Foundation of citizenship ------------------------------------------------ 4
Social phase of citizenship ----------------------------------------------- 5
Economic phase of citizenship ------------------------------------------- 6
Philosophy of American Government ---------------------------------- 7
1. National defense. — Under the national defense act as amended in 1920. the War Department, among its many other duties, is charged with the task of recruiting and training the young men of our Nation through enlistments in the Regular Army, voluntary enlistment in the Reserve Officers Training Corps of high schools, colleges, universities, and in the 30-day training period in citizens' military training camps throughout the nine corps areas of the United States. The combined average yearly strength of these various units approximates some 260,000 young men between the
ages of 16 and 25 years, the most critical period in the determination of their real value as citizens of our country.
It is. therefore, essential that the training of these young men embody, with their instruction in military science, at least a basic course in the science of government and the privileges, duties, and responsibilities of the individual citizen, in order that they may be returned to civilian life better equipped as the defenders of the institutions of our Government in time of peace as well as in time of war.
2. Citizenship training. — Training in citizenship is the most vital of all subjects to that nation whose system of government, security of property, and full power to express individual initiative are based upon the intelligence, education, and character of each individual citizen.
3. Individual initiative. — Individual initiative is the product of slow progress in the development of the idea and ideals of self-goveinment. It was cherished in the minds of the early Germanic tribes, transmitted by them in the fifth century to the conquered British Isles, there developed and finally transferred in principle to the shores of America 300 years ago.
From the landing of the first settlers through the slow and perilous years of colonial development, the struggles of the Revolutionary days, the hardships and privations following the adoption of our Constitution, the winning of the Great West, the fight to save our Union, and the tremendous accomplishments in the development of agricultural and industrial resources, individual initiative, coupled with community cooperation, has been a determining factor, a spur to our achievements, and a guaranty to our national security.
The protest of the Colonies against usurpation of the rights of citizens, the Declaration of Independence, the Revolutionary War, the writing and adoption of the Constitution of the United States. and the ever-increasing development in population, industry, wealth, and security, denoting the achievements of the United States, would not have been possible lacking the spirit of individual initiative and the talent for self-government. The United States worked out its own destiny by the simple process of hard labor inspired with the knowledge of full opportunity in the exercise of individual ability, and sure reward and protection in the possession of the fruits of their labor.
4. Foundation of citizenship. — In any instruction in citizenship productive of lasting results, there must be woven into the study the story of the faith, sacrifice, service, and achievements of the pioneers of America from the landing of the Pilgrims to the settlement of the Great West and the development of our vast national resources. This story, pregnant with hope, faith, courage, and the will to work. is the rock foundation upon which to build the structure of citizenship in the youth of today that the future may be assured in perpetuity of the institutions, principles, ideals, and traditions the development of which has made the United States great among the nations of the world.
A study of the census reports of the United States, particularly during the past 50 years, reveals a condition that to every thinking man and woman is fraught with grave danger to the continuation and maintenance of our constitutional form of government and the blessings of liberty which we enjoy. We must be prepared to recognize this situation and find the solution of the problem.
6. Social phase of citizenship. — As the result of the changing life stream of America, there has arisen one of the greatest problems of our national life. Up to 30 years ago approximately 90 per cent of all immigration to America was of Anglo-Saxon origin, that race of people which has been working out the problem of self-government for nearly 2,000 years. Due to the remarkable impetus given to industrial development following 1890, opportunity for employment was offered and every inducement made to secure the immigration of European common labor, resulting in an immediate change in the type of immigration to America, by which central. eastern, and southern Europe increased their totals by over fifty times in the 50 years from 1870 to 1920.
The history of the nations from which this later immigration originated is that of large cultural advantages in art. literature, and science, enjoyed by the ruling and favored minority, while oppression, privation, and suffering were endured by the great majority of their subjects.
This latter class, without knowledge of self-government, denied the opportunity for self-development, eagerly responding to the call of American opportunity, emigrated to our shores, here to enjoy full participation in the rights of American citizenship without a proper understanding of the meaning of liberty or the nature and value of our free institutions, the very foundation of which is laid in intelligent and active participation in government by our individual citizens.
A course of instruction in citizenship to be effective must develop the social phase of citizenship and be particularly directed to the native and foreign-born youth, setting up a clear understanding of
this great problem of assimilation and amalgamation of the bloods of all nations into the virile life stream of America.
6. Economic phase of citizenship. — The industrial achievements of America have become the marvel of the world. Therefore the economic phase of citizenship must be developed with careful study and with all the wisdom we possess that we may assure continued progress to the welfare, tranquillity, and enrichment of our own citizens and at the same time steer a safe course for our ship of state in the maelstrom of world envy engendered by a knowledge of our wealth and power.
In the accomplishment of our industrial achievements the United States has reinvested its profits in the development of horsepower, automatic machinery, labor-saving devices, transportation, communication, organization, administration, and, since the World War, has given further impetus to its accomplishments by sharing more and more the fruit of her industries with the wage-earning class. In the progress thus made the demand for brains to replace brawn has been an ever-increasing factor in the production of our goods as to quantity and quality in order to maintain our sense of well-being, high standards of living, and to meet the competition of the world at large.
A course of instruction in citizenship must emphasize the necessity of the education of our masses as an economic measure in supplying the great need of modern industry.
7. Philosophy of American Government. — The philosophy of government, as set up under our Constitution, finds its keynote in individualism as opposed to that misguided philosophy of government, collectivism, which makes the State paramount in its demands over the inalienable rights of its individual citizens. Incomprehensible as it may seem, the political problems of America and of the world at large are embodied in this question of individualism as opposed to collectivism as the philosophy of government for the future development and welfare of nations.
Emphasis must be laid upon the benefits and advantages accruing to each individual citizen of our country under the form of government set up as the supreme law of the land in the Constitution of the United States of America.
MISSION OF COURSE
Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic------------------------------9
Character building ------------------------------------------------------- 10
National defense---------------------------------------------------------- 11
8. General purpose. — This course in citizenship is designed to teach the fundamental principles upon which our Government is founded, including an insight into the social and economic elements upon which our civilization stands. Special emphasis is laid upon the meaning of "liberty," as interpreted by the founders of this Republic, and the larger relationship of the individual citizen to others and to his Government, defining loyalty and national responsibility in terms of citizenship, recognizing that an intelligent and informed people is a greater asset than are the unintelligent, uninformed, or misinformed, and that no government can exist upon a plane higher than the moral character of its people.
9. Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic. — Because of the rapid increase in our population, largely made up of immigrants from all parts of the world, the tendency within the family and the school is to neglect the training of our youth in the knowledge of his Government and his individual responsibility. It can not be expected that foreign-born parents, lacking knowledge or inspiration of American ideals, will be either fitted or inspired to give such instruction to their own children.
The indifference or the neglect of native-born citizens concerning the training of their children to meet the responsibilities of citizenship is largely caused by lack of information and proper tinderstanding of the history, ideals, and underlying principles of our political institutions.
The remarkable development of industry in America has caused a congestion of population in our large cities, creating social, economic, and political problems that materially affect the structure of our Government.
The solution of the problems of citizenship lies largely in the education of the youth of America in the principles of representative government and their personal responsibility in perpetuating and improving her free institutions.
10. Character building. — The ever-increasing wants as compared to the needs of humanity, the added individual burdens and problems of modern civilization, emphasizing material rather than
ethical and spiritual attainment, are tending to break down the character of our youth.
It is the mission of this course to specially emphasize the moral aspects of citizenship — to build up home discipline, reverence for religion, and respect for constituted authority.
11. National defense. — Education and training in citizenship form a vital part of national defense. It will be the mission of this course to interpret national defense through a broad and comprehensive instruction in citizenship, stressing the responsibility of the individual citizen to become fully prepared for the defense of his country in any emergency that may arise, whether of domestic or foreign import, in peace or in war.
Time allotted ------------------------------------------------------------- 12
12. Time allotted. — In this course of citizenship adequate time will be allotted for instruction, arranged in a number of short periods of not more than 40 minutes' duration each, which may be supplemented by addresses and travelogues illustrated with stereopticon slides, covering outstanding phases of American history, given to combined groups at such time and frequency as directed by the camp commander, with special reference to rainy-day schedules.
13. Outlined topics. — This course will be given under a series of outlined topics briefly presented by the instructor, preceded by a few succinct historical statements bearing upon the development of our country.
14. Questionnaire. — Brief questionnaires, containing a number of questions pertinent to the subject matter contained in each lesson, are given as an aid to the instructor in guiding the general discussions by the students.
15. Subject matter suggestive. — This course is not intended to teach the details of American history, but to give special emphasis to pertinent facts and principles associated with the foundation, development, and preservation of our Government as to its social, economic, and political phases. The instructors should briefly explain the historical and psychological aspects to the various forms of government. '
The subject matter and illustrations are suggestive only and are given as guides in teaching the fundamental principles of government and citizenship. The instructor will make application of these principles in such a manner as to stimulate individual thinking, leaving it to the student to reach his own conclusions based upon the facts and situations discussed.
18. Plan of instruction. — In the presentation of this course it is necessary for the instructor to give certain definite and concise information concerning the outstanding characteristics of our country; the fundamental principles of our Government; the spirit and will to do by which it attained its present position; emphasizing the encouragement, assistance, and protection granted every individual citizen as guaranteed in our Constitution as the supreme law of the Nation; developing the idea of individual responsibility and intelligent participation in government as an economic necessity as well as an evidence of patriotism and loyalty to our country.
The didactic method concerning facts of history, social changes, economic development, and basic principles of our Government will be used without discussion and without argument, special emphasis being given to the fact that the United States is a Republic, not a democracy.
Group discussions will be led by the instructor covering the cardinal points of each lesson as outlined in the text, care being exercised to confine the discussion to the limits of the lesson.
17. Selection of instructors. — There shall be designated a director of citizenship training for each Citizens' Military Training Camp. Under his supervision company officers carefully selected by the camp commander will act as instructors in this course.
18. Suggestions for instructors. — Instructors are particularly cautioned to confine instruction and discussion in each study period not only to the lesson text but also to keep it within the scope of the general division (social, economic, political) to which that particular lesson is related. The tendency is to wander away into a discussion of all three phases of citizenship, because of the close interrelationship existing in- all the lessons. Clarity of instruction can be had only through close observance of this suggestion.
The instructor must use language simple enough to be readily understood by all.
The text of these lessons is so arranged as to permit additional time for study and discussion when such opportunity is available through accommodation to rainy-day schedules.
19. Supplemental instruction. — At the discretion of the camp commander, instruction may be supplemented by addresses given by selected speakers to the combined student body on subjects related to citizenship.
As a part of this course historic facts and brief statements taken from the speeches and writings of distinguished Americans may be projected on the screen immediately preceding the feature picture at all motion-picture shows.
20. Efficiency. — To secure the most efficient results, the officers detailed as instructors should be thoroughly trained in the method of using the various studies in citizenship and the questionnaires.
A refresher or normal course will be conducted in each camp for the instruction of the designated instructors in subject matter and method of presentation, with the view of having the classes in citizenship faced by instructors as alert, competent, and as confident as are the platoons in the military drill.
PART II — COURSE OF INSTRUCTION
I. Lesson 1. — The American citizen ---------------------------- 21-30
II. Lesson 2. — Independent relationships ----------------------- 31-44
III. Lesson 3. — Character, the greatest asset of America ------- 45-52
IV. Lesson 4. — Great Americans and their achievements ----- 53-71
V. Lesson 5. — Economic development of America ---------- 72-92
VI. Lesson 6. — Individual initiative ---------------------------- 93-102
VII. Lesson 7. — Liberty and independence ------------------ 103-112
VIII. Lesson 8. — The purpose of government ---------------- 113-117
IX. Lesson 9. — Representative government ----------------- 118-135
X. Lesson 10. — Personal responsibility --------------------- 136-144
XI. Lesson 11. — Self-preservation --------------------------- 145-158
XII. Lesson 12. — The American flag ------------------------- 159-172
SECTION I LESSON 1
THE AMERICAN CITIZEN
Definition of citizenship ------------------------------------------------ 21
Origin of citizenship ---------------------------------------------------- 22
Source of American citizenship ---------------------------------------- 23
Acquisition of American citizenship ----------------------------------- 24
Immigration and naturalization.
No dual allegiance-------------------------------------------------------- 25
Right of suffrage---------------------------------------------------------- 27
Guaranties as to person and property ---------------------------------- 28
Obligations of citizenship ----------------------------------------------- 29
I am an American -------------------------------------------------------- 30
21. Definition of citizenship. — Citizenship is that membership in a nation which includes full civil and political rights, subject to such limitations as may be imposed by the government thereof.
22. Origin of citizenship. — Citizenship as we understand it today is the result of centuries of social, economic, and political experiments, in which improvement in human relations has slowly developed the idea of the benefits of governmental rules and restrictions for the protection of the rights of persons and property.
Ancient Greece was composed of a number of city states, each one independent of the other and conferring certain privileges upon its subjects. The greatest advantages of citizenship among these city states was conferred by the Athenians, limited, however, to native sons of native fathers and mothers, excluding from such privileges foreigners and slaves. The Athenian idea of citizenship was philosophical rather than practical.
It was left to the Romans, in succeeding centuries, to develop the more practical phases of citizenship, i.e., safety of the Republic, public service, stern simplicity, devotion to duty.
Above all other duties and obligations was placed that of unselfish duty to the state. It was this Roman virtue of loyalty to public duty, this devotion on the part of the citizen to the interest of the state, that, more than any other quality of the Roman character, helped to make Rome great.
Roman citizenship was confined to a privileged class, native or adopted. In the Anglo-Saxon races there was slowly developed the idea and ideals of self-government and of individual worth, in contrast with the earlier Greek and Roman domination of the state over the individual.
Out of these experiments in government and human relations there has been evolved the ideals and principles of American citizenship.
23. Source of American citizenship. — The source of American citizenship is found in the Constitution and subsequent Federal enactments.
24. Acquisition of American citizenship. — American citizenship is acquired in two ways:
Birth. — For 150 years following the first settlement of the American Colonies their inhabitants were citizens and subjects of a foreign power.
With the successful conclusion of tho Revolutionary War, terminating with the treaty of peace, 1783, all persons born in the United States before the Declaration of Independence could be regarded as American citizens.
By the civil rights act of 1866 it was provided that —
All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are declared to be citizens of the United States.
By the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution —
All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
It has been decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that the children of domiciled aliens born in the United States are citizens under the fourteenth amendment. This is also true of the children of alien parents ineligible to citizenship through naturalization.
Immigration and naturalization. — Under the Constitution, Congress is given the power over both immigration and naturalization. In order to determine their fitness to enter the United States, each immigrant, on his arrival, is subjected to a physical and mental examination by officers of the Public Health Service. Under the immigration act the following classes of persons are excluded from entering the United States:
Idiots. Insane. Epileptics.
Paupers and persons likely to become a public charge. Professional beggars.
Persons suffering from tuberculosis or other dangerous or loathsome contagious diseases.
Persons physically or mentally so defective as to be unable to making a living.
Persons convicted of a crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, Polygamists. Anarchists.
Women or girls imported for immoral purposes and persons aiding in their importation.
Children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by their parents.
With certain exceptions no alien ineligible to citizenship is admissible to the United States.
All aliens brought into the country in violation of the law are, if possible, immediately sent back to the country whence they came on the vessel bringing them, at the expense of the vessel owners.
There is also a heavy fine upon the transportation company or vessel owner for unlawfully introducing immigrants into the United States
Because of the great influx of nonassimilable people, which tended to lower American standards of living, and to better develop a homogenous body politic, Congress, in 1923, passed the immigration restriction act.
The abnormal immigration to America is shown in the census returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920, as follows:
The law governing immigration provides that the annual quota from each country until July 1, 1927, is 2 per cent of the number of foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in continental United States as shown by the 1890 census, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100.
The quota for each fiscal year thereafter will be based on a total immigration of 150,000.
The annual quota of any nationality for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, and for each fiscal year thereafter, shall be a number which bears the same ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 1920 having that national origin (ascertained as hereinafter provided in this section) bears to the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 1920, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. — Immigration laws, 1927.
Under the Articles of Confederation the power of naturalization was in the States, thereby creating confusion through the lack of uniformity in conferring citizenship.
The authority for naturalization is to be found in the Constitution and Federal laws.
The Constitution has accordingly, with great propriety * * * authorized the General Government to establish a uniform rule of naturalization throughout the United States. — Madison.
Constitution, Article I, Sect. 8, Para. 4; Fourteenth Amendment.
Under the Constitution two methods of naturalization have grown up:
(1) By the general act of Congress conferring citizenship upon a whole class of persons, such as tribes of Indians, and the inhabitants of a new territory, like Hawaii, acquired by the United States.
(2) The general and more usual method is prescribed by the Revised Statutes, which requires the fulfillment of certain conditions before final admission into citizenship.
R. S. 3S1. Oath renouncing foreign allegiance and to support constitution and laws. — He shall, before he is admitted to citizenship, declare on oath in open court that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty, and particularly by name to the prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject; that he will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and bear true faith and allegiance to the same. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4. 34 Stat. 596.
R. S. 382. Evidence of residence, character, and attachments to principles of Constitution; evidence of witnesses. — It shall be made to appear to the satisfaction of the court admitting any alien to citizenship that immediately preceding the date of his application he has resided continuously within the United States, five years at least, and within the State or Territory where such court is at the time held one year at least, and that during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same. In addition to the oath of the applicant, the testimony of at least two witnesses, citizens of the United States, as to the facts of residence, moral character, and attachment to the principles of the Constitution shall be required, and the name, place of residence, and occupation of each witness shall be set forth in the record. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4, 34 Stat. 596.
25. No dual allegiance. — Every alien should become a citizen in order that he may vote and hold office, and in all ways take an active part in developing, building and maintaining the Government — national and local — that protects him.
There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn't an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag, and this excludes the red flag, which symbolizes all wars against liberty and civilization, just as much as it excludes any foreign flag of a nation to which we are hostile.
We have room for one sole loyalty and that is loyalty to the American people. — Roosevelt.
26. Dual citizenship. — The Supreme Court declares that there are two kinds of citizenship, State and National.
Citizens of the United States residing in any State enjoy the rights of both State and United States citizenship.
In the protection thereof we look to the National Government if the source of such rights lies in the Constitution and laws of the United States; and to the State government if such rights are based upon the constitution and laws of the State.
Dual citizenship does not imply a divided allegiance. While a State commands allegiance of its citizens the paramount allegiance is to the Union.
Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. — Webster.
27. Right of suffrage. — Under the Constitution, the National Government confers American citizenship, but it is left to the States to determine who may vote at both its own and national elections. — Constitution, Article I, section 8, paragraph 4; fourteenth and fifteenth amendments.
In America public opinion is the ultimate force of Government. It is the expression of the mind and conscience of the whole Nation, without respect to sectional or partisan alliances.
Under the Constitution, voting is the only means provided for the expression of public opinion — it is the exercise of the will of the citizen in the protection of his rights.
28. Guaranties as to person and property. — The United States is composed of 48 sovereign States, each State having its individual constitution and laws. Yet no State may discriminate against the rights and privileges of the citizen of any other State as to person or property. Among these guaranties are —
Opportunity for education and individual improvement.
Unrestricted possession of property.
Joint rights to interstate commerce, communication, and transportation. Public utilities.
Freedom of residence and choice of occupation.
Care or protection on the high seas or abroad through passport privileges and international law.
29. Obligations of citizenship. — Active citizenship is gained only by becoming an enfranchised citizen of a State. This carries with it the obligation of a clear understanding of the principles of government and the courage to demand that these principles be not abridged.
Andrew Jackson said that every good citizen makes his country's honor his own. and not only cherishes it as precious, but sacred.
Lincoln declared: "I must stand by anybody that stands right; stand with him while he is right; and part with him when he is wrong."
It is essential that the individual citizen exercise his right of franchise — vote — as his paramount duty at all elections.
Uphold the Constitution as the one assurance of the security and perpetuation of the free institutions of America.
Practice self-government to assure good government for all.
Respect the rights of others, to assure the enjoyment of his own.
Contribute to the maintenance of his Government by the payment of taxes.
Obey the law as the first essential to law enforcement. Place service to country above service to self. Conform his conduct to the best interests of society. The opportunities and privileges of the American citizen are limited only by his individual ability, his personal habits, and conformity to necessary legal regulations. It is your obligation to exercise —
Care in your choice of occupation. Diligence in preparation for your task. Thrift to insure advancement and prosperity. Judgment in selection of companions. Integrity, honor, initiative, self-reliance, self-control.
80. I am an American. — "I am an American" is a challenge to the highest ideals and aspirations of mankind; to self-sacrifice and devotion: to loyalty and patriotism; to joyful work and courageous achievement; to magnanimity and charity to all and malice to none; as we seek to uphold and perpetuate the principles of our great Republic.
I live an American; I shall die an American; and I intend to perform the duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of my career. I mean to do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the personal consequences? What is the individual man, with all the good or evil which may betide him, in comparison with the good or evil which may befall a great country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's fate? Let the consequences be what they will. I am careless No man can suffer too much, no man fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall ill the defense of the liberties and Constitution of his country — Daniel Webster.
In the days of the Caesars "I am a Roman citizen" was a proud exultant declaration. It was protection. It was more — it was honor and glory. Twenty centuries of advancing civilization have given to the declaration "I am an American" a higher and nobler place. It stands today in the forefront of earthly titles. It proclaims a sharing in the greatest opportunities. It is a trumpet call to the highest fidelity. It is the diploma of the world, the highest which humanity has to bestow — Judge Brewer of the Supreme Court.
Describe the development of the idea of "citizenship."
What is the source of "American citizenship"?
How is "American citizenship" acquired?
What is the status of the children of domiciled aliens born in the United States?
Who has power over immigration and naturalization?
To what examination is the immigrant subjected on his arrival? What classes of persons are excluded from the United States by the Immigration Act? What disposition is made of immigrants belonging to the restricted classes? To whom is the execution of the Immigration Laws entrusted?
What was the significance of the immigration to America by the census returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920?
What has Congress done to limit immigration? Why? What is the source of the authority for naturalization? Explain the provision for naturalization under the Articles of Confederation. Under the Constitution. What is the attitude of the United States toward "dual allegiance"?
Explain the meaning of "dual citizenship."
What is the function of "public opinion"?
Who has power over the right of suffrage?
What guaranties, as to person and property are provided the citizen by the Federal Government?
Community relationships ----------------------------------------------- 33
Coordinated action. National relationships ---------------------------- 34
Articles of Confederation.
Interstate commerce. International relationships --------------------- 35
The State Department. Beneficial to person and property ----------- 36
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance.
Beneficial to production ------------------------------------------------- 37
Accumulation of capital.
Relations between management and men
Results in progress ------------------------------------------------------ 38
A Nation of specialists -------------------------------------------------- 39
Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer -------------------- 40
The telephone Public utilities ------------------------------------------- 41
Business. Beneficial to peace ------------------------------------------- 42
Unselfishness. Cosmopolitan character of population---------------- 43
Full privileges of citizenship.
Immigrant not all problem. Our opportunity ------------------------- 44
31. Development of civilization. — Civilization had its beginning in the establishment of the family, then in the grouping of families, tribes, states, and nations.
Through these various stages there was developed a crude order of society based primarily upon the will of an outstanding individual with power to enforce that will by control of physical forces and the means of livelihood. Thus was established the basis of society, imperfect in its form, inadequate in its results, yet containing the essential elements for refinement and progress, viz, social intercourse, protection, and advantages.
32. Mutual relationships. — In the beginning, lacking means of communication and transportation and confining efforts principally to the production of mere necessities of life, individuals and groups lived largely independently of each other.
With increasing wants, the result of enlightened intellect, with increasing facilities in transportation and communication, with development of ability for invention and improvement, independence gave way to interdependence to such a degree that today the welfare of every individual is woven into the fabric of modern society.
33. Community relationships. — If you destroy the dam builded by a colony of beavers, they set about its reconstruction, using the identical plan, method, and tools common to their species throughout all generations. Animal intelligence contains no quality that enables improvement beyond the inherited abilities or instincts of its kind. Herein lies the marked distinction between the highest type of animal and the lowest type of human intelligence.
Man possesses the ability to profit by the accomplishments of the past, to improve, and to develop. Upon this ability the development of past civilizations has depended. Upon this same ability the civilizations of the present and future are predicated. Out of this have grown community relationships established in ordered society upon the law of reason, supplanting the law of will, and ever increasing in its benefits to all, with the growing understanding of the rights and worth of the individual member of society.
Coordinated action. — Coordinated group action has strength in so far as its members work together for the attainment of a common purpose — the subordination of self for the good of all. Only by helping others can we help ourselves. "He profits most who serves best."
In the development of her strength, wealth, and accomplishments America is founded upon the establishment of successive communities bound together individually and collectively, by interdependent relationships created and coordinated in home, school, church, and local self-government, as expressed in town meetings in which each individual member contributed his part to that greatest of all forces by which the character of the people of our Nation is sustained and developed — public opinion.
34. National relationships. — In the development of our colonies the need of protection for person and property, of cooperation in the development of resources, of exchange of products and labor in the creation of comforts and wealth, of consolidated action in resisting oppression and establishing rights, created a national relationship
binding communities and States in a federation designed for the welfare of all.
Articles of Confederation. — Under the Articles of Confederation, trade rivalries separated the new States from each other. There was an emphasis of State over National interests: One State lost its supply of cheap manufacturing material; industries suffered from want of coal, factories from lack of material, markets were limited; economic barriers were set up, no cooperation existed, exclusiveness prevailed.
Constitution. — Grown now to a union of 48 States, working in a spirit of harmony and cooperation, restricted yet greatly benefited by our Constitution and statutes, we have come to be in point of wealth, attainment, and influence one of the outstanding nations of the world.
Under our Constitution the departments of government are set up for the express purpose of coordination and cooperation for the general welfare of the Nation.
Interstate commerce. — Notwithstanding the sovereignty of each of the States composing our Union, great freedom is enjoyed as to residence, travel, trade, and property rights among their citizens which has developed an interstate commerce of tremendous volume and worth.
Commerce among the States embraces navigation, intercourse, communication, travel, the transit of persons, transmission of messages by telegraph. — Justice Harlan.
Railways, air transports, postal service, telephones, telegraph, radiograms, help to unite the Nation by an exchange of goods or information, so that each citizen may know and profit by what the others are doing.
The Interstate Commerce Commission contributes to the development of "a more perfect union," which is an active association for cooperative effort. This commission touches the various interests of all of the people. Its benefits of regulations are in the interest of public necessities. It provides for a quick settlement of labor disputes affecting interstate trade and transportation, the control of which is lodged in the Federal Government.
35. International relationships. — In the development of those international relations which are in accord with the principles of interdependence, each nation must assume a larger responsibility and take a more active part in world affairs.
Due to the remarkable progress of civilization, isolation is no longer possible. International problems developing from ever-changing economic and political conditions demand consideration and application of the principles of interdependent relationships as the means of securing the general welfare of mankind.
I demand that the Nation do its duty and accept the responsibility that must go with greatness. — Roosevelt.
The State Department. — The State Department is the "friendly relations department" of our Government; by treaties and diplomatic negotiations beneficent relationships with foreign counties are secured and insured, establishing a spirit of accord and amity without which it would not be possible to carry on our part in world affairs to the good of all concerned.
36. Beneficial to person and property. — The efficacy of our Constitution lies in the fact that it contains a statement of fundamental purposes relating to human associations and plan for their accomplishment, susceptible of such interpretation as to make them applicable to changing conditions.
Among the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution are "domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare." The accomplishment of these purposes is based upon observance of the principles of interdependent relationships.
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance. — The security of persons and property is one of the inherent rights of mankind. It is guarded and guided by statutory laws, uniform in their restrictions and benefits, so that every citizen is fully protected in his rights.
Uniform laws are valuable in their benefits in proportion to uniform acceptance and observance. May a man have complete personal liberty? May a man do as he pleases? He may provided he is not a member of organized society. To attempt such action as a citizen constitutes him an outlaw in such ratio as his independence interferes with the rights of others and breaks down the structure of government. All crime is, ignorantly or wilfully, a violation of the principle of interdependent relationships.
Experience has revealed the necessity for united action to assure the greatest protection to the individual. Neither in person nor property will the individual find security without the assistance of his neighbor, community, State, and Nation. The higher the value we place upon human life and welfare, and the greater our accumulation of property, the more we must rely upon interdependent relationships based upon justice and inspired by mutual confidence and reciprocal endeavor.
37. Beneficial to production. — Industry is essentially the subjection of natural forces — the manipulation of natural material to the
uses of mankind; it brings into action the worker, the engineer, the inventor, the organizer, the administrator, the combined energies of whom are liberated and set in motion by finance.
Accumulation of capital. — Thrift is the foundation stone of effective economic interdependence. The individual must practice frugality, engage in hard work, and acquire the habit of wise spending — so living within his means as to enable a saving of a portion of the product of his labor.
In industry wealth is the product of saving; it is secured in part by the elimination of waste and the corresponding conservation of materials and labor practiced by both individuals and groups, and saving or the accumulation of capital is as much the duty of the employee as of the employer.
Relations between management and men. — To derive the greatest value from interdependent relationship between employer and employee there must be created a spirit of good will and cooperation in which there is a recognition of mutual worth and mutual responsibility.
The atmosphere surrounding the relationship between management and men must eliminate fear, apprehension, and uncertainty. Only by the establishment of mutual understanding, confidence, and respect can effective cooperation and teamwork be secured. That employee renders best service who has an intelligent understanding of the relation of his part to the whole.
38. Results in progress. — Bound together by the ties of common interest and mutual benefits, Society has advanced from the crude hieroglyphic to the printed page. The smoke signal of the Indian to the radio. The tallow candle to the electric light. The hollowed log canoe to the Leviathan. The ox-drawn prairie schooner to the airplane.
39. A Nation of specialists. — We are a Nation of specialists because experience has taught us that greater benefits will accrue to one and all through each individual learning to do one thing well.
The physician looks after our health. The teacher gives instruction. The farmer grows the grain. The lawyer attends to legal matters.
Others specialize in providing all the comforts and conveniences of home.
No one citizen builds his own house, manufactures the plumbing equipment, generates the electricity, constructs the heating plant, or provides the fuel for its operation. He does not pave the street, put in his own waterworks, provide police and fire protection, establish his own school, church, hospital, or theater.
40. Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer. — Individual necessities, comforts, and conveniences as now enjoyed are the product of accumulated capital and labor, represented in modern organization, transportation, great factories, distant farms, tropical plantations, the trappers of the frozen northlands, tho fishermen of the seas, and delivered daily to our homes by an army of tradesmen who administer, to our wants and are in turn dependent upon us for their livelihood.
The telephone. — No better illustration of interdependence can be found than in the story of that all-necessary convenience, the telephone) It is difficult to imagine the diversified labor, the problems of transportation, the world-wide accumulation of materials, and the tremendous outlay of capital required in the manufacture of this marvelous instrument which receives and transmits the human voice regardless of distance.
Men toiling in the mica mines of India, in the platinum fields of the Ural Mountains, in the forests and jungles of far-off Asia, Africa, and South America, in the great forests of the Northwest, in the iron, copper, and lead mines, and the great steel works of the United States, produce the materials that go into the making of your telephone and the exchange controls.
The following raw materials, gathered literally from the four corners of the world, are used: Platinum, gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, steel, tin, lead, aluminum, nickel, brass, rubber, mica, silk, cotton, asphalt, shellac, paper, carbon.
With the assembling of raw materials, and their fabrication in great factories into the completed instrument, there is added the work of organization and administration required in obtaining capital, franchises, building lines and conduits, installation of switchboards, and training personnel. Your telephone call to all points of the compass is made possible by these materials and the labor of nearly1400,000 employees in the United States alone.
41, Public utilities. — Public utilities corporations build great hydroelectric plants in one State for distribution of power to many. Coal, copper, iron ore are mined and transported to places of greatest advantage to industry. Railroad, telegraph, and telephone companies invest billions of dollars in properties and conduct their affairs to the benefit and profit of the Nation. Great dams are constructed and the desert lands of many States made fruitful by
the vast irrigation systems treated. Capital is consolidated and labor employed, farms enriched, cities builded, and our citizens bound together in one cooperative, prosperous, happy union by the magic power of interdependent relationships.
Business. — Business, to insure success, must keep in closest touch with the ever changing affairs of social, economic, and political conditions. Vast sums of money are spent on new products, improved equipment, research laboratories, inventions, in creating new appetites and new markets.
42. Beneficial to peace. — In America a degree of independence is developed out of which is born the idea in the minds of many that a citizen of the United States may be a law unto himself, retaining, however, the disposition to regulate the other fellow. If he does not like the law he seeks a way to evade it, at the same time shouting vociferously over the increase of crime and the lessened influence of our courts. He demands the highest wages obtainable and complains at the prices he must pay for the product of his fellow laborer. He insists upon his right to independence and liberty, yet is ever ready to restrict such action on the part of others. That citizen who has not developed the spirit of cooperation, understanding and tolerance is at war with his fellow man.
The unity of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal peace and the establishment of our Government may safely rest. It will always prove an adequate rampart against the vicious and disorderly. — Washington.
Unselfishness. — Every American citizen must guard against the spirit of selfishness, the inordinate desire for material gain, the temptation to live beyond his means, and the tendency to find the easiest way to obtain the most in satisfying his constantly increasing wants.
Honesty — individual and collective, national and international — inspiring confidence wherein there is neither room for trickery nor unfair practices is the basis of the principle of interdependent relationships. Such honesty rests not so much upon legal rights as upon the Golden Rule.
43. Cosmopolitan character of population. — The United States in her philosophy of self-determination emphasizes the ideas and ideals of human rights and human associations. In the fulfillment of this policy she opened wide her gates to the peoples of the earth, inviting them to share with her the blessings of liberty.
Somewhat less than half the racial stock of America's 108,000,000 white inhabitants are of British blood. Of the 95,000,000 whites, in 1920, 14,000,000 were born in foreign countries and 23,000,000 were of foreign or mixed parentage. There are 1,672.000 Germans, 1,600,000 Italians, 1,250,000 Russians, 500,000 Czechoslovakians, 465,000 Austrians, 370,000 Hungarians. There are 1,500,000 foreign born over 10 years of age unable to speak the English language. This foreign population supports over 1,000 newspapers published in 30 different languages.
There are no more untapped racial reserves.
Full privileges of citizenship. — The immigrant to America is particularly favored under the laws of the United States. Before the native-born youth can exercise the right of franchise he must live under the influence of our system of Government, acquire his education, and enlarge it through associations and experience for a period of 21 years from his birth to his majority. It is possible for the immigrant (18 years or over), subject to certain restrictions to issuance of first papers, with little education, without that knowledge of our Government, association and experience, obtained only through years of residence, to have granted to him the full privileges of citizenship five years after his arrival.
Resultant duties. — In return for the opportunities and privileges established through her own sacrifices and paid for with the enormous exactions of treasure and human life, she expects — and has the right to demand that those who accept her hospitality shall respect her principles — that those who elect to live in the security and comfort of her homes and institutions shall give due honor and award full allegiance to her Constitution and shall in no instance, either by choice or through ignorant acquiescence, seek to despoil the land in which were bred freedom, equality, and opportunity.