Turk J Bot
(2016) 40: 373-379
Two new Achillea L. (Asteraceae) species from Turkey
Zeki AYTAÇ*, Hayri DUMAN, Murat EKİCİ
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey
* Correspondence: email@example.com
Compositae (Asteraceae) has about 23,000 species, 1620
genera, 30 tribes, and 5 subfamilies throughout the world
(Kubitzki, 2007). Achillea is included in the Anthemideae
Cass. tribe and is represented by about 115 taxa in the
world. According to the latest studies, Achillea has 6
sections and 58 taxa, and 53% (31) of these are endemic
to Turkey (Arabacı, 2012). All sections, except for sect.
Arthrolepis Boiss. and sect. Santolinoidea DC., have more
than 10 capitula on their inflorescence (Huber-Morath,
1975, 1986). Although the members of this genus are
usually distributed in inner, eastern, and southeastern
Anatolia, A. cretica L., A. nobilis L. subsp. densissima
(O.Schwarz ex Bässler) Hub.-Mor., and A. grandifolia Friv.
grow in the southwestern parts of Anatolia.
Unusual specimens belonging to Achillea were collected
from Babadağ during a project supported by the Ministry
of the Environment and Forestry in southern Anatolia (C2,
Fethiye district, Muğla Province) and during a floristic
expedition in the Aladağlar Mountains (Niğde Province).
All samples were compared with many other Achillea
specimens collected from different localities and deposited
in various herbaria in Turkey such as ANK, GAZI,
HUB, and KYN (see Appendix on the journal’s website).
Furthermore, all the relevant literature was checked
(Huber-Morath, 1975 and 1986; Richardson, 1976; Valant-
Vetschera, 1996 and 2000; Duman, 2000; Arabacı and
Yıldız, 2006a and 2006b). After close examination of the
specimens, we concluded that they belonged to hitherto
undescribed species of sect. Santolinoidea and were closely
related to A. sintenisii Hub.-Mor., A. sipikorensis Hausskn.
& Bornm., A. milliana H.Duman, and A. armenorum
Boiss. & Hausskn.
2. Materials and methods
The morphological data used in the description of the
new species were directly obtained from the authors’
collections from Muğla and Niğde and by using a binocular
stereoscopic microscope when necessary.
The pollen and seed morphologies of these species
were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at
GAZI. The pollen was treated with 70% alcohol and then
dried before mounting on stubs with gold for the SEM
study. The SEM photomicrographs were taken with a JEOL
JSM 6060 SEM at Gazi University. Names of the plants were
checked using the IPNI database (2012) and terminologies
for pollen morphology were used in accordance with Punt
et al. (2007). The author names of plants were checked
using Brummit and Powell (1992).
Achillea adenii Aytaç & M.Ekici sp. nov. (Figure 1)
rocks, 1600–1650 m, 23.07.2011, Aytaç 10429 & M. Ekici
( holotype: GAZI; isotypes: ANK, HUB, and Yıldırımlı).
Paratype: Turkey, C2 Muğla, Fethiye, Babadağ,
calcareous rocks, 1500–1600 m, 14.06.1993, Koyuncu
10427 & H. Duman (AEF).
Abstract: Two new Achillea species, Achillea adenii Aytaç & M.Ekici and Achillea baltai H.Duman & Aytaç sp. nov. of sect. Santolinoidea
DC. (Asteraceae), are described and illustrated as new species. A. adenii grows at Babadağ in Muğla Province (southwestern Anatolia),
while A. baltai grows at Aladağlar in Niğde Province. Diagnostic morphological characters, which are useful in discriminating the two
new species from their close relatives, A. sintenisii Hub.-Mor., A. sipikorensis Hausskn. & Bornm., and A. armenorum Boiss. & Hausskn.,
are presented. Some notes on the ecology, pollen and seed morphology, conservation status, and distributions of the new species and a
key to related species are also given.
Figure 1. Achillea adenii. A- Habitus, B- stem leaf, C- cross-section of leaves, D- outer phyllaries, E- inner phyllaries,
F- palea, G- ray flowers, H- tubular flowers, I- achene (Aytaç 9779 et al.).
Diagnosis: Achillea adenii is related to A. sintenisii but
it differs by its longer stem (30–40 cm, not 10–25 cm);
stem leaf segments always simple and ovate-lanceolate
(not undivided or 3-lobed and orbicular); peduncle 5–7
cm (not 3–5 cm), single capitulum (not 1–4); only outer
phyllaries pannose on middle veins, others glabrous
(not tomentose to glabrescent), phyllaries with scarious
margins (not scarious); ligules 10–12 mm (not 3–5.5
mm). It is similar to A. sipikorensis with its always solitary
capitulum, but the ligules are 6–8 and 10–12 mm long (not
8–10(–15) and 6–8 mm long).
Description: Perennial herb with woody rootstocks.
Stems procumbent, numerous, 30–40 cm long, with
short sterile shoots, unbranched, terete, obtusely four-
angled, adpressed to subadpressed tomentose. Leaves
homomorphic, wooly-tomentose, linear, median cauline
ones 7–16 × 1–2 mm, pinnatisect, with ovate lanceolate,
1–3-denticulate, apiculate segments 0.5–1 mm, undivided.
Peduncles 5–7 cm. Capitula 1(–2) per stem, globose to
hemispherical and depressed, 10–12 × 8–10 mm, broadly
rounded at base. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, outer ones 10–12
mm, ovate-oblong, median ones oblong-orbicular, inner
ones lanceolate, all phyllaries scarious-margined, outers
ones pannose on middle vein. Receptacle paleaceous;
palea 5–6 mm, linear-lanceolate, membranaceous. Ligules
6–8, white, 10–12 mm long, with three lobes; tube 3–4
mm, lobes 7–8 mm, oblanceolate; anthers yellow, slightly
exerted from tube. Disc flowers cream, 50–70, 3.5–4 mm,
slightly exerted from involucres; style brownish, 1–2 mm,
stigma two-partite as long as style. Cypselae oblong, 2–3
mm, compressed dorsally. Papus absent.
Fl & fr. 5–6, steppe, calcareous slopes, 1500–1650 m.
Pollen structure: Pollen grains of A. adenii are oblate-
spheroidal, tricolporate. P = (17.28) 19.66 ± 1.21, E =
(19.2) 21.8 ± 1.18 (23.28). Ornamentation is echinate to
perforate (Figures 2A and 2B).
compressed dorsally. Ornamentation is reticulate (Figures
3A and 3B).
Figure 2. Pollen micrographs of A. adenii. A- Equatorial view, B- ornamentation (Aytaç 10429 & M. Ekici).
Figure 3. Achene micrographs of A. adenii. A- General appearance, B- ornamentation of seed coat surface (Aytaç 10429 & M. Ekici).
Etymology: This species is named in honor of the
granddaughter of the first author.
in C2 Muğla (Fethiye) Province, where the species seems
to be rare in its habitat. It is known from two different
localities. The range of this local endemic species is
restricted to a single location (IUCN Criteria B1a).
Populations are pure, with an area of occupancy smaller
than 10 km
, and according to field observations, it is
endemic species does not exceed 70–80 in its single
locality (criteria B2a). Therefore, we suggest that Achillea
adenii should be evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR)
according to the IUCN (2011).
Achillea baltai H.Duman & Aytaç sp. nov. (Figure 4)
Type: Turkey, C6 Niğde: Pozantı Dağı, Sivri tepe, 2050–
2100 m, 08.06.2013, calcareous rocks, Duman 10321 & T.
Balta, holotype: GAZI; isotypes: ANK, HUB, Yıldırımlı.
Diagnosis: Achillea baltai is related to A. armenorum
but differs by its narrower leaves (7–15 × 1–1.5 mm, not
5–20 × 1.5–4); longer peduncle 10–20 (not 5–10(–20) mm;
phyllaries 3(–4) (not 4); ray flowers white (not reddish-
purple between lamina and tube); disc flowers completely
white (not tube reddish-purple, lobes white). Ligule 6–8
and 5–6 mm long (not 8–10 and 1.5–2.5 mm long).
Description: Perennial herb with woody rootstocks.
Stems procumbent, numerous, 15–20 cm long, with
short sterile shoots, unbranched, terete, longitudinally
striped, densely wooly-tomentose. Leaves densely wooly-
tomentose, oblong-linear, 7–15 × 1–1.5 mm, pinnatilobate,
segments imbricate, minute, undivided, ovate-triangular,
acuminate to denticulate; median cauline and upper leaves
3–10 × 1–2 mm, pinnatisect, segments densely imbricate,
to 3-lobed, with orbicular, 1-denticulate lobes 0.3–5 mm.
Peduncles 1–2 cm. Capitula 3–9, corymbose, 2–3 cm
broad, involucre hemispherical to globose, 5–8 × 4–8 mm.
Figure 4. Achillea baltai. A- Habitus, B- stem leaf, C- cross-section of leaves, D- capitulum, E- outer phyllaries,
F- inner phyllaries, G- palea, H- ray flowers, I- tubular flowers, J- achene (Duman 10321).
Phyllaries in 3(–4) series, outer ones 2.5–3 × 1–2 mm
× 1–1.5 mm, inner ones as long as median, ±linear, all
phyllaries with scarious brownish margins, white and hairy.
Receptacle paleaceous, palea 2.5–3 mm, linear-lanceolate,
densely long white and hairy. Ligules 6–8, white, reddish-
purple base of limb and tube, 5–6 mm, with 3 lobes; tube
2–3 mm, lobes 2–3 mm; anthers yellowish, exerted from
tube. Disc flowers reddish-purple above, 15–20, 2.5–3
mm, exerted from involucre; style brownish, 1–2 mm,
stigma 2-partite, as long as style. Cypselae oblong, 1.5–2
(immature) mm, compressed dorsally. Pappus absent.
Fl & fr. 5–6, steppe, calcareous slopes, 2050–2100 m.
spheroidal, tricolporate. P = (16.32) 19.49 ± 1.35, E =
(19.2) 21.73 ± 1.18 (24.00). Ornamentation is echinate to
perforate (Figures 5A and 5B).
Balta, who was one of the collectors and supporters of this
Conservational status: The specimens were collected
at C6 Niğde, Pozantı Dağı (Niğde Province), where
the species seems to be very local. It is known from the
type collections. The range of this local endemic species
is restricted to a single location (IUCN Criteria B1a).
Populations are pure, with an area of occupancy smaller
endemic species does not exceed 70–80 in its single locality
(Criteria B2a). Therefore, we suggest that A. baltai should
be evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) according to
the IUCN (2011).
Distribution: A. adenii is currently known only
from the type locality in southern Anatolia, an E. Medit.
element, endemic. A. baltai is known only from the type
locality in central Anatolia, an Irano-Turanian element,
endemic (Figure 6).
While many members of the genus Achillea have more
than one capitula on their stems, some members of sect.
Artholepis and sect. Santolinoidea have 1–4 capitula
on their stems. Only A. sipikorensis has one capitulum,
while A. sintenisii, A. monocephala Boiss. & Balansa,
A. brachyphylla Boiss. & Hausskn., A. membranacea
(Labill.) DC., A. oligocephala DC., A. gypsicola Hub.-Mor.,
A. sivasica Çelik & Akpulat, A. ketenoglui Duman, A.
armenorum Boiss. & Hausskn., A milliana H.Duman, and
A hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak have 1–10 and sometimes
more than 10. All species mentioned above grow within
the Irano-Turanian phytogeographic region.
A. adenii is an E. Mediterranean element and is close
to A. sipikorensis by having one capitulum. It is also close
to A. sintenisii by having a number of capitula and ray
flowers. While A. sipikorensis and A. sintenisii grow in
serpentine or gypsum soil and on calcareous substrates or
gypsum, respectively, in the eastern parts of Anatolia, A.
adenii grows in calcareous soil in the southwestern parts
of Anatolia. This new species is different from its related
species in its geographic distribution and ecological
properties. The comparison of A. adenii, A. sipikorensis,
and A. sintenisii is given in Table 1.
Achillea baltai is very close to A. armenorum, but all
other Achillea species that grow in Turkey have white,
cream, or yellow ligules and disc flowers, while only A.
armenorum has reddish-purple disc flowers. Moreover, the
leaves of A. baltai are narrower and are distinctly imbricate.
It is also closely related to A. milliana H.Duman, but disc
flowers are 15–20 (not 40–50) and capitula more than 5.
Achillea baltai grows on calcareous rocks and in
high steppe regions in the Irano-Turanian region. The
comparison of A. armenorum and A. milliana is given in
The pollen grains of these two species are oblate-
spheroidal, like other Achillea species. According to
Figure 5. Pollen micrographs of A. baltai. A- Equatorial view, B. ornamentation (Duman 10321 & T. Balta).
Figure 6. Distribution of Achillea species: A. adenii ■, A. baltai ▲, A. sintenisii ○, A. armenorum □, A. sipikorensis ∆,
A. milliana ♦, city centers ●.
Always solitary, 6–10 × 7–20 mm
1–4, 4–5 × (5–)6–10 mm
6–8, 10–12 mm
8–10(–15), 6–8 mm
6–8, 3.5–5 mm
Scarious margins, glabrous
Scarious brownish margins, puberulent
Scarious brownish margins,
tomentose to glabrescent
Linear-oblanceolate, 2.5-3 mm
Oblong, 2 mm
Gypsum and serpentine
Calcareous rocks and gypsum hills
Table 2. Comparison of morphological characters between Achillea baltai and A. armenorum.
5–20 × 1.5–4 mm, ±imbricate
5–10 × 1–1.5 mm, densely imbricate
8–10, 1.5–2.5 mm, white
6–8, 4–4.5 mm, white
White to cream, 2.5–3 mm long
Reddish-purple, 3-4 mm long
White, 2–2.5 mm long
Lanceolate, with spreading pilose,
previous studies (Akyalçın et al., 2011; Akyalçin et al.,
microscopy and echinate-microperforate and echinate-
rugulate microperforate in SEM. In conclusion, the
species examined showed substantial variation in pollen
characteristics at both the interspecific and intraspecific
armenorum, A. milliana, and A. baltai
1- Capitula solitary (–2)
2- Ligules 8–10(–15); capitula 6–10 – 7–20 mm..………
2- Ligules 6–8; capitula 10–12 × 8–10 mm……...A. adenii
1- Capitula more than one
3- Leaves linear; ligules 6–8; disc and ligules completely
4- Capitula (1–)2–5(–6); disc flowers 40–60
5- Peduncles 0.5–2 cm; palea pilose……....…..A. milliana
4- Capitula 5–10; disc flowers 15–20…….…..…..A. baltai
3- Leaves linear-oblong; ligules 8–10; tube of disc flowers
and between limb and tube of ligules reddish to
We want to thank Semra Sert for the illustration and Ahter
Vişne for comments on pollen and achene structure.
A. adenii was collected from Fethiye district during the
“Determination of Biodiversity Project for the Fethiye
County, Muğla Province and Special Environmental
Protection Area”. A. baltai was collected during one of the
field trips supported by Tolga Balta, who is the general
director of ENCON (Environmental Consultancy Co.).
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Specimens examined: Achillea sipikorensis: B6 Kayseri: Kırklar geçidi, 2000–2250 m, 28.06.2009, Aytaç 8602 GAZI; Sivas,
Gürün 3 km E Ulaş, 06.06.1990, 1360 m, Nydegger 45652 GAZI; Sivas: Gürün, Akpınar, 15.06.1992, 1650 m, Nydegger 4628
GAZI. Sivas around airport, Çebiler köyü, 1310 m, step, 19.07.2008, Güner et al. 14910, GAZI; B7 Sivas: Yıldızeli, Çırçır
village, 1300 m, steppe, 30.07.1996, Dönmez 5337 HUB; Kangal, Hanyeri Bridge, 1577 m, steppe, 31.06.2011, Özüdoğru
3160, HUB. A. sintenisii: A6 Sivas: Cebiler köyü, 1310 m, jipsli step, 19.07.2008, Güner 14790 et al. GAZI; ibid. Tepeönü
köyü, 1350 m, 08.07.2008 Aytaç 9012 et al. GAZI; Kangal, Mescitli–Kavak, 1660–1670 m, kireçli yamaçlar, 11.07.2007,
Aytaç 9096 et al. GAZI; Hafik, Topçu Yeniköy, 1375 m, 01.06.2003, Aytaç 8488, GAZI; Hafik, Tavşanlı köyü, Tepeli mevkii,
jipsli topraklar, 27.07.1991, Hamzaoğlu 3914 & Aydoğdu, capitula (1–2) usually 3, GAZI; Kayseri–Sivas 11 km, Kayadibi,
1340 m, 13.07.1992, Nydegger 46258, GAZI.
Achillea armenorum: B6 Kahramanmaraş, Göksun, Çardak, Ericek village, Berit Dağı, Arpaçukuru yaylası, 2600 m,
kayalıklar, 24.07.1992, Aytaç 5516 & Duman, GAZI, type locality; ibid. 25.07.1992, Aytaç 5532 & Duman GAZI.
Achillea milliana: C6 Adana, Düziçi, Düldül dağ, 2200 m, limestone rocks, 21.VII.1995, H. Duman 5894 & K.H.C.
Baser & A. Altıntaş (holo. GAZI).