1 What are the types of modality?

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1) What are the types of modality?
I have identified five main types of modality, five senses in which the various categories of modality may be understood. Within each type, all the categories occur, but with other meanings than in the other types. The categories have similar interrelationships and properties within each type. These uniformities allow us to abstract them, but ultimately each type needs to be considered separately. The interactions between types must also be analyzed.
Quantity, or extensional modality, is the primary type of modality, and is the one which was thoroughly dealt with by Aristotle. Two more, temporal modality and natural modality, will presently be analyzed in detail; they interact intimately with quantity. The last two types, logical modality and ethical modality, are each sui generis, and require independent treatment.
It will be soon be evident that the temporal and natural modalities have characteristics in common with quantity. They represent different ways the subject and predicate might be related. They can be combined in certain ways with quantity, to form complex propositions. They are mutually related, in fact form a continuum, although they cannot be compounded together as they can be with quantity. They are subject to rules resembling those found for quantity, because they derive from the same geometric fundamentals.
Each type of modality has its own character. Quantity refers to the proportion of a whole class that is subject to a certain relation to a predicate. Temporal modality refers to the proportion of its whole existence in time that any individual subject happens to have a certain relation to a predicate. Natural modality expresses the degree of causal conditionality concerning such relation.
Extensional modality recognizes the variations which can be found to exist between instances of similar phenomena, be they static or dynamic. Temporal modality proceeds from the occurrence of change in individual things during their existence. Natural modality stems from the belief that ‘laws’ guide events. Our world is diverse in all these senses. There is thus an ontological basis for such distinctions.
Furthermore, Logic must investigate the differences and similarities in behavior of such phenomena, and the results of their interplay. Here, then, is a possible area of new activity for Logic, clarifying the meanings of forms involving modality, and analyzing their oppositions, the eductions possible from them, and the syllogistic arguments involving them. This topic will be dealt with in considerable detail in this treatise.
The two types of modality we are introducing here are effectively qualifications of terms similar to distribution, although strictly speaking they apply to the relationships of terms. Such propositions are complex variations of the standard forms researched by Aristotle, involving an additional factor, modality, which can be subjected to whole-and-part, inclusion-exclusion type analyses, as was done with quantity.
2) Examples of modality in fiction.
Certain categories of lexical-semantic resources can be used independently of each other, and complement each other in different speech situations. For example, the intonation can accompany any display of modality within a fiction. As the source of the examples of transmitting modality from English into Tatar here comes "Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet Beecher Stowe, because, firstly, it has been translated into the Tatar language, and secondly, because of the described situations "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is highly expressive writing.
By prosodic means of expressing modality we understand the intonation of the language, which in linguistics is defined with phrase and logical stresses, pause, rhythm, timbre, tempo and tone. Now let’s see several examples of transmitting modality using prosodic means [7, 8].
The following sentence contains imperative modality, which is expressed by several lexical-semantic means simultaneously. Firstly, this is the increased tone of the statements indicated with the exclamation marks, secondly, the imperative mood, which forms the imperative modality of the extract, finally, this is the grammatical form with the auxiliary verb do before the bare infinitive strengthening and adding into the speech the element of request and despair: "O, ma'am!" said she, wildly, to Mrs. Bird, "do protect us! Do not let them get him!" [9]. The translator into Russian retains the punctuation and imperative mood, while a special grammatical form of the English language organized with the help of the auxiliary verb is described lexically "bespredel'noe otchayanie", "Ego otnimut u menya" [10]. The verb "otnimut", used by the translator, contains strong sense of grief. Translating the strong imperative form, describing despair, into the Tatar language, the translator Garif Gubai uses a verb in the second person of the Present Tense usually ending on –i before the word "kyregez", which replaces the English auxiliary verb do, and also points to the respectful attitude of the speaker through the plural form ending with - gyz, -gez. «O,
khanym, bezne yaklyi kүregez! Ulymny alar kulyna birmәgez» [11].
Exclamation mark and the raised tone in statements may also indicate the real modality:
"Because I'm a freeman!" said George, proudly. "Yes, sir; I've said Mas'r for the last time to any man I'm free.!" [9]. In this case, the reality of the utterance is enhanced by alternating phrases «I'm a freeman!» And «I'm free!», which is known as a special stylistic device “framing”. In the process of transferring into the Tatar language the translator disclaims the exclamation marks in the sentence making it closer to the mentality of Tatars, who rarely exclaim even experiencing joy or indignation. The mood of the speaker is transformed with the help of the lexical means. In this case these are the word «gorurlanyp», associated with the word «gorur» (proud) expresses the inner feelings of the hero combined with a stylistic device expressed with the repetition of the same thought at the beginning and at the end of the sentence. If English and Russian these are a partialrepetition in the Tatar language the identical elements are repeated: «Chonki min khәzer azat keshe, dide Dzhordzh, gorurlanyp. Әie, әfәndem, monnan son min һichber kemgә “khujam” dip endәshmәm. Min khәzer azat keshe» [11]. Here it should be noted that the stylistic means of language can complement any modal phrase, enhancing or inhibiting the expression of the sentence.
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