growing in rooms of semiopen type. Methods. Behavior of cows was studied according to A. Bondar
procedure. Temperature and relative humidity of the air in cowhouse was determined according to V. Balanin
procedure. Results. It is determined that cows were in standing position in the winter more hours than in the
summer (for 23,5%). Thus animal on the average 2,09 h a day stood on passage near feed table, and the
rest of the time (2,33 h, or 52,7%) – in boxes with sandy litter or only with forelegs in boxes. Cows were
active for 40,29%, and passive for 59,71% of time of a day. Conclusions. In the winter indexes of
temperature and relative humidity of an air of the room of the facilitated type deflect from the optimum. That
results, in comparison with the summer season, in increase of time on consumption of feedstuff up to
27,37% of a time of day, and duration of their standing to 4,42 hours and decrease of duration of repose of
cows laying for 1,04 h.
Key words: cow, behavior, loose housing box growing, a microclimate.
І.M. Sechenov determined life in all stages of its development as adaptation to conditions of existence .
At this it is impossible to conduct a clear border between reflexes and complex behavior forms [2, 3, 4].
Animals behavior is built on the basis of continuous properties comparison of external irritants influencing on
them with the display of the eventual adjusted result programmed in accepter organs of action result.
Knowledge of behavior, ability to foresight and to control it is very important, especially under specializations
and stock-raising condition at industrial technology of production. Cows adapt to daily order (feeding regime,
milking and manure removal). Accordingly to it characteristic proof periodicity and repetition of behavior
elements is set among them.
Any behavior program is built on three basic determinants: dominant motivation, memory and estimations
of current situation. And animal organism to provide its surviving and comfort forms new correlation between
separate structures, organs, processes, new individual behavior. At that on individuals, for which the
maintenance terms do not suit and dissatisfy their biological necessities, they act as stressor and cause the
violation of physiological balance. Lack of knowledge and their ignoring unavoidable will result in productivity
reduction animals. Not to permit this it is necessary to know the specificity and intensity of these factors
action. At that animal’s behavior and some their reactions are the reliable criterion of estimation of
maintenance terms at different production technologies [5-10].
There is no doubt the development of milk cattle breeding in Ukraine will go by way of technic-technologic
re equipment of this brunch. That’s why setting and grounding of the main demands as to ensuring of
comfort maintenance, feeding, milking will have the key meaning at introduction of progressive technologies
of milk production. The use of ethological researches enables the possibility to estimate the conformity of
each technology of animals maintenance with taking info account their biological, needs, which will promote
the saving of health, the lengthening of productive use duration, the additional products receiving and the
rising of cattle-breeders labors productivity.
cows in winter at free-stall cubicle mode of housing in the barns of facilitated half-open type.
large group free-stall cubicle housing was conducted at intensive technology of milk production in the
conditions maintenance "Аgrо-Sojus" firm of Dnipropetrovs’k region. The number of animals in technological
group was 105. Milking every 8 hours in the hall "Parallel" type with milking and technological equipment of
"BOU-MATIC" firm. All year round cows were fed by valuable on-type fodder mixtures from the forage tables.
Manure removal from the barns is carried out by delta scrapers with its further transporting by drift to the
dung bunkers. Boxings The delete of pus from the apartments is carried out for help delta of card with the
subsequent transporting by his drift to dung. Boxings for resting have sandy bedding.
The indexes of cows behavior were studied accordingly to their technological principle classification by
the method of visual chronometric supervisions in accordance with А.А. Bondar`s methods
of temperature and relative humidity in the barn was conducted by V.І. Balanin`s method .
large group free-stall cubicle housing showed that under the given condition of existence the cows work out
behavior stereotype, which is determined, mainly by carrying-out the technological processes of feeding,
milking and their number. Most of daily time the animals spend on forage consumption and rest lying, 6,57 and
9,92 hours accordingly (figure 1).
Fig. 1 Indexes of high productive cows behavior for day and night at free-stall cubicle housing in winter
At comparison of these data with the got indexes of similar chronometric supervisions, conducted in
standing squandered, 4,59 and 3,38 hours accordingly and for the rest lying — 10,96 hours aunt of 24, that
on 1,04 hours more than in winter. Index of cows rest lying in winter is 0,41, in summer — 0,46, and index of
forage consumption is in winter — 0,27, and in summer — 0,19.
In winter period cows spent 4,42 hours standing, that is 1,04 hours longer as compared to the summer
period. At thus it should be noted that in winter animals on the average 2,09 hours daily were standing on a
passage-way near the forage table ant the rest of 24 hours, about 2,33 hours or 52,7 % they spend standing
in the boxings or standing there only with forelegs (fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Basic elements of daily cow’s behavior
Taking into account that microclimate parameters in the housings of facilitated type are maximally close to
and relative humidity. It was set that the middle air temperature in the housing in day time was between 12,4
± 0,67 and 18,1 ±0,33°C, in the evening it fell gradually and at night and in early morning it was
8,65±0,79°C. Middle relative humidity was between 81 and 85 %. Thus it is visible from the data analysis,
that air temperature in the barn , being the basic physical irritant of animals organism, at the night and in the
morning deviates from optimum.
The hygienically significance of temperature in the external surrounding (air and surfaces) is in its big
influence on heat regulation of animal organism. The bigger is the difference between the temperature of
animal skin and surrounding air the bigger will be the intensive of heat return. Especially low temperatures, in
combination with high air humidity, make the organism heat return more intensive. Therefore, at such
conditions, all organism reactions are directed on heat emission declining and the increasing of heat
generation. This explains why the animals spend more time standing in boxings or with forelegs them, and
also prolong the time of forage consumption. Because in fact the metter and energy exchange is common
process. In such case the super cooling of animal organism and its r
ésistance reducing may also happen.
Accept of this the analyses of temperature indices of sandy bedding showed that the temperature on
send surface is 3,2 °C lower that air temperature in the barn . When an animal is laying 1/3 of its body
surface comes info contact with the floors, why it must be warm enough . Calculations testify that the
losses of heat through the floor account 12-20 % of general heat losses from the housing and depend, on
heat-physical floor characteristic. As Х.P. Оtlооt1`s data show, extra losses of physiology heat 100 kkаl/hour
in number (difference between heat absorption by 1 м
of concrete and wooden floor at a 12 hours duration
heat energy which is used for the floor heating, instead of transforming in to milk is very irrationally.
It is necessary to take into account the fact, that in zone with cold and damp climate in winter the sand
may freeze through and in boxings for animals rest hills and holes will appear, which will make the animals
rest lying very uncomforted table.
especially after the new portion of fresh forage distribution: at 9 o'clock in the morning and 18 o'clock in the
evening (fig. 3). On drinking water in winter cow spend 3,1 hours less than in summer.
O'clock of days
The longest cows rest lying was observed from 23.00 till 4.50 o’clock. During this period on the average
chronometric supervisions conducting it was also set that after every returning from the milking hall certain
number of cows layed down to rest in boxings. Most of such animals were fixed after the morning milking
which one more time confirms the necessity of highly productive Holstein’s cattle in prolonged rest lying. In
general the cows 40,29 % daily time were active (fodder, consumption, drinking water milking) and 59,71 %
— passive (resting, sleeping, comfort motions).
Middle productivity of cows on a group made 31,46±0,66 kg of milk for days with maintenance of fat in the
milk 3,78 %. In the days of conducting of time-study supervisions middle day's hopes hesitated from 30,88
to 32,08 kg of milk.
In winter the indexes of air temperature and relative humidity in the housings of facilitated type dexiate
from optimal, that predetermines, as compared to a summer period, the increasing of daily time expenditure
for forage consumption till 27,37%, the extention of being standing till 4,42 hours and 1,04 hours reduction of
cows rest lying.
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