Part 3: Effective Coping Skills For a coping technique to be effective, it must do the following



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PART 3: Effective Coping Skills

  • For a coping technique to be effective, it must do the following:

  • Increase awareness of the problem

  • Start information processing

  • Modify behavior

  • Work toward a peaceful resolution


Cognitive Restructuring Chapter 8



Everything can be taken away from man but one thing—the last human freedom, to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances.”

  • Everything can be taken away from man but one thing—the last human freedom, to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances.”

  • —Viktor Frankl



Perception and Interpretation

  • All stimuli received by the brain are processed through interpretation and classified as negative, neutral, or positive; this process is called perception.



Albert Ellis

  • The premise of Ellis’s work was that stress-related behaviors are initiated by perceptions and that these self-defeating perceptions can be changed.



Cognitive Restructuring

  • Cognitive restructuring means changing a perception from a negative interpretation to a neutral or positive one, making it less stressful.

  • This process is also called reappraisal, relabeling, reframing, and attitude adjustment.



The Information-Processing Model

  • Sensory input

  • Sensory manipulation

  • Cognitive/behavioral output

  • Feedback system



Toxic Thoughts

  • Negative thoughts are often called toxic thoughts.

  • Research has now substantiated the hypothesis that negative thoughts can suppress the immune system.

  • Borysenko calls creating negative thoughts awfulizing, and explains that the way to change these thoughts is through reframing.



Optimism and Luck (An Attitude)



A Four-Stage Process for Cognitive Restructuring

  • Awareness

  • Reappraisal of the situation

  • Adoption and substitution

  • Evaluation



Additional Tips for Cognitive Restructuring

  • Initiate a relaxation technique to calm your mind

  • Take responsibility for your own thoughts

  • Fine-tune your expectations

  • Give yourself positive affirmations

  • Accentuate the positive



Examples of Positive Affirmation Statements

  • “I am calm and relaxed.”

  • “I am healthy and whole.”

  • “I am a loveable person.”

  • “I am a college graduate.”



Best Application of Cognitive Restructuring

  • Use this technique when you find yourself continually whining

  • Use positive affirmations to boost self-esteem throughout the day

  • Use positive affirmations during stressful times (e.g., traffic, exams, etc.)



Study Guide Questions

  • 1. What is the thinking process model?

  • 2. How can you best describe toxic thoughts?

  • 3. List the steps to initiate cognitive restructuring (reframing).





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