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Noticing versus producing spoken grammar

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Noticing versus producing spoken grammar

Another consideration when teaching spo- ken grammar is whether students should be required only to notice spoken grammar char- acteristics or whether they should be encour- aged to incorporate features of spoken grammar in their language production. McCarthy and Carter (1995) advocate a “three I’s” method- ology when teaching spoken grammar. The “three I’s” stand for illustration, interaction, and induction, where spoken data is first pre- sented, spoken grammar is highlighted, and learners are then encouraged to draw their own conclusions about and develop their capacity to notice features of spoken English (McCarthy and Carter 1995, 217). Timmis (2005) recom- mends using four types of tasks when teach- ing characteristics of spoken English: cultural access tasks, global understanding tasks, notic- ing tasks, and language discussion tasks. Both of these approaches to teaching spoken Eng- lish emphasize noticing and awareness-raising activities rather than production activities.

On the other hand, Cullen and Kuo (2007)

and Mumford (2009) emphasize the need for learners to not only notice and analyze features of spoken grammar, but also to produce these features in their own speech. As Cullen and Kuo (2007, 382) note, because features of spoken grammar serve important communi- cative functions “relating to the unplanned, interactive, and interpersonal nature of con- versation,” they “cannot simply be covered by more conventional structures.” It would seem that the most useful approach would be to select specific features of spoken grammar for students to notice or produce depending on the students’ specific situation and needs.

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