1978 John Baxter reported cloning the gene for human growth hormone
1980 Kary Mullis(Cetus Corp.) conducted in vitro, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
1981 Genentech, Inc. cloned interferon gamma. Bill Rutter and Pablo Valenzuela identify hepatitis B surface antigen. Scientists at Ohio University produced the first transgenic animal.
1983 Syntex received FDA approval for a monoclonal antibody based diagnostic test for Chlamydia trachomatis.
1984 Chiron Corp. announced the first cloning and sequencing of the entire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome
History – Middle Developments
1986 Orthoclone OKT3® (Muromonab CD3) approved for reversal of acute kidney transplant rejection. Automated DNA fluorescence sequencer invented. First recombinant vaccine (for hepatitis) to Chiron Corp approved. First genetically engineered crop, gene altered tobacco plant approved.
1987 Genentech received FDA approval to market rtPA (genetically engineered tissue plasminogen activator) to treat heart attacks. Recombivax HB® (recombinant hepatitis B vaccine) approved.
1989 Epogen® (Epoetin alfa) a genetically engineered protein introduced.
1990 Approval for human somatic cell gene therapy trial. GenPharm International, Inc. created the first transgenic dairy cow. The Human Genome Project launched. Estimated cost: $13 billion.
1993 Chiron's Betaseron is approved for multiple sclerosis. Researchers clone human embryos and successfully nurture them in a Petri dish for several days.
1994 The BRCA1 gene reported to cause of non-inherited breast cancers. Vpr, a gene governing reproduction of the HIV virus.
History – Recent Developments
1994 The enzyme telomerase reported as responsible for the unchecked growth of cells seen in human cancers.
1995 Gene therapy, immune system modulation and genetically engineered antibodies enter clinical trials.
1996 Biogen's recombinant interferon drug. Avonex® approved for multiple sclerosis.
1997 Researchers at Roslin Institute report cloning a sheep named Dolly from the cell of an adult ewe. Polly the first sheep cloned by nuclear transfer technology bearing a human gene appears later. A new DNA technique combines PCR , DNA chips, and computer programming providing a a new tool in the search for disease causing genes.
1998 Favorable results with a new antibody therapy against breast cancer, HER2neu (Herceptin), herald a new era of treatment based on molecular targeting of tumor cells.