowledge for the future;

3.2 . Gives a task for independent work: more deeply to study this subject for preparation for a seminar.

3.1 . Listen, specify

3.2 . Write down a task

1 . Educational and methodical material.

1.1 . The visualized training material:


1.2 . Recommended literature:

1 . The book for reading on philosophy stories. In 2 t. T.1. - M, 1924. Page 16.

2 . Anthology of world philosophy. T. 1.4 . 1 . - M, 1969. Page 295-296.

3 . Philosophy//Philosophical encyclopedia. T. 5 . - M, 1970. Page 332.

4 . Philosophy questions. - 1995 . - No. 10.

5 . Philosophy and outlook. - M, 1990. Page 57.

6 . Ovchinnikov B.C. Outlook as phenomenon of spiritual life of society. L. 1978 .

7 . Introduction in philosophy. M: Politizdat, 1989.

8 . Balashov L. E. Philosophy. M: 2003 .

9 . Saifnazarov I. и.др. Philosophy bases. T. : Shark, 2005.

10 . Philosophy bases. T. : Fan, 2005.
2 . Educational tasks.

2.1 . To prepare reports on subjects:

1 . Essence of philosophy of the XIX century (voluntarism, positivism, empiriokrititsizm)

2 . Formation of a new picture of the world and new thinking of the XX century (rationalism and irrationalism, idea unconscious and psychoanalysis, existentialism, neotomizm)

3 . Synergetrics - the self-organization concept

3 . Directory material.
3.1 . Order and regulations of carrying out discussion

1 . The leader declares a subject of the report and gives the floor to the speaker.

2 . The report proceeds 5 min.

3 . Being trained ask questions

4 . The speaker answers the asked questions – 3 min.

5. Collective discussion – 5 – 10 min.

3.2 . Indicators and criteria of an assessment of participants of discussion

Indicators and criteria of an assessment

(in points)






1.content of the report (2):

- compliance to a subject (1,3);

- sequence, logic and clarity of a statement (0,3);

- accurate formulation

conclusions (0,4);

2. . The used means of submission of information (presentation) – (1);

3. . Observance of regulations (0,5)

Total: (it is maximum – 3,5)

4 . Material for self-checking.

4.1 . Questions and tasks for independent preparation:

1 . What stages of evolution there passed positivism?

2 . What is the principle of verification and what role neopositivists allocated for it?

3 . Why the principle of verification didn't justify hope of neopositivists?

4 . What does the K.popper understand as the principle of falsification?

5 . How falsifiability and intelligence of expressions of language correspond?

6 . How Popper imagined logic of development of science?

7 . How the science from the point of view of T.Kun develops and what role in it is played by unscientific forms of human spirit?

8 . Why attempt of neopositivists to clear science of all unscientific and to declare science philosophy in itself failed?

9 . What is the scientism?

10 . What philosophical preconditions of emergence of existentialism?

11 . What social preconditions of formation of existentialism?

12 . Than differ secular (atheistic) and religious existentialism?

13 . Call the largest representatives of these directions.

14 . Characterize the main concepts of philosophy of existence.

15 . Whether you agree about the statement of J.P. of Sartre, what the existentialism is a humanity?

Technology of training at a seminar

Students: no more than 30

Time: 2 hours

Form of lesson

Seminar - discussion "At a round table"

Questions for discussion at a seminar

1. Socially – political changes in the world of the end of the XIX-XX centuries.

2 . Main representatives and currents of modern philosophy

3 . Actual problems of philosophy of the XXI century.

Purposes: to fix and deepen knowledge of a subject

Pedagogical tasks:

- to systematize, fix and deepen knowledge of a subject;

- to develop skill of work in team;

- to stimulate the independent solution of questions of a task with a formulation of the general result of group work.

Results of educational activity:

The student has to:

- nobility and formulate the correct conclusions about philosophical schools and currents, life philosophies as about the principle of human existence, change in public political and spiritual life.

Training methods

Training together, discussion, equipment "At a round table"


Text of lectures, training materials

Form of education

Frontal, individual, collective work, work in groups

Training conditions

the Audience adapted for the organization of group work.

Monitoring and assessment

Supervision, oral control (a question-answer form), performance of educational tasks, ball or rating assessment

Technological card of a seminar



Content of activity



1 stage.


(5 min.)

1.1. Calls a seminar subject, its purpose, tasks and planned results of educational activity.

1.1 . Listen, specify

2 stage.

The main

(65 min.)

2.1 . Divides being trained into three groups. Gives a task to each group

- within 5 minutes to write short (5-7 offers) the creative essay on subjects:

1 . Main ideas of positivism.

2 . Types unconscious opened by Z.Freud.

3 . Research of existentialists.

- to answer a question using equipment "Fish skeleton".

2.2 . Declares that further work will be carried out in the form of subject "At a Round Table" discussion after performance

educational tasks in groups/couples. Acquaints with discussion rules "At a round table". Reminds work rules in groups.

2.3 . Distributes (displays) the list of questions and tasks for discussion at a round table, distributes questions on groups. Explains that no additional materials is allowed to use when performing task. Hangs out (distributes) a leaf of an assessment of results.

2.4 . Declares the work beginning in groups, advises necessarily.

2.5 . Will organize collective discussion and an assessment of results of work in groups. Makes comments, especially pays attention to conclusions, the generalizations made in the course of performance of tasks, estimates.

2.1 . Share on groups Receive tasks. Write and will read to the essay.

2.2 . Listen, ask questions.

2.3 . Get acquainted with the educational

tasks, instruction and

card of results

2.4 . Carry out tasks,

make out sheets of presentations.

2.5 . Leaders

groups state


the developed


Participants of discussion

supplement, ask questions

3 stage.

Conclusion(10 min.)

3.1. Sums up work, puts down marks

3.2 . Gives a task for independent work:

- to solve tests.

3.1 . Listen

3.2 . Write down tasks.

1 . Educational and methodical material.

    1. . Visual training material of the main concepts:

1 slide

The western philosophy is presented both rather independent schools and doctrines, and the integrative educations which don't have a clear boundary and differences from other philosophies. The same philosopher can investigate existential, germenevtic and other problems, have works of complex character. In it one of features of modern philosophy when belonging of the thinker to this or that school is conditional also is shown.

2 slide

The philosophy of life is the very original doctrine which has made a subject of the critical judgment not a matter and not spirit, and life in its integrity. The philosophy of life seeks to understand "life from it", she declared the supreme value will (to life, to the power, to creativity, etc.)

3 slide

Positivism (lat. positivus — positive) – the philosophy direction, declaring the only source of true, valid knowledge concrete (empirical) sciences and denying the informative value of philosophical research.

4 slide

The phenomenology is one of the most influential philosophical doctrines of the XX century. During the existence and development she not only created the whole range of own interpretations, but also made powerful impact on many directions of modern thought: existentialism, the hermeneutics understanding sociology and others.

5 slide

The hermeneutics opposed as a peculiar protest schools and concepts in foreign philosophy with their uncertainty, doubts and "the critical analysis". The etymology of the term contacts Ancient Greek god Hermes, the master of writing, the inventor of language and the messenger of will of other gods. The hermeneutics determined by the task to form art of interpretation of statements for the correct understanding of information containing in them.

6 slide

Existentialism — it is possible, the most popular philosophical current of our time. Its name occurs from German "existieren" and "exister" French — to exist, and is turned not to clarification of essence of the person, and to his daily life. The existentialism in a counterbalance of rationalistic philosophy looked at the person as the worrying, suffering and tragic being possessing possibility of a free choice and responsible for acts.

7 slide

Pragmatism — specifically American direction of philosophical thought. Business activity of Americans had to is philosophically comprehended and it received this judgment in the form of a pragmatism (Greek pragma — business, action).

8 slide

Psychoanalysis — the doctrine, is loud also infamous outside a scientific-theoretical circle and widely entered into modern public consciousness. Throughout the whole century it concerned a number before the taboo subjects connected with life of the unconscious beginning in the person: subjects of sexuality, subject of dreams and dreams, subjects of thirst of aggression.

9 slide

The structuralism arose at the beginning of the XX century in France. Structure identification as sets of the relations, invariant at some transformations in humanitarian knowledge became its philosophical basis. The structure is considered not simply as subject or thing "skeleton", and as set of rules, the principles by which of one subject, things receive the second, the third, etc. - by shift of structural elements.

10 slide

Postmodernism — a silly claim for exclusiveness. Calling everything that was to it "modernism", it opposes itself(himself) to it to everything. Purely teenage approach: to deny, destroy, break everything that was to you or is made not you, others. It is the same nonsense as though the person decided to refuse heart, lungs, the head on the ground that it everything — old, trivial, bothered that it from the past, "from ancestors", isn't new etc.

1.2 . Recommended literature:

1 . Western philosophy: results of the millennium: anthology. – M, 1997.

2 . Bacon, T. New Organon / F.Bacon//Compositions: in 2 t. / F.Bacon. – M, 1978. – T. 2 .

3 . Vitgenstein, L. Logiko-filosofsky treatise/L. Vitgenstein//Philosophical works: in 2 h. – M, 1994. – P.1.

4 . Gubanov, N.I.Nishcheta of postmodernism/N philosophy. I.Gubanov//Philosophy and society. – 2007 . – No. 1. – C. 54–68 .

5 . Гуссерль, E.Krizis of the European sciences and transcendental phenomenology / E.Gusserl//Philosophy as strict science / E.Gusserl. – Novocherkassk, 1994.

6 . Kosykhin, V.G.Germenevtika of a postmodern and philosophy of language / Century of G. Kosykhin//cultural science Questions. – 2008 . – No. 7. – S.7-9.

7 . Real. The western philosophy from sources up to now: in 4 t. / D.Reale, D. Antiseri. – SPb. 1994–1997 .

8 . Riker, P.Germenevtika. Ethics. Policy / Item Riker. – M, 1995. Modern philosophy of science: knowledge, rationality, values in works of thinkers of the West. – M, 1996.

9 . Teyar de Chardin, P.Fenomen of the person / Item Teyar de Chardin. – M, 1987.

10 . Philosophy of an era of a postmodern. – Minsk, 1996.

11 . Freud, 3. Psychology unconscious / 3. Freud. – M, 1990.

12 . Heidegger, M.Bytiye and time/M Heidegger. – M, 1997.
2 . Educational tasks.

2.1 . To write the essay on subjects:

1 . Main ideas of positivism.

2 . Types unconscious opened by Z.Freud.

3 . Research of existentialists.

2.2 . Answer a question using the scheme "Fish skeleton":

Why the nonconventional philosophy was created?

2.3 . Questions for discussion "At a round table"

1 . In what features of philosophy of XX c.are shown. ?

2 . What changes were made in science, public political life in XX c. ?

3 . How were reflected in modern philosophy of change in science and life?

4 . What is the life philosophy?

5 . Essence of existential philosophy.

6 . What do you know about a pragmatism?

7 . Main features of an opozitivizm.

8 . Essence of structuralism.

9 . Hermeneutics.

10 . In what essence of psychoanalysis?

11 . Characterize philosophy of positivism, neopositivism and post-positivism?

12 . In what the essence of synergetrics consists?

3 . Directory material.

3.1 . rules of work in mini-groups:

1.Students have to have a certain knowledge for work performance.

2 . Concrete tasks have to be given to groups.

3 . For performance of tasks in small groups sufficient time is defined.

4 . It is necessary to warn that ideas aren't limited and aren't criticized.

5 . The teacher has to give the instruction that the group knew about result of work.

6 . Be in communication and express the opinion that it didn't happen.

3.1 . I ruled works in mini-groups

3.1 . Equipment rules "T – the scheme"

3.2 . Rules of spelling of "Essay":

This composition consists from 1 to 5 words on the offered subject and is a form of free manifestation of individual positions of the author; it comprises the general or initial outlook about a subject

3.3 . Rules of the scheme "Fish a skeleton":

It is the scheme allows to describe all (field) of a problem and to try to solve it:

- individually / in couples write down on the top stone the formulation of subproblems, and on the bottom - the facts confirming that these subproblems exist.

- unite in mini-groups, compare and supplement the schemes. Reduce in the general scheme

3.3 . The instruction on carrying out discussion "At a round table":

1.Attentively, without interrupting, listen to opinion of the acting.

2 . In case of disagreement with its position, ask for permission to express the opinion.

3. In case of a consent with the point of view acting, offer addition on a case in point.

3.4 . Leaf of an assessment of results

The individual assessment is equal to the assessment sum for the essay (1 point) and evaluation of the work of group (2,5 points). The maximum assessment on seminar occupation – 3,5 points: 3,0 – 3,5 points - are "excellent"; 2,0 – 2,9 – "well"; 1,0 – 1,9 points – are "satisfactory"; 0 – 0,9 points – are "unsatisfactory".

Question and group number


in essence

(1,5 points)

Question to another

(0,3 points)


(0,3 points)

Presentation (scheme, table, etc.)

(0,4 points)


(2,5 points)








4 . Material for self-checking.

4.1 . Solve test tasks:
1 . What philosophical direction developed in A.Schopenhauer's views?




2 . A.Schopenhauer considered that life of people − it:

destiny of pleasures and progress;

chain of alarms, disappointments and tortures;

gray life and faceless "life of insects";

Similarity of a pendulum −with serene happiness to bitterness and suffering and vice versa.

3 . According to A.Schopenhauer art is:

positive pastime;

remnant of the past;

knowledge border;

Manifestation of consciousness of the genius.

4 . From what function, according to Schopenhauer, has to refuse

modern to it philosophy?

outlook formation;

management of behavior;

management of knowledge process;

Increase of culture of people.

5 . In F.Nitsshe's philosophy the main concept is:

groundless will;

will to the power;

will to live;

Will as "vital break".
6 . In F.Nitsshe's ethics I put forward the main motto proclaimed it

"revaluations of values":

"The person − it sounds is proud! ";

"Grief to the weak! ";

"Person to the person – god";

"Be mild as pigeons, and are wise as snakes".

7 . Initially the term "psychoanalysis" designated:

spiritualistic session;

science about the unconscious sincere activity of the person;

therapeutic reception.

8 . The mental structure of the personality according to Z.Freyd includes:

I, IT, Super I, affects, replacement, sublimation;

I, IT,Super I;

affects, replacement, sublimation.

9 . The driving force of activity of the person according to Freud is:

will to the power;

will to live;


10 . Unconscious is:

part of mentality of the person;


11 . Super I am:

ban of sociocultural level;

unaccountable inclinations


mind of the person.

12 . According to K.Yungu the unconscious is shown through:

inadequate acts;


madness attacks.

13 . The collective unconscious consists from:

primary forms of the instincts turning into certain images and ideas;

formal examples of behavior, symbols;

inadequate acts of the specific person.

14 . Alienation according to E.Fromm is:


loss by the person of the Homeland;

indifference the person to itself.

15 . Neofreydizm is:

synthesis of psychoanalysis and social theories

synthesis of psychoanalysis and culture theories;

synthesis of psychoanalysis and achievements of genetics.

16 . Who from the listed philosophers didn't treat the direction



V. Raich

M. Weber;

G. Markuza.

17 . Ekzistention is:




13 . Subject of consideration of philosophy of existentialism:

life and death problems;

surrounding the person

reality; human existence;

Sense human life.
18 . The ancestor of existentialism I was:


M. Heidegger;

S. Kierkegaard.

19 . Existentialists claimed that the person:

it is condemned on freedom;

has no possibility of a choice;

It is absolute

it is irresponsible in the world.
20 . The absurdity according to A.Kamyu is:

human life;

life surrounding the person;

acts the person in the world.

21. Freedom of the person guarantees it:



madness attacks.

22. From the point of view of K.Jaspers philosophizing is:




23. The philosophical doctrine which distinctive feature is absolute confidence of ability of science to solve all social problems:




24. Set of theoretical and methodological preconditions,defining concrete scientific research and embodied in to scientific practice at this stage:

scientific and technical revolution;



25 . Empirical confirmation of certain provisions of science by a way their comparisons to observed objects, sensual data, experiment:




26 . The philosopher positivist claiming that science is a process constant increment of scientific knowledge on the basis of use previous scientific achievements:

G. Spencer;

B. Russell;

27 . What is the relativism in science?

relativity of truth and criteria of scientific character;

invariance scientific knowledge;

relativity of a subject of knowledge.
28 . The methodological concept which formed the basis for

emergence and developments of philosophy of science:


logical positivism;

critical rationalism.
29 . Author of the concept of critical rationalism:



30. On the basis of what philosophical society there was a logical


Berlin society of empirical philosophy;

Vienna circle;

Lvov and Warsaw school of logicians.

31. Author of the concept "paradigm":



32. To what direction of positivism Ludwig belonged



logical positivism;


33. Structure of the research program make:

kernel, protective belt, heuristics;

hypothesis, theory, methodology;

problem, decision, verification;

Sensual and rational levels.
34 . The stage of paradigmalny development of science of T.Kun calls:

normal science;



Of the scientific revolution.

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