Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains



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Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains

  • Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains

  • Indians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easier

  • Horses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violent

  • Many N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sources

  • Warrior societies led to much more violence and instability



N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of Mississippi

  • N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of Mississippi

  • N. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A.

    • (Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners)
  • Gov’t treaties forced N. A. onto reservations

  • Settlers ignored treaties

  • Acts of violence led to cycles of revenge



Treaties:

  • Treaties:

    • Fort Laramie Treaty (1868)
  • Most Indians angered by the treaties

    • By 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and Colorado
    • In response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations








Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds

  • Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds

    • Raided settlements and harassed miners
    • Sitting Bull
      • Leader of non-treaty Sioux
      • Strong fighting expertise




General in the Civil War

  • General in the Civil War

  • Infamous Indian fighter during the Sioux Wars

  • Wanted to find gold in Black Hills

  • Defeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876)





Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876

  • Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876

  • 600 troops marched on Little Bighorn River

    • Custer separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battle
    • This group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux
  • Defeat angered the army who became even more ruthless







The Ghost Dance

  • The Ghost Dance

  • December 29, 1890

    • Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an ‘excited’ Indian fired a shot
    • The soldiers then open fired
      • More than 300 Indians killed in minutes








More and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policies

  • More and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policies

    • The Women’s National Indian Rights Association
    • Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson
  • They thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thing

    • Dawes Severalty Act
      • Gave individuals acreages
      • of land and made them
      • citizens of the U.S.


Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades.

  • Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades.

  • This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture.

  • In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres.

  • Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture.

  • Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned.



Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S.

  • Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S.

  • Genoa, Nebraska

  • Attempted to ‘save the Indian’ by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customs

  • Formed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a “humanitarian” solution







Indian Homestead Act - 1887

  • Indian Homestead Act - 1887

  • Another attempt to assimilate Indians



Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States.

  • Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States.

  • During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region.

  • On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territory’s borders to stake claims on the land.

  • By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres.

  • Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims.

  • Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in 1890. In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.



Oklahoma was “Indian Territory” given to the five civilized tribes

  • Oklahoma was “Indian Territory” given to the five civilized tribes

  • They sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment

  • 2 million acres free for settlement

  • Free land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail





Most Indians had been driven onto reservations

  • Most Indians had been driven onto reservations

  • The culture still survives





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