Renaissance = Rebirth



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Renaissance = Rebirth

  • Renaissance = Rebirth

  • Jacob Burkhardt

    • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
  • Urban Society

  • Age of Recovery

  • Rebirth of Greco-Roman culture

  • Emphasis on individual ability



Economic Recovery

  • Economic Recovery

    • Italian cities lose economic supremacy
    • Hanseatic League
    • Manufacturing
      • Textiles, Printing, Mining and Metallurgy
    • Banking
      • Florence and the Medici




The Nobility

  • The Nobility

    • Reconstruction of the Aristocracy
    • Aristocracy: 2 – 3 percent of the population
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1478 – 1529(

    • The Book of the Courtier (1528)
    • Service to the prince


Peasants

  • Peasants

    • Peasants: 85 – 90 percent of population
    • Decline of manorial system and serfdom
  • Urban Society

    • Patricians
    • Petty burghers, shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, and guildsmen
    • The Poor and Unemployed
    • Slaves


Arranged Marriages

  • Arranged Marriages

  • Father-husband head of family

  • Wife managed household

  • Childbirth

  • Sexual Norms





Five Major Powers

  • Five Major Powers

    • Milan
    • Venice
    • Florence
      • The Medici
    • The Papal States
    • Kingdom of Naples
  • The Role of Women

  • France and Spain fight over the peninsula

  • Modern diplomatic system









Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527)

  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527)

    • The Prince
    • Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of political power




Italian Renaissance Humanism

  • Italian Renaissance Humanism

    • Humanism based on Greco-Roman literature
    • Petrarch (1304 – 1374)
    • Civic Humanism – Florence
      • Leonardo Bruni (1370 – 1444)
        • New Cicero
    • Humanism and Philosophy
      • Marsilio Ficino (1433 – 1499)
        • Translates Plato’s dialogues
        • Synthesis of Christianity and Platonism
    • Renaissance Hermeticism
      • Corpus Hermeticum
    • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 – 1494)
      • Oration on the Dignity of Man


Education in the Renaissance

  • Education in the Renaissance

    • Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy and music
    • Education of Women
    • Aim of Education was to create a complete citizen
    • Francesco Guicciardini
  • The Impact of Printing

    • Johannes Gutenberg
      • Movable type (1445 – 1450)
      • Gutenberg’s Bible (1455 or 1456)
    • The Spread of Printing


Early Renaissance

  • Early Renaissance

    • Masaccio (1401 – 1428)
    • Perspective and Organization
    • Movement and Anatomical Structure
  • Donato di Donatello (1386 – 1466)

    • David
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446)

    • Church of San Lorenzo
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)

    • Last Supper
  • Raphael (1483 – 1520)

    • School of Athens
  • Michelangelo (1475 – 1564)

    • The Sistine Chapel




















Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 – 1441)

  • Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 – 1441)

    • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
  • Albrecht Dürer (1471 – 1528)

    • Adoration of the Magi
  • Music in the Renaissance

    • Guillaume Dufay






The Renaissance State in Western Europe

  • The Renaissance State in Western Europe

    • France
      • Louis XI the Spider King (1461 – 1483)
    • England
      • War of the Roses
      • Henry VII Tudor (1485 – 1509)
    • Spain
      • Unification of Castile and Aragón
      • Establishment of professional royal army
      • Religious uniformity
      • The Inquisition
      • Conquest of Granada
      • Expulsion of the Jews


Central Europe: The Holy Roman Empire

  • Central Europe: The Holy Roman Empire

    • Habsburg Dynasty
    • Maximilian I (1493 – 1519)
  • The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe

    • Poland
    • Hungary
    • Russia
  • The Ottoman Turks and the end of the Byzantine Empire

    • Seljuk Turks spread into Byzantine territory
    • Constantinople falls to the Turks (1453)








The Problem of Heresy and Reform

  • The Problem of Heresy and Reform

    • John Hus (1374 – 1415)
      • Urged the elimination of worldliness and corruption of the clergy
      • Burned at the stake (1415)
    • Church Councils
    • The Papacy
  • The Renaissance Papacy

    • Julius II (1503 – 1513)
      • “Warrior Pope”
    • Nepotism
    • Patrons of Culture
      • Leo X (1513 – 1521)










What social changes did the Renaissance bring about?

  • What social changes did the Renaissance bring about?

  • How did Machiavelli deal with the issue of political power?

  • How did the printing press change European society?

  • What technical achievements did Renaissance artists make? Why were they significant?

  • What was the significance of The War of the Roses in England?

  • How did the popes handle the growing problems that were emerging in the Church in the Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century?





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