Andromeda “ruler of men”



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Andromeda “The Chained Woman”

Ἀνδρομέδα

Cherelle Gilger

Physics 1040 section 6 TR 10

Constellation Paper
Mythology
Andromeda was the daughter of Cephus and Cassiopeia. King and Queen of the mythological kingdom Ethiopia. After bragging about her beauty the queen offended the gods by boasting that the princess was more beautiful than the Nereids, the Nymph daughters of Poseidon complained and insist he punish the queen for her arrogance [3]. Brother to Zeus and God of the Sea, Poseidon sent a flood tide upon the land and sea monster by the name of Cetus to ravage the cost for the vain queen [1]. Upon the destruction of his kingdom the oracle of Ammon advised King Cephus that no relief would be found until he sacrifice his virgin daughter to Cetus, the monster of the sea known to destroy both man and beast. Andromeda’s naked body was chained to a rock on the coast of Jaffa, left to the monster Cetus. Upon his return to Greece from slain the Gorgon Medusa Perseus (son of Zeus) noticed the princess chained to a rock on the shoreline. When Perseus saw the princess it was love at first sight. He promised to kill the sea monster and rescue the girl. In return he asked the king and queen for her hand. Oaths were sworn and Perseus slew Cetus and freed Princess Andromeda [2]. [3] A quarrel did arise at the wedding when the king’s brother Phineus showed up demanding his bride. Before her enchaining the princess had been promised to her uncle Phineus. Perseus argued that the contract was no longer valid due to the surrender of her death, but Phineus would not gracefully bow out. When Perseus’ non-violent attempt to persuade Phineus failed he proceeded to show the head of Medusa to his rival. Upon sight of the head Phineus turned to stone. [2] Andromeda followed her husband Perseus to Tiryns in Argos where she gave birth to seven sons and one daughter (although some versions of the myth state there were two daughters). Through the line of their sons Perseus and Andromeda became the ancestors of the family of the Perseidae. Following Andromeda’s death the goddess Athena placed her among the stars between Perseus and Cassiopeia.



[9]
Constellation and Stars
Greek astronomer Ptolemy first catalogued the Andromeda constellation in the second century CE. [10] Andromeda belongs to the Perseus family of constellations. The Andromeda constellation has been called Persea meaning Perseus’ wife and Cepheis meaning Cephus’ daughter in Latin and is also referred to as “chained maiden” [1]. Andromeda is located between Perseus and Cassiopeia with pieces lying between her and Cetus.

Andromeda is an autumn constellation that is V shaped the best time of year to view Andromeda is during the month of November with the suggested time being 9pm. It occupies 722 square degrees and is located close to the North Pole in the first quadrant of the Northern Hemisphere. Andromeda can be seen at latitudes between +90 degrees and -40 degrees. Using the equatorial coordinate system Andromeda’s right ascension is between 22h and 57.5m and 2h 39.3m and its declination is between 53.19 degrees and 21.68 degrees.



The brightest star in the constellation is alpha Andromedae it is known as “the Head of the Woman in Chains” this star is also known as delta Pegasi “the Naval of the horse”. To the naked eye alpha Andromedae appears as a single star but it is actually two stars in close orbit, this is known as a binary system. Located almost exactly on the prime meridian of the heavens this bright star is known as one of the “Three Guides”. The remaining two stars that complete the “Three Guides” are beta Cassiopeiae and gamma Pegasi. The second brightest star is a red giant located on Andromeda’s left hip known as beta Andromedae or Mirach. It is the 56th brightest star in the Earths sky at 197 light years away [11]. Upsilon Andromedae is a white main-sequence star, similar to our own sun. It is located 44 light years away with an estimated age of 3.1 billion years. Upsilon is the tenth brightest star in the Andromeda constellation. In 1999 three planets were discovered orbiting Upsilon making this the first system of planets to be discovered outside of our own. [12] NGC 7662 is a blue snowball planetary nebula in Andromeda. It was featured as the Astronomy picture of the day on November 21, 1996. [13] The picture featured has been altered to highlight the emissions of certain ions. Gamma Andromedae is approximately 350 light years away from Earth is the third brightest star in the Andromeda constellation. To the naked eye it appears as a single star but it is really a quadruple star system with contrasting colors [1].


Objects of Interest
Andromeda is home to a large spiral galaxy known as the Andromeda Galaxy. There is a wide hazy patch located half way up on the right side of the constellation this is known as the Andromeda Galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy is the most distant object visible to the naked eye. The galaxy includes NGC206, a bright giant star cloud. It is known for 14 dwarf galaxies as its satellites. Messier 32 and Messier 110 are the two that are the easiest to find in the night sky. The first elliptical galaxy ever discovered is Messier 32. It is a satellite galaxy to the Andromeda Galaxy. M32 is small, but quite bright, and can easily be seen in a small telescope. [10] The galaxy is suspected to have been much larger at one point, but then lost its outer stars and globular clusters when it collided with the Andromeda Galaxy. Messier 110 is a dwarf elliptical galaxy. It is often classified as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. In the halo that surrounds it there are eight globular clusters. Atypical for a dwarf elliptical galaxy, M110 is showing signs of recent star formation. It does not appear to have a supermassive black hole, or at least there is no evidence that one exists at the center of the galaxy.


Name

B

F

HD

HIP

RA

Dec

vis.

mag.

abs.

mag.

Dist. (ly)

Sp. class

Notes

ω And

ω[12]

48

8799

6813

01h 27m 39.09s

+45° 24′ 25.0″

4.83

2.57

92

F5IV




ψ And

ψ

20

223047

117221

23h 46m 02.04s

+46° 25′ 13.0″

4.97

−3.05

1309

G5Ib

multiple star

χ And

χ[14]

52

10072

7719

01h 39m 21.02s

+44° 23′ 10.1″

5.01

0.66

242

G8III...




φ And

φ

42

6811

5434

01h 09m 30.12s

+47° 14′ 30.6″

4.26

−2.51

736

B7III

Keun Nan Mun, Jūnnánmén (軍南門),[9][10] emission-line star

υ And

[7][8]

50

9826

7513

01h 36m 47.98s

+41° 24′ 23.0″

4.10

3.45

44

F8V

Adhab; has four planets (b, c, d & e)

τ And

τ

53

10205

7818

01h 40m 34.80s

+40° 34′ 37.6″

4.96

−1.64

681

B8III

suspected variable

σ And

σ

25

1404

1473

00h 18m 19.71s

+36° 47′ 07.2″

4.51

1.33

141

A2V

suspected variable

ρ And

ρ

27

1671

1686

00h 21m 07.23s

+37° 58′ 07.3″

5.16

1.71

160

F5III




π And

π

29

3369

2912

00h 36m 52.84s

+33° 43′ 09.7″

4.34

−2.18

656

B5V

spectroscopic binary; suspected variable

ο And

ο

1

217675

113726

23h 01m 55.25s

+42° 19′ 33.5″

3.62

−3.01

692

B6pv SB

quadruple star system; γ Cas variable, Vmax = 3.55m, Vmin = 3.78m

ξ And

ξ[12]

46

8207

6411

01h 22m 20.39s

+45° 31′ 43.5″

4.87

0.98

195

K0III-IV

Adhil

ν And

ν

35

4727

3881

00h 49m 48.83s

+41° 04′ 44.2″

4.53

−2.06

679

B5V SB

spectroscopic binary

μ And

μ

37

5448

4436

00h 56m 45.10s

+38° 29′ 57.3″

3.86

0.75

136

A5V

multiple star

λ And

λ

16

222107

116584

23h 37m 33.71s

+46° 27′ 33.0″

3.81

1.75

84

G8III-IV

RS CVn variable, Vmax = 3.65m, Vmin = 4.05m, P = 53.95 d

κ And

κ

19

222439

116805

23h 40m 24.44s

+44° 20′ 02.3″

4.15

0.57

170

B9IVn

triple star, has a planet (b)

ι And

ι

17

222173

116631

23h 38m 08.18s

+43° 16′ 05.1″

4.29

−1.65

502

B8V

Keff al Salsalat, Manus Catenata[11]

θ And

θ

24

1280

1366

00h 17m 05.54s

+38° 40′ 54.0″

4.61

0.16

253

A2V

suspected variable

η And

η

38

5516

4463

00h 57m 12.43s

+23° 25′ 03.9″

4.40

0.04

243

G8III-IV

spectroscopic binary

ζ And

ζ

34

4502

3693

00h 47m 20.39s

+24° 16′ 02.6″

4.08

0.35

181

K1II

β Lyr/RS CVn variable, Vmax = 3.92m, Vmin = 4.14m, P = 17.7696 d

ε And

ε

30

3546

3031

00h 38m 33.50s

+29° 18′ 44.5″

4.34

0.77

169







Table 1 #14

Image #15



Bibliography

  1. http://www.topastronomer.com/StarCharts/Constellations/Andromeda.php

  2. http://womenshistory.about.com/od/goddessgreece/a/andromeda.htm

  3. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/myths/g/Andromeda.htm

  4. http://www.windows2universe.org/mythology/andromeda.html

  5. http://www.windows2universe.org/the_universe/Constellations/andromeda.html

  6. http://www.theoi.com/Heros/Perseus2.html

  7. http://space.about.com/od/starsplanetsgalaxies/ig/Constellations-Pictures/andromeda.htm

  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_(mythology)

  9. http://minos-minal-omfalos.blogspot.com/2012/11/andromeda-kolebka-czowieka-myslacego_20.html

  10. http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/andromeda-constellation/

  11. http://www.astrostudio.org/xhip.php?hip=5447

  12. http://www.dibonsmith.com/and_con.htm

  13. http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap961121.html

  14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stars_in_Andromeda

  15. http://www.bisque.com/tom/constellation/andromeda.asp



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