Aurangzeb was the last of powerful Mughal rulers. He was followed by a succession of weak rulers after his death in 1707



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Aurangzeb was the last of powerful Mughal rulers. He was followed by a succession of weak rulers after his death in 1707.

  • Aurangzeb was the last of powerful Mughal rulers. He was followed by a succession of weak rulers after his death in 1707.

  • Thus the empire broke up under various zamindars and subadars.





The English set up their 1st factory on the banks of river Hugli in 1651. They refused to pay duty causing a huge loss to the revenue of Bengal, . The Nawab, Murshid Quli Khan protested.

  • The English set up their 1st factory on the banks of river Hugli in 1651. They refused to pay duty causing a huge loss to the revenue of Bengal, . The Nawab, Murshid Quli Khan protested.

  • He and his successors, Alivardi Khan and Sirajuddaulah forced them to pay duty.

  • The conflicts culminated in the Battle of Plassey.



In 1756 , when Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab, he established control over the company's forts at Kassimbazar and Calcutta.

  • In 1756 , when Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab, he established control over the company's forts at Kassimbazar and Calcutta.



On hearing the news, the Company officials in Madras sent forces under the command of Robert Clive.

  • On hearing the news, the Company officials in Madras sent forces under the command of Robert Clive.

  • Prolonged negotiations with the Nawab failed.

  • Finally, in 1757, Robert Clive led the company to victory.



The main cause for the defeat of Sirajuddaulah was that the forces led by one of his commanders, Mir Jafar, did not fight at all. This was because Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him the next Nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.

  • The main cause for the defeat of Sirajuddaulah was that the forces led by one of his commanders, Mir Jafar, did not fight at all. This was because Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him the next Nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.



After the defeat, Mir Jafar was made the Nawab. But he also protested, and thus was replaced by Mir Quasim.

  • After the defeat, Mir Jafar was made the Nawab. But he also protested, and thus was replaced by Mir Quasim.

  • Mir Quasim complained and fought the battle of Buxar, 1764, but eventually lost.

  • In 1765, the company was appointed the Diwan of Bengal by the Mughals.

  • Thus the revenues from India could finance the company expenses.



British officials such as Clive, who managed to return to Britain with wealth lead flashy lives and flaunted their riches. They were called nabobs. They were seen as upstarts and were ridiculed in the society.

  • British officials such as Clive, who managed to return to Britain with wealth lead flashy lives and flaunted their riches. They were called nabobs. They were seen as upstarts and were ridiculed in the society.



After the battle of Buxar(1764), the company's rule expanded rapidly.

  • After the battle of Buxar(1764), the company's rule expanded rapidly.

  • The prompt annexation of Indian states took place between 1757 to 1857.

  • This was due to a few of the policies that were adopted by the British—

  • Subsidiary Alliance

  • Claim to Paramountcy

  • Doctrine of Lapse



According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent forces. They were to be protected by the Company and had to pay for the subsidiary forces.

  • According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent forces. They were to be protected by the Company and had to pay for the subsidiary forces.

  • Under Richard Wellesley as the governor general(1798-1805), the Nawab of Awadh and Hyderabad were forced to give over parts of their territory as they had failed to pay for the alliance.



Under Lord Hastings as the Governor General (1813-1823) a new policy of “Paramountcy” was initiated.

  • Under Lord Hastings as the Governor General (1813-1823) a new policy of “Paramountcy” was initiated.

  • It claimed that the company was paramount or supreme. Hence in order to protect its interests, it was justified in annexing or threatening to annex any kingdom.

  • Under it, Kitoor(1830), Sind(1843) and Punjab(1849) were taken over.



Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General from 1848 to 1856 devised the doctrine . It stated that a kingdom could be annexed if the king died without a male heir.

  • Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General from 1848 to 1856 devised the doctrine . It stated that a kingdom could be annexed if the king died without a male heir.

  • Many kingdoms were annexed—

  • Satara (1848), Sambalpur(1850), Udaipur(1852), Nagpur(1853), Jhansi(1854) & Awadh(1856)





Warren Hastings was the 1st Governor General of India, from 1773 to 1785. He bought about many changes in the administration especially in the sphere of justice.

  • Warren Hastings was the 1st Governor General of India, from 1773 to 1785. He bought about many changes in the administration especially in the sphere of justice.



Thus the East India Company was transformed from a trading company to a territorial colonial power.

  • Thus the East India Company was transformed from a trading company to a territorial colonial power.

  • By 1857 the Company came to exercise direct rule over about 63 per cent of the territory and 78 per cent of the population of the Indian subcontinent. Combined with its indirect influence on the remaining territory and population of the country, the East India Company had virtually the whole of India under its control.



The Dutch trading ships reached southern Africa in the seventeenth century. Soon a slave trade began. People were captured, chained, and sold in slave markets. When slavery ended in 1834 there were 36,774 privately owned slaves at the Cape –Located at the southern most tip of Africa.

  • The Dutch trading ships reached southern Africa in the seventeenth century. Soon a slave trade began. People were captured, chained, and sold in slave markets. When slavery ended in 1834 there were 36,774 privately owned slaves at the Cape –Located at the southern most tip of Africa.





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