Pompey lecture pptx



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4/2/12  

1  


Pompey  the  Great  (106-­‐48)  

           “A9er  having  rescued  the  

seacoast  from  pirates  and  

restored  to  the  Roman  

people  the  command  of  

the  sea,  he  celebrated  

triumphs  over  Asia,  Pontus,  

Armenia,  Paphlagonia,  

Cappadocia,  Cilicia,  Syria,  

the  Scythians,  the  Jews,  

the  Albanians,  Iberia,  the  

Island  of  Crete,  and  in  

addiLon  to  these,  over  King  

Mithridates  &  King  

 

 

 



 

 Tigranes…  He  routed,  scaSered,  slew,  or  received  

the  surrender  of  12,380,000  people;  sank  or  captured  846  ships;  

received  the  capitulaLon  of  1,538  towns  &  forts…”

   

• 

 Pompey’s  boast:  “I  found  Asia  the  furthest  off  of  Rome’s  



provinces  &  le9  her  at    center  of  Rome’s  empire”  

Crassus  (Sulla’s  

lieutenant)  

Pompey  (Sulla’s  

lieutenant)  

Caesar  (Marius’  

nephew)  

Sulla  (Marius’    

lieutenant)    

Marius  


Network  of  

Civil  War  

The  “last  generaLon”  of  the  Republic    

• 

Final  Lpping  point  between  a  Rome  controlled  



by  small  groups  of  super-­‐imperialists  who  

want  to  be  considered  principes  (first  men)—

and  a  Rome  ruled  by  one  man:  the  only  

princeps.      

“Pompey  could  not  bear  having  a  superior.    But  

Caesar  could  not  even  bear  having  an  equal.”    

Gnaeus  Pompeius  (Magnus)  

• 

Greatest  conqueror  of  Roman  Republic  



– 

or  just  most  opportunisLc?    Best  at  taking  credit?  

• 

FighLng  under  Sulla,  Pompey  (in  his  20’s)  



– 

adopts  surname  Magnus:  The  Great  

– 

others  call  him  adulescens  carnifex:  Teenage  Butcher  



• 

dominated  Roman  poliLcs  for  30  years  a9er  Sulla  

• 

Individualist  general  and  imitator  of  Alexander  



– 

BUT,  by  accident  of  history,  gets  painted  as  last  basLon  of  

old  Rome—symbol  of  lost  Republic,  bulldozed  by  Caesar.      

– 

From  teenage  butcher  &  violator  of  consLtuLon  to  



guardian  of  mos  maiorum???      


4/2/12  

2  


Rise  of  Pompey  

• 

Son  of  successful  general,  Gnaeus  Pompeius  Strabo.    



Inherited  thousands  of  clients  when  father  died  in  87  

(Pompey  just  19)  

• 

Joins  Sulla  in  82,  having  raised  3  legions  of  his  clients  



• 

Marries  Sulla’s  step-­‐daughter  

• 

Becomes  Sulla’s  roving  hitman…  



• 

A9er  success  vs.  Sulla’s  foes,  Pompey  demands  Triumph  

– 

But  Pompey  just  25  years  old  &  has  never  held  office  



– 

Sulla  says  no–  that  would  be  unconsLtuLonal!  

– 

Pompey  refuses  to  disband  army  unLl  Triumph  given  



– 

25  year  old  (non-­‐senator!)  Pompey  gets  Triumph…  

Lepidus,  consul  in  78  

• 

Right  a9er  Sulla’s  death,  



Lepidus,  tries  to  reverse  

Sulla’s  reforms:  restore  

tribunes  &  grain  subsidies  

• 

Senate  delays  



• 

Lepidus  about  to  march  on  

Rome    

• 

Senate  orders  SCU,  puong  



Pompey  in  command  ag.  

Lepidus  

• 

Pompey  crushes  rebellion,  



but  refuses  to  disband  army  

unLl  given  new  command…  

Pompey  vs.  Sertorius  

• 

Marian  who  fled  to  Spain  in  82  



• 

In  80,  raises  rebellion  in  Spain  

• 

Offers  refuge  for  all  who  oppose    



 opLmates  and  Sullan  senate  

– 

Supporters  of  Marius  and  Cinna  



– 

Many  Gallic  and  Spanish  tribes  

– 

Pirates  and  Mithridates  of  Pontus  



• 

Charisma:  Robin-­‐hood  figure  

• 

In  77,  Pompey  sent  against  him  &  begins  retaking  Spain  



• 

72,  Sertorius  murdered  by  his  own  lieutenant  

• 

71,  on  way  back  to  Rome,  Pompey  aids  Crassus  with  



Spartacus  &  takes  credit  

Pompey  seeks  consulship  

• 

Pompey,  successful  against  both  Sertorius  and  



Spartacus,  camps  outside  Rome  with  army  

– 

Demands  Senate  to  allow  him  to  stand  for  consulship  



• 

Crassus  &  Pompey  consuls  for  70  BC,  even  though  

Pompey  has  never  held  any  office  (&  too  young)  

• 

Work  together  to  dismantle  Sullan  consLtuLon!  



– 

Pompey’s  breach  of  cursus  honorum  

– 

Law-­‐courts  go  back  to  equites  



– 

Tribunes  reinstated  




4/2/12  

3  


The  paradox  of  the  year  70:  

• 

Sulla  had  insLtuted  new  regime  



– 

Various  discontented  facLons  try  to  overturn  Sullan  

regime:  Lepidus,  Sertorius,  Spartacus    

– 

But  Senate’s  generals  crush  revolts  



• 

Eventually  those  very  generals  (two  of  Sulla’s  

former  men)  manage  to  undo  Sulla’s  dream  

• 

What  does  Pompey  want?    



– 

 Like  Marius,  just  victories  and  glory:  no  other  ideal  

• 

Didn’t  aspire  to  one-­‐man  rule,  but  transgressive  



acLons  sLll  paved  way  for  rise  of  sole  ruler  

Pompey  Away  in  the  East  

• 

67  BC:  Tribunes  get  Pompey  command  of  enLre  Med.  to  



subdue  pirates  

– 

270  warships  +  100,000  soldiers  



– 

Brilliant  campaign:  in  just  3  months–  pirates  gone  

• 

And  then?    Pompey  wants  another  war!  

– 

74-­‐67  BC:  Lucullus  defeaLng  Mithridates  of  Pontus  



– 

66  BC:  Lucullus’  command  given  to  Pompey  

• 

Pompey  finishes  war  and…  



• 

-­‐  Conquers  Armenia  and  Syria;  captures  Jerusalem  

• 

-­‐  Sets  up  client  kings  all  over  East;  creates  provinces;  



makes  laws;  founds  towns–  like  Alexander  

Meanwhile  at  Rome  in  the  60’s?  

• 

Pompey’s  shadow  over  Rome:  Another  Sulla??  



• 

Crassus  schemes  to  corner  land-­‐market  in  Italy  

– 

so  that  Pompey  will  need  to  negoLate  with  



him  to  find  his  veterans  land  

• 

64-­‐3  CaLline’s  conspiracy  



– 

Cicero  (at  first  a  hero,  then  at  risk)  

– 

senate  debate  sets  up  Caesar  vs.  Cato  



Pompey  Returns:  62  BC  

• 

Pompey  returns  peacefully  and  disbands  army  



Has  only  two  needs:      

1)  for  the  Senate  to  raLfy  his  acLons  in  the  East  

2)  Land  for  his  veterans  

But  OpLmates  within  Senate  refuse  (esp.  Cato)…  

• 

Senate  delays  response  to  Pompey’s  requests  



– 

Big  mistake!  

• 

Senate  also  blocks  ambiLons  of  Caesar,  who  



asks  for  Triumph  a9er  victories  in  Spain  

– 

Even  bigger  mistake!  




4/2/12  

4  


Caesar  (100-­‐44)  

• 

Caesar  allies  himself  w/  both  Pompey  &  Crassus  



• 

60  BC:  “1

st

 triumvirate”—promise  of  friendship  



• 

Why  would  these  three  men  team  up?    Don’t  

they  hate  each  other?  

– 

Caesar  needs  consulship  



– 

Pompey  needs  land  &  raLficaLon  of  acLons  

in  East  

– 

Crassus  needs  help  geong  publicani  out  of  



bad  contract  with  the  Senate  

• 

Pompey  marries  Caesar’s  daughter,  Julia  



Year  59  

• 

Caesar  elected  consul  for  59  



– 

RaLfies  Pompey’s  Eastern  acLviLes  &  gets  

land  to  Pompey’s  vets    

– 

remission  of  contract  price  for  Crassus’  



publicani  friends    

– 

Secures  himself  pro-­‐consular  command  in  



Gaul  for  5  years  

• 

Caesar’s  methods?  



– 

abuses  consular  colleague,  Bibulus  

– 

bypasses  Senate–  popularis  behavior  



What  do  we  call  this  agreement  between  

Pompey,  Crassus,  and  Caesar?  

• 

Amici;a  (friendship)?  1

st

 triumvirate?  



conspiracy?  DominaLon?  beginning  of  civil  

war?  


“3  men,  backed  by  armed  force,  by  the  urban  

populace  and  by  many  of  the  Equites,  imposed  

their  will  on  the  State  and  destroyed  the  

power  of  the  Senate  …  The  State  and  

consLtuLon  were  now  at  the  mercy  of  dynasts  

who  strove  for  power  and  dignitas.”  

53  BC:  Crassus  killed  

trying  to  conquer  

Parthia  

Meanwhile:  

Pompey  tries  to  keep  

order  at  Rome  

58  BC:  Caesar  goes  to  

conquer  Gaul  



Julia  dies  in  childbirth  



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