
Enia c matthieuP. Schapranow Origins of Operating Systems Course by Prof. Dr. Andreas Polze

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E N I A C MatthieuP. Schapranow Origins of Operating Systems Course by Prof. Dr. Andreas Polze HassoPlattnerInsitute for ITSystems Engineering, University of Potsdam
Agenda  PreENIACEra
 Babbage’s Analytical Engine
 Aiken’s Mark I
 Konrad Zuse’s Z1Z3
 ENIACEra
 Involved Persons
 Upcoming Events
 Technical Data
 System Structure
 Initializing and Cycling Unit
 Accumulator
 Constant Transmitter & Function Tables
 Multiplier
 DividerSquareRooter
 PostENIACEra
Babbage’s Analytical Engine  Charles Babbage, 17911871, mathematician
 Bad precision of numeric tables
 Described ideas about a Difference Machine
 1833 starts to work on the Analytical Machine
Babbage’s Analytical Engine (contd.)  Input: via punchcards
 Output: punchcards / metalcards, printer, curve plotter and a bell
 Consists of a Mill (Arithmetic unit)
 Three kinds of input cards:
 Operation cards
 Modern computers: operation codes
 Switches Mill to perform operations (+, , *, /) on given arguments
 Combinatorial & Index Cards offer theoretical option for jumps, loops, branches
 Number cards and
 Overcomes limited storage, 50digit constants
 E.g. contains results of previous calculations
 Variable cards
 From store to mill, i.e. arguments for operations
 And results from mill to the store
Aiken’s Mark I  Invented by Howard Hathaway Aiken
 Cooperation with IBM
 Constructed and build during 193944
 Used for US Navy
 Protecting ships from being destructed by magnetic mines
 Radar usage
 Radar design
 works electromagnetical
 Consists of 730,000 parts
 Word length: 23 decimal digits + one sign
 Consists of 72 accumulators
Konrad Zuse’s Z1Z3 Konrad Zuse’s Z1 Konrad Zuse’s Z2  1940 improved machine using telephone relays
Konrad Zuse’s Z3  1941 contains almost all elements of the former Z1
 Telephone relay floating point arithmetical unit with two registers offering the operations +, , *, /, sqrt, bindec, decbin
 Memory
 Partially programmable using µcode
Agenda  PreENIACEra
 Babbage’s Analytical Engine
 Aiken’s Mark I
 Konrad Zuse’s Z1Z3
 ENIACEra
 Involved Persons
 Dr. John William Mauchly
 John Presper Eckert, Jr.
 Herrman Heine Goldstine
 Upcoming Events
 Technical Data
 System Structure
 Initializing and Cycling Unit
 Accumulator
 Constant Transmitter & Function Tables
 Multiplier
 DividerSquareRooter
 PostENIACEra
Dr. John William Mauchly  Physicist, working for the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania
 Drafted a memo in 1942
 Addresses a general digital electronic computer
 Becomes a consultant for the ENIAC
 Helps to design the whole concept
John Presper Eckert, Jr.  Engineer
 Improved electronic circuits
 Worked on radar devices
 Started to work in the project at the age of 24
Herman Heine Goldstine  Mathematician, Ph.D.
 Introduced flow charts
 Later Lieutenant at the Ballistic Research Laboratory (BLR)
 Assessed Mauchly’s knowledge
Upcoming Events Problem Definition  expensive ballistic computations were done by experts without any automation
 Trajectory table consists of approx. 100 trajectories
 takes approx. 20h per trajectory!
 Bush Differential Analyzer already installed at BLR in 1935
 Project PX in combination with the Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) and the Moore School 19441946
 Budget: $61,700
Technical Data  17,468 tubes, 16 different tube types
 9,000 tubes for division/multiplication and I/O
 8,800 tubes for one accumulator
 220 tubes for one decimal number
 22 tubes for storing exactly one digit of a decimal number
 7,200 crystal diodes
 1,500 relays
 70,000 resistors
 10,000 capacitors
 5,000,000 handsoldered joints
 Original ENIAC consists of 30 units
Technical Data (contd.)
Technical Data (contd.)  Base clock: 100 kHz
 20 clock cycles are called addition time (i.e. 200 µS)
 first part: digit transfer (data bus, lower tray)
 2nd part: control information (control bus, upper tray)
 Input: IBM card reader
 Output: IBM card puncher
Technical Data (contd.)
Technical Data (contd.)
System Structure
System Structure
System Structure Synchronization Bus  Ten different pulse types
 Central Programming Pulse (CPP)
 Emitted at pulse time 17 of each addition time
 Base of synchronization
Program Bus and Data Bus  Digit Trays & Program Trays
 Consists of eleven lines and a common ground
 Ten lines for digits from zero to nine
 One line for sign information (MP)
 Digits represented by decimal coded pulses
 i.e. six times a pulse represents the digit six
 Digit representation is transferred simultaneously via all bus lines
Initializing and Cycling Unit Initializing Unit  Turn power on/off
 Starts/Clears ENIAC
Cycling Unit  Emits pulses for synchronization of units
Accumulator  Unit for arithmetic calculations and memory purposes
 Stores a signed ten digit number
 Input
 Five digital ports (alpha – epsilon)
 Twelve program input ports (1 – 12)
 With switch for action decision in case of CPP reception
 Eight of twelve input ports can repeat the inputted action rtimes, 1 r 9
 Output
 Two digital ports (A and S complementary)
 Eight program ports to generate CPP after finishing an action
Constant Transmitter & Function Tables Constant Transmitter  Holds 80 digits and 16 signs from punch cards, read in approx. 0.5s
 Additionally manually entered 20 digits and four signs
 May emit a signed five or ten digit number per addition time
Function Tables  Three function tables containing constants
 Readonly
 1248 variable digits and 208 signs
Multiplier  Static connected
 Input
 multiplicand, signed, up to ten digits
 Multiplier, signed p digits, 2 p 10
 Addition time: p + 4
DividerSquareRooter Divider  Finds a p digit quotient
 p = {4, 7, 8, 9, 10}
 Takes approx. 13p addition times
SquareRooter
Live Demo Get involved with the ENIACsimulator of the Free University of Berlin!
Agenda  PreENIACEra
 Babbage’s Analytical Engine
 Aiken’s Mark I
 Konrad Zuse’s Z1Z3
 ENIACEra
 Involved Persons
 Dr. John William Mauchly
 John Presper Eckert, Jr.
 Herrman Heine Goldstine
 Upcoming Events
 Technical Data
 System Structure
 Initializing and Cycling Unit
 Accumulator
 Constant Transmitter & Function Tables
 Multiplier
 DividerSquareRooter
 PostENIACEra
PostENIACEra Master Programmer  Extension for simplification
 Performs nested loops
Printer/Punch  Handles information for 80 digits and 16 signs from Accumulator and Master Programmer, printed within 0.6 seconds
Magnitude Discrimination  First machine doing conditional branching
 Connecting data line of one accumulator to control line of another accumulator
PostENIACEra (contd.)  Major imperfection: no internally stored program.
 August 1944: Goldstine introduced Dr. John L. v. Neumann
 June 1945: First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC
 1947: Function tables are used to store program code
 1948 Research Division at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) formed ENIAC to an internally storedfixed program computer
 Idea of subroutines by Mauchly: related to inner working of desk calculators
 1951: Core memory installed (inspired by the EDVAC)
 Longest uptime in 1954 approx. 116h
 19481955: total working hours: 80,223h
 Tasks within this time: ballistics, weather prediction, atomic energy calculations, cosmic ray studies, thermal ignition, randomnumber studies, wind tunnel design, calculation of thermonuclear chain reactions, and other scientific uses
PostENIACEra (contd.) Binary Automatic Computer  Eckert & Mauchly in 1949
 Only 700 tubes
 4.25 MHz
After 1949 Electronic Controls Company  EckertMauchly Computer Corp. UNIVAC UNISYS
Electronic Discrete Variable Computer  EDVAC runs first program in Oct. 1951
 Program code and data are represented by punchcards and loaded during runtime in one common memory
Ordnance Variable Automatic Computer  ORDVAC developed in 1952 by von Neumann’s crew at the Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS)
von Neumann architecture von Neumann architecture model (storedprogram computer) [4]  C
 Central Arithmetic Part (CA): +, , *, /, (sqrt, crt, sgn,  , log10, ld, ln, sin, …) works with binary representation
 Central Control Part (CC)
 Memory (M) contains intermediate results, should only store binary material
 Outside Recording Medium (R) contains final result in decimal representation
 Input ( I ) (decimal representation) := R I M
 Output (O) (decimal representation) := M O R
von Neumann architecture (contd.)
von Neumann architecture (contd.) von Neumann architecture model (storedprogram computer)  Fetch operation code from store
 Decode operation code
 Fetch operands from store
 Execute operation
 Update Instruction Pointer
PostENIACEra (contd.)
PostENIACEra (contd.)
References  [1] Simulating the ENIAC as a Java Applet, Till Zoppke, Free University of Berlin, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, June 2004.
 [2] The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), H. H. Goldstine and A. Goldstine (1946), In B. Randell (Eds.), The Origins of Digital Computers, SpringerVerlag (1982).
 [3] John W. Mauchly and the Development of the ENIAC Computer, An Exhibition in the Department of Special Collections, Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania, Asaf Goldschmidt and Atsushi Akera, April 23rd, 2003.
 [4] First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, John von Neumann, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, June 1945.
 [5] A Report on the ENIAC, Report of Work Under Contract No. W670ORD4926 between Ordnance Department, United States Army Washington, D.C. and The University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering Philadelphia, PA, June 1, 1946.
 [6] Babbage’s Analytical Engine, MajorGeneral H. P. Babbage, April 8th, 1910, from the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 70, 517526, 645 [Errata] (1910).
References (contd.)  [7] On a proposed Analytical Machine, Percy E. Ludgate, April 28th, 1909.
 [8] Essays on Automatics – Its Definitions – Theoretical Extents of Its Applications, Leonardo Torres Quevedo.
 [9] ENIAConaChip, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, http://www.ee.upenn.edu/~jan/eniacproj.html, May 2006.
 [10] The ENIAC Museum Online, http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~museum/, May 2006.
 [11] Konrad Zuse und seine Rechner, http://irb.cs.tuberlin.de/~zuse/Konrad_Zuse/index.html, May 2006.
 [12] History of Computing Information, The Research Interests of Mike Muuss, http://ftp.arl.army.mil/~mike/comphist/, May 2006.
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