Phenomenology The “lived” experience What we will cover
Phenomenology The “lived”
What we will cover
Phenomenology as a Philosophy
Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
Sprouted from post WWII positivism. Phenomenology rejects positivism.
This can be achieved through reduction (Epoché)
“transcend” the experience to discover meaning.
Transcendental (descriptive) Phenomenology
Within the range of unique experiences, there is a
quality of a phenomenon…that can be discovered!
Hermeneutic (interpretive) Phenomenology
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
Hans-George Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur
Disagrees with Husserl’s epoche.
An effort to “get beneath” the subjective experience
and find the genuine
, objective nature of things.
Focuses on the relationship between the event and the person, and how meaning is formed in that relationship.
Leads to endless possibilities and endless interpretations.
Our relationship with things is not the object/subject relationship.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
Rejects Husserl’s belief of transcendance and embraces the lived experience, the concrete.
Aim is not to find a common theme, but the goal is to "concentrated upon re-achieving a direct and primitive contact with the world.“
Describes everyday experience as it is perceived by the consciousness of individuals.
This “new” phenomenology rejects the historical division between the inquirer and the social world (subject/object)
This movement marked a return to studying the direct, lived experience of the “field worker” as a source of knowledge about the world.
Phenomenology as a Methodology two camps-a resurgence in the 1970s
Believe it is possible to suspend personal opinion to arrive at a single, essential, descriptive presentation of a phenomena
Think that if
there is more than one reality
, that leaves doubt, ignorance, and a lack of clarity.
Phenomenology…as a Methodology
…is focused on the subjective experience of individuals or groups.
…is personal. The world as experienced by the individual, not relationships between people.
samples of 3-10 participants that have experienced the phenomenon.
…attempts to describe accurately a phenomenon from the person’s perspective.
Phenomenology as a Methodology
…is where art and science collide? The interpretation of lived experience and daily life. Understanding meaning from the world around us.
…assumes that “There is a structure and essence to shared experiences that can be narrated” (Marshall 2006 p. 104)
…assumes that the only things we can know, are those that are directly observable and experienced. The only reality we can know is the one we directly experience.
scientific realism (objects exist independently of our knowledge of their existence).
that the empirical sciences are better methods to describe the features of the world.
the ordinary, conscious experience of things.
the acceptance of unobservable things.
naturalism and positivism.
objects in the natural world
, cultural world, and abstract objects (like numbers and consciousness) can be made evident and thus known.
the role of description prior to explanation by means of causes, purposes, or grounds.
whether Husserl’s transcendental epoche and reduction is useful or even possible.
the “life-world” (the taken-for-granted pattern of everyday living).
Strengths of phenomenology
Efficient and Economical (only in terms of data generation or maybe not at all. . .)
Direct Interaction with Participants
Allows the researcher to ask for clarification and to ask immediate follow-up/probing questions
Allows the researcher to observe nonverbal responses which can be supportive or contradictory to the verbal responses
Data is in the participants’ own words
Synergy: participants react to and build upon the responses of other participants.
Flexible research tool
Applicable to a wide range of settings and individuals.
Results are easy to understand (in terms of people’s direct opinions and statements)
Marvin Farber 1966
Weakness of phenomenology
Findings are difficult to generalize to a larger population
Small number of participants who are often attained in a convenient manner
Individual responses are not always independent of one another
Dominant or opinionated members may overshadow the thoughts of the other group members (only if group interviews are performed).
Data is often difficult to analyze and summarize.
Researcher may give too much credit to the results (immediacy of a personal opinion)
It is a “soft science” at best, really it is not science, it is more like philosophy and religion (Charles Harris, 2006)
Critics of phenomenology think you cannot describe the unique experiences AND make generalizations about the experiences at the same time.
Marvin Farber 1966
Disciplines that use Phenomenology
Pretty much anything
The Experience of Motor Disability
A Young Child’s Sense of Time and the Clock
Awaiting the Diagnosis
The Stillness of a Secret Place
Nature Experience of 8-12 year old Children
Possibilities of the Father Role
Nature of at Home-ness
Phenomenological Research Titles
A Lived Experience of Making a Drawing: Drawing Amy
Mathematics Teaching: Moving from Telling to Listening
Being Nostalgic Naming our Child
Women’s Anxious Pursuit of Attractive Appearance
SELECTING A PEAK TO CLIMB
UNDERSTANDING THE DECISION MAKING PROCES OF EXPEDITION GROUPS IN THE NEPAL HIMALAYA
the Decision Making Process
of the Study
Description of the Process
Applications of the study
Understanding decision making factors of climbing tourist to Nepal.
upon a peak to climb.
Description of the process
Factors for decisions
Elevation of mountain
Collect contact information.
Coordinate meetings in Katmandu
In-depth, face-to-face interview.
Capture the content meaning.
General frame-setting questions
Point theoretical saturation
Rich Text is generated
Considerations coded analyzed
Compare with theoretical literature
Applications of the Study
Enhance Conservation Planning
Minimize social impacts
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