Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology. Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology



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Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.

  • Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.



Theory

  • Theory

  • A hypothesis

    • A possible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation.
    • Hypotheses are tested using the scientific method.




Contrast positivism with classical criminology.

  • Contrast positivism with classical criminology.



Choice Theory

  • Choice Theory

    • Offenders make the choice to commit crime.
    • Offenders weigh the expected costs of offending against the expected benefits of offending.
    • Swift and certain punishment is the most powerful deterrent to criminal offending.


Classical Criminology

  • Classical Criminology

    • Crime is an expression of a person’s rational decision-making process.
    • Before committing a crime, a person weighs the benefits of the crime against the costs of being apprehended.
    • Cesare Beccaria: “Essays on Crime and Punishments”


Positivism

  • Positivism

    • Criminal behavior is determined by biological, psychological, and social forces beyond the control of the individual.
    • Cesare Lombroso is the “Father of Criminology.”


Rational Choice Theory

  • Rational Choice Theory

    • Before committing a crime, a person acts as if he/she is weighing the benefits against the costs.
    • If the perceived benefits are greater than the potential costs, the person is more likely to commit the crime.


Read the article on James Holmes, p. 36

  • Read the article on James Holmes, p. 36

  • Attempt to explain the reasons why Holmes would commit such a horrible crime against many persons.

  • Discuss your opinion on what should happen to him in the sentencing phase.

  • Discuss if you believe swift, certain punishment has taken place or if the system would benefit from a speedy trial.



Explain how brain-scanning technology is able to help scientists determine if an individual is at risk for criminal offending.

  • Explain how brain-scanning technology is able to help scientists determine if an individual is at risk for criminal offending.



Genetics: a branch of biology that deals with traits that are passed through generations.

  • Genetics: a branch of biology that deals with traits that are passed through generations.

  • Hormones and aggression

  • The brain:

    • Serotonin
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine


Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

    • The Id, the Ego, and the Superego
  • Social Psychology

    • How humans relate to and influence one another
  • Trait Theory

    • Biological and psychological views of criminality suggesting that antisocial behavior should be identified and treated before it manifests itself


List and describe the three theories of social structure that help explain crime.

  • List and describe the three theories of social structure that help explain crime.



Sociological Theories

  • Sociological Theories

    • The Chicago School and Social Structure Theories




Cultural deviance theory

      • Cultural deviance theory
        • Subculture
    • Social Structure Theory and Public Policy
      • Changing neighborhood conditions can prevent crime.


List and briefly explain the three branches of social process theory.

  • List and briefly explain the three branches of social process theory.



Social Process Theories

  • Social Process Theories

    • Learning Theory
    • Control Theory
    • Labeling Theory
  • Social Process Theory and Public Policy

    • Crime prevention focuses on juvenile offenders and steering them away from offending and the system.


Visit the following link: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/05/18775939-cheerleader-accused-of-prostituting-younger-student?lite

  • Visit the following link: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/05/18775939-cheerleader-accused-of-prostituting-younger-student?lite

  • Discuss this case and apply a social process theory when attempting to justify the actions of the defendant.

  • Give your overall thoughts on the case as an in-class discussion.



Describe the importance of early childhood behavior for those who subscribe to self-control theory.

  • Describe the importance of early childhood behavior for those who subscribe to self-control theory.



Life Course Theories

  • Life Course Theories

    • Self-Control Theory
    • Continuity Theory of Crime


Contrast the medical model of addiction with the criminal model of addiction.

  • Contrast the medical model of addiction with the criminal model of addiction.



Social disorganization theory

  • Social disorganization theory

  • Control theory

  • Social learning





Models of Addiction

  • Models of Addiction

    • The Medical Model of Addiction
      • Addicts are not criminals, but mentally or physically ill individuals who are forced into acts of petty crime to “feed their habit”.
    • The Criminal Model of Addiction
      • Illegal drug abusers and addicts endanger society with their behavior and should be punished the same as persons who commit non drug-related crimes.


Divide the class up based on their opinions in comparing the medical model of addiction to the criminal model of addiction.

  • Divide the class up based on their opinions in comparing the medical model of addiction to the criminal model of addiction.

  • Why did you choose the side that you did? Defend your answer to the class individually.

  • As a group, discuss the factors that led to your choice and argue against the opposite opinion group.



Explain the theory of the chronic offender and its importance for the criminal justice system.

  • Explain the theory of the chronic offender and its importance for the criminal justice system.



Wolfgang’s Chronic Offender

  • Wolfgang’s Chronic Offender

    • Career criminal
    • A small group of offenders (6%) are responsible for a disproportionate amount of crime.
    • Habitual offenders laws provide harsher sentences for repeat offenders.



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