Search for Mr Hyde
The second chapter opens with Mr Utterson looking at Dr Jekyll’s will with Mr Hyde’s name on it. This is effectively the naming of the honourable gentleman whose name was printed on the cheque. Utterson begins to consider blackmail as the reason behind this.On page 236, Utterson states “I thought it was madness and now I begin to fear it is disgrace,” which shows he used to consider the will - especially the fact that Jekyll left everything to Hyde – insanity, but now thinks he must have been blackmailed into it. This leads him to go and visit Dr Lanyon.
He decides to visit Dr Lanyon because he and Lanyon are Jekyll’s oldest friends so between them, they should know of something that Jekyll may have been blackmailed with. Utterson and Lanyon are very respectful of each other which is shown by the fact Utterson faces no delays when he goes to visit Lanyon. Due their apparently congenial relationship, Lanyon’s arguably rude reaction to the mention of Jekyll is a shock. He accuses him of being too fanciful and says that they do not stay in contact any more leaving the reader to wonder what Lanyon might know. The unnatural, disturbing nature of whatever Lanyon knows is alluded to when he proclaims “such unscientific balderdash would have estranged Damon and Pythias.” Damon and Pythias are characters in a greek myth that centred around their deep trust and friendship for each other, so saying Jekyll’s actions are terrible enough to break the bond of Damon and Pythias is a very harsh accusation.
Stevenson shows how affected Utterson is by his discoveries when he does not sleep, instead he lies thinking about the mysterious Mr Hyde. When Utterson begins to haunt the door door Hyde uses, the author creates a slightly anti-climactic meeting between the two. Although the meeting conveys a little more of Hyde’s hostile demeanour, it sheds very little light on the mystery as a whole or Hyde’s relationship with Jekyll until the very end of their dialogue. Utterson tells Hyde he knows of him through mutual friends like Jekyll, Hyde replies angrily that “He never told you, I did not think that you would have lied.” This statement, although relatively odd, seems fairly innocuous until you realise that Hyde has finally let something slip. How could he possibly have known what Jekyll had or had not told Utterson?
After meeting Hyde, Utterson decides to visit Dr Jekyll but he has gone out. Utterson proceeds to ask Jekyll’s butler Poole about Mr Hyde. Poole tells him that Hyde has a key and that all of the staff are told to obey him. This is obviously Dr Jekyll ensuring he has the run of his house no matter who he is.
The last part of the chapter is Utterson’s reflection on what he now knows and how he could possibly help his friend. Stevenson alludes to Henry Jekyll’s not so upstanding past, which is an odd concept to consider alongside the ethical representation alongside what the reader has been told of the respectable Dr Jekyll – once again highlighting the novella’s preoccupation with duality. Utterson decides that in order to help his friend, he needs to uncover some dark secret of Mr Hyde’s to remove his hold on Jekyll.
This chapter also contains some of the best examples of Stevenson’s humour. For example, when Utterson meets Hyde he introduces himself as “Mr Utterson of Gaunt Street,” a reference to Mr Utterson’s first description. Also, earlier in the chapter, Utterson proclaims “if he be Mr Hyde, then I’ll be Mr Seek.” Stevenson’s play on words here is humorous but also puts the emphasis on the name Hyde, leading the reader to wonder why he’s been called as such – whether it is alluding to his deceitful nature, or maybe even a reference to animal hide, since he is so often described in an animalistic way.
The chapter does bring up some interesting things to consider such as the very first mention of Jekyll’s sordid past. This leads back to one of the main themes of the story – not being able to take things at face value. Utterson states that “he was wild when he was young; a long while ago to be sure; but in the law of God, there is no statute of limitations.” This causes Utterson to ponder whether or not there is something in his own past that someone could use against him. This in turn makes the reader wonder if they might have done something that could put them in the same situation.
This chapter, although answering a few questions such who the respectable gentleman who would associate with the disreputable Mr Hyde is, turns out to be a bit of an anti-climax because of the relatively uneventful nature of Hyde and Utterson’s first meeting. It shows us a little more of Hyde’s hostile demeanour, but beyond that sheds little light on the confusing situation that Mr Utterson finds himself in.
“I thought it was madness and now I begin to fear it is disgrace.”
“`Such unscientific balderdash,’ added the doctor flashing suddenly purple, `would have estranged Damon and Pythias.’”
“`He never told you,’ cried Mr Hyde, with a flush of anger. `I did not think that you would have lied.’”
“He was wild when he was young; a long while ago to be sure; but in the law of God, there is no statute of limitations.”
Chapter 3: Dr Jekyll Was Quite at Ease
Discover a lot more about Utterson’s personality
“Where Utterson was liked, he was liked well.”
This quality allows him to linger behind when the other guests have gone ( to talk about Jekyll’s will)
Also meet Jekyll for the first time in this chapter
He’s described as “a large, well-made, smooth faced man of 50”
Complete opposite to Hyde (young, small, hairy , unpleasant looking etc)
The small/young side of Hyde suggests that he is only a small part of Jekyll(right now) and hasn’t been there for long
However, when Utterson brings up the subject of Hyde, we see a different side of Jekyll
“...the large handsome face of Jekyll grew pale to the very lips, and there came a blackness about his eyes”
This shows an evil/hidden part of Jekyll (Hyde - he’s always there but is under control at this stage)
Jekyll then comments about Lanyon in attempt to change the topic of conversation from the will
Calls him a “hide-bound pedant” and “...an ignorant, blatant pedant”
Basically meaning that he’s very narrow minded and won’t accept new concepts out of what he knows from academic learning (ie the Jekyll and Hyde transformation)
Mystery: By calling Lanyon a pedant, it makes the reader wonder what has happened in the past to make Jekyll’s opinion sway this way.
Peculiar hearing Jekyll be harsh towards somebody because he appeared to be a very warm-hearted person (again, could be Hyde showing through)
Utterson’s persistency allows the conversation to turn back to the will
He pleads to “make a clean breast of it” – for Jekyll to tell the truth to him
Utterson also suggests that he can “help by getting him out of it” (part of him though)
Jekyll is extremely thankful but insists he needs no help
The fact that Jekyll lies to his closest friend foreshadows the extent to which Hyde’s evilness will eventually take power over the otherwise respectable Jekyll
“The moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr. Hyde”
He believes that he can control Hyde but in the end he can not
Utterson agrees to grant Jekyll’s wish but says that he can never like Hyde
Jekyll and Hyde are the same person though, Hyde is just hidden
Neither of the two get through to each other (dilemma)
Makes it more interesting
Ironic title because Jekyll is clearly not at ease
Feels guilty, yet his purpose of creating Hyde was to be rid of guilt
The Carew Murder Case
Notice how effectively Stevenson uses contrasting settings and perspectives to create very different atmospheres in this chapter, firstly using the maid’s viewpoint to describe what she saw the night she was looking out the window and secondly from Utterson’s viewpoint the following morning.
a. In each case explain what sort of mood or atmosphere is created and which particular words and images help to do so.
Firstly from the maid’s point of view, she sees a handsome man walking down the alleyway and then an “ape-like” man attacking him. She describes the horrible actions of the “ape-like” man she describes to be Hyde, using brutal words to represent the brutal actions of Hyde, creating a very uneasy mood and a shock. From Utterson’s point of view, he remains calm even though well know Sir Danvers Carew is lying dead and in a battered state in front of him.
b. Why do you think he emphasises these very contrasting moods?
He uses emphasised contrasts in moods to show the contrast in Hyde and Jekyll and how quickly Hyde can turn and his harsh actions can result in and Jekyll is so controlled.
Select a couple of the techniques used to bring out the violence and brutality of the murder and show how they do this.
A simile is used to compare Hyde to a madman to show how he could not have been sane and aware of his actions as they were so violent.
Onomatopoeia is used to represent Carew’s bones cracking which shows how hard Hyde is beating him.
He also compares Hyde to a fire and a storm also showing his rage and rush of terror.
“Like a madman” page 245
“ape-like fury” page 245
“hailing down a storm of blows” page 245
“bones were audibly shattered” page 245
Why do you think Utterson doesn’t report the fact that he recognises the stick and what does this tell us about him?
3. Mr Utterson doesn’t say anything about Dr Jekyll and the murder of Sir Danvers Carew and this says a lot about his personality. He’s confidential, trustworthy and loyal to Jekyll even though he recognises the murder weapon to belong to Jekyll.
“Mr Utterson had already quailed at the name of Hyde; but when the stick was laid before him, he could doubt no longer: broken and battered as it was, he recognised it for one that he had himself presented many years before to Jekyll.”
4. Which aspects of the landlady’s appearance and character are drawn to our attention and why do you think the author does so? (p.247)
4. The landlady at Hyde’s house is described by Stevenson to have a witch-like, evil appearance.
“An ivory-faced and silvery-haired old woman opened the door. She had an evil face, smoothed by hypocrisy”
This description may be so judgemental as Victorians believed evil could be revealed in a person by their looks and by their head. However, even an immoral, cruel woman like her is repulsed by Hyde suggesting he is more evil than any ordinary human.
5. How do the descriptions of the street (bottom p.48) and Hyde’s rooms (p.49) help to express key themes in the story?
Stevenson’s description of the street on which Hyde lives is relating directly to the themes of immoral people and evil in the novel.
Stevenson uses pathetic fallacy: “a haggard shift of daylight” and “the first fog of the season”. Also a metaphor is used to associate the street with death, “a great chocolate-coloured pall* lowered over heaven”.*a pall was a cloth used to cover mirrors when there had been a death within a household. The people are described as “slatternly passengers” corresponding to the theme of immorality. Evil has taken its toll, exhausting the street (just like Dr Jekyll at the end of the novel when he looses control to Hyde) so that not even the street lamps can bring light to the street banishing the darkness/evil.
“…it’s lamps, which had never been extinguished or had been kindled afresh to combat this mournful reinvasion of darkness”
Stevenson also goes on to say that Mr Utterson thinks of he street as, “a district of some city I a nightmare.”
Considering Mr. Utterson is a man who never exaggerates this street must be pretty awful!
6a. What further incriminating evidence is found? (foot p.49)
The other half of the stick used to murder Danvers Carew is found in Hyde’s house so we know he must be guilty.
“…the other half of the stick was found behind the door...”
6b. Why, in spite of this will it still be difficult to apprehend Hyde?
Because Utterson keeps the evidence, the stick and who it belongs to to himself and he does not tell the police where to find the owner
7a. What do we now make of Jekyll’s opinion in the previous chapter that he could be rid of Hyde the moment he chose?
That it may not be as easy as he thinks it can be and he is now not in control of the transformations
7b. Study the last 4-5 lines of the last paragraphs. What do the few descriptions of Hyde agree/disagree about and what does this suggest about him?
It suggests that he is well hidden because no-one has “seen him more than once” or “have seen any pictures”. Also, they agree that Hyde has a deformity but they disagree to what it is.
“haunting sense of unexpressed deformity” page 249
“hurriedly ransacked” page 248
“lock fast drawers stood open” page 248
“clothes lay about the floor, with their pockets inside out” page 248
Sir Danvers Carew has been brutally murdered and thousands of pounds have been offered in reward for the capture of Mr Hyde.
After the murder, Jekyll realises he cant be the person he used to be and attempts to turn things around and control Hyde.
On the 8th of January, Utterson and Lanyon go to Jekylls for dinner. It seems like old times as the three get on tremendously well, however when Utterson tries again on the 12th, 14th and 15th, he is turned away by Poole the butler on 15th. Poole explains that the doctor is busy.
Utterson dines with Guest the next night and the night after, he visits Dr. Lanyon.
Utterson realises just how ill Lanyon is when he visits him. Lanyon himself admits he feels death is just around the corner. He says he has had a shock from which he will never recover.
Utterson mentions Jekyll and the fact that he is ill. “But Lanyon’s face changed, and he held up a trembling hand. ‘I wish to see or hear no more of Doctor Jekyll.’...’I beg that you will spare me any allusion to one whom I regard as dead.’
Lanyon dies a week later. That night, Utterson takes out a letter addressed to him and is afraid that the content of the letter may take the life of another friend. He opens the letter and sees that it must not be opened until the death/disappearance of Jekyll.
Incident at the window:
Enfield and Utterson are on their usual walk and end up at the door. They discuss the feeling of repulsion they experience when they lay eyes on Mr Hyde.
They look in through a window and see Jekyll standing there. They ask how he is, to which Jekyll replies that he is low and sad. The men invite Jekyll out to walk with them but he declines. However, Jekyll agrees to talk with them for a while. They are having idle chat when all of a sudden, Jekyll uncontrollably turns into Mr Hyde and the two men are absolutely stunned at what they see. Although Jekyll moved away from the window, Enfield and Utterson saw him change.
Utterson and Enfield walk away from the window in total silence, too shocked to speak. Utterson speaks, but only saying ‘god forgive us’ repeatedly.
The Last Night Notes Daniel, Matthew and Ewan
1. In the Chapter, the Last Night, Stevenson really starts to increase the tension and atmosphere in the book as it is this chapter which leads to the climax of the story – the suicide of Hyde/Jekyll. Stevenson does this in many ways, for example, through the use of characters.
When Poole arrives at Mr Utterson’s house:
He was absolutely terrified – ‘Jangled nerves’
‘His manner was altered to the worst’
‘He had not once looked the lawyer in the face’
He did not drink his wine
‘Broke into hysterical whimpering’
They ‘stood huddled together like a flock of sheep’
They were terrified of what was behind the cabinet door
This all creates tension as we as the readers have no idea why they are so frightened and want to find out. Also the frightening atmosphere provokes a little bit of fear in us as well, so increasing the tension we feel.
2. Stevenson also uses the weather to create a frightening atmosphere. This is called Pathetic Fallacy.
When Poole and Mr Utterson walk to Jekyll’s house:
The weather is ‘wild’ and ‘cold’
It is very windy
Stevenson describes the moon so that it almost has a menacing feel about it.
There is also no-one about
There is a chain on the door when they reach Jekyll’s house
Stevenson uses words such as ‘lashing’ to describe the movement of the trees – this creates a parallel to Hyde as ‘lashing’ is exactly the action he used when he murdered Sir Danvers Carew. It also creates a violent atmosphere.
This frightening and wild scene highlights and adds to the frightening atmosphere of the book. It also provides links to the theme ‘Good vs. Evil’ as the bad weather represents the evil in the book – It provides connotations of violence, destruction and anger; all the things that characterize Hyde – and the Good in which Mr Utterson and Poole are the embodiment of the goodness and fairness present.
3a. Poole believes his master has been murdered because, when through the door he has spoken to him, Jekyll’s supposed voice was to be completely different. He also had not seen Jekyll in a long time which he found suspicious. Mr Utterson disagrees however because, he wonders understandably, why would the murder remain in the cabinet after the murder had taken place.
3b. Mr Utterson therefore decides that Jekyll must be suffering a disease that deforms his face and body. That is why he wears a mask; that is why he stays in the cabinet; that is why he doesn’t see his friends; because of the embarrassment. Poole disagrees as he say that he has seen ‘Jekyll’ and that he was ‘more of a dwarf’ rather than the ‘tall fine build of a man’ of the real Jekyll. Because of this, Mr Utterson decides they must break down the cabinet door to find out what is going on.
The footsteps that Utterson and Poole hear before breaking down the door increase the tension significantly. In classic horror, footsteps are used as an ominous force, often building up to the grand climax of a story. They also represent a “hidden” being, symbolising the Mr Hyde that we all try to hide within ourselves.
When the footsteps stop and the door is broken down, Mr Hyde is indeed found inside the room, as expected. Poole’s theory about Hyde murdering Jekyll initially appears to be correct, as Hyde had killed himself, seemingly to avoid hanging for his crimes. However, as Jekyll’s body cannot be found close by, this theory begins to look doubtful and the suspense increases.
Even though Hyde is dead, there is still the mystery of what happened to Dr.Jekyll. Stevenson maintains suspense, and deppens the overall mystery, by making Utterson and Poole search for Jekyll throughout the whole theatre building, finding everything dusty and deserted. The door to the by-street is rusty, and the key is broken. These are all signs of neglect, and it confuses Poole and Utterson as to why all this is as it is. The reader is held in suspense by the missing Dr.Jekyll. And then when Utterson finds the letter and its enclosure, the reader realizes the proper explanation to these happenings is drawing close, and therefore remains in suspense. Stevenson uses this suspense to build up to the climax of the novella.
Stevenson creates sympathy for Hyde/Jekyll in many ways. At the beginning of the chapter, we hear from Poole that to “for God’s sake, have mercy!”. When they proceed to break down the door, a “dismal screech, as of mere animal terror rang from the cabinet”. This yet again implies that Hyde is scared to death, and that things are going too fast. It also relates back to a technique used by Stevenson, Imagery, to portray Hyde as an animal of sorts. When we find out that Hyde has killed himself, we can add up the previous happenings in the chapter, and create a link between them, to create an air of sympathy for Hyde. Stevenson’s use of description is the key factor to help us feel sympathy for Hyde, especially when the contrasting cabinet is mentioned, with all its nice and cosy things. It gives the reader the impression that Hyde doesn’t belong there, that he is an alien in this place, and that he is not wanted.
Hyde is an interesting character, as he can ( and has been by Stevenson) been compared to the Devil. “weeping like a woman, or a lost soul” doesn’t confirm that Hyde doesn’t have a soul, it just gives the readers the connotations that he doesn’t have one, or has a misshapen one. The nature of his evil might be based on cowardice, that is, he does certain things because he is scared. We have to remember that Hyde ISN’T human, so the nature of his evil might be the result of being as he is, possibly without a soul.
All the symbols of the mask and sealed letters show and highlight the fact that hiding, unseen within us all, we all have our own Mr.Hyde. The mirror in the cabinet symbolizes seeing ourselves for what we really are, not just what we can see on the outside. It also symbolizes the idea of reflection. The red baize door symbolizes the death of both Hyde and Jekyll. And the chaos they caused.
Henry Jekyll’s Full Statement of the Case
The relationship between Jekyll and Hyde is quite contradictory. Hyde hates Jekyll and torments Jekyll by burning his letters and destroying the portrait of his father. Jekyll also hates Hyde however he feels pity and sympathy for him too because Hyde fears Jekyll commiting suicide so much and has a big fear of death itself.
It is also noticeable in this chapter that Jekyll uses the third person for both himself and Hyde. This may be because Jekyll feels detached from both as he doesn't truly himself as Jekyll, but he doesn't feel as though he is Hyde either. I think he feels split as though he is not one person anymore.
Towards the end of the chapter, I think Stevenson tries to create sympathy for Jekyll by saying "I know now I shall sit shuddering and weeping in my chair." and "I bring the life of that unhappy Henry Jekyll to an end". Suggesting that Jekyll's life hasn't been good and therefore we should sympathise with him. However, I don't feel very sorry for him because he was selfish and wasn't content being one person. He wanted to be able to act the way he wanted, whilst maintaining his reputation within the community.
During his transformations Jekyll had mixed feelings, again showing the comparisons between them. He experienced the pleasant feeling of being younger and free yet he did feel out of control; ‘the curse of mankind that these incongruous faggots were thus bound together -that in the agonised womb of consciousness, these polar twins should be continuously struggling’.
People seem to feel revulsion towards Hyde, as they know something is wrong with him but they can’t put a finger on what it is exactly. This is the case because Hyde isn’t exactly there; he’s a creation and not real.
Jekyll enjoys being Hyde to begin with as he can laugh at the suspicion surrounding the murder of Carew. He can also give in to all his desires without anyone knowing it was really Jekyll. He puts a mirror in into his room so he can see the transformations. “There was no mirror, at that date, in my room; that which stands beside me as I write, was brought there later on and for the very purpose of these transformations.” We know he is then scared of being Hyde as Hyde is now starting to transform without the potion and worried about being caught out for the murder of Carew. He also stops feeling the transformations coming.
Jekyll and Hyde are two very different people and even though Jekyll is appalled at what Hyde has done he still can’t stop the longing to be Hyde, to do what he wants and not be found out. Turning into Hyde has become an addiction of Jekyll’s.
To try and control Hyde, Jekyll takes more of the potion at stronger quantities. This however doesn’t work as it only makes Hyde stronger and he eventually takes over Jekyll.
“Yes, I had gone to bed Henry Jekyll, I had awakened Edward Hyde.”
After the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, Jekyll experiences several contradictory reactions. Obviously saddened by the death but very relieved that it wasn’t done by him in his conscious true self. He places all guilt on Hyde and reassures himself that he’s done enough to convince everyone that nothing could be linked back to Jekyll. Jekyll nest describes Hyde as “ inherently malign and villainous; his every act and though centred on self; drinking pleasure with bestian avidity from any degree of torture to another; relentless like a man of stone” he resolves to undo all the evil once done by Hyde and to restore the balance of his soul. His aim was, at first, to “dethrone morality and isolate the lower elements in his soul.” But Hyde became less robust and developed and the thousand interests and inspirations that made up his undignified pleasures became monstrous. Jekyll goes through a lonely stage here, both sides of his being are struggling to be in control and the January weather is symbolic here, “it was a fine, clear, January day, wet under foot where the frost had melted, but cloudless overhead; and the Regent’s park was full of winter chirruping.” This shows a moment of reflection on Jekyll’s part. His life is in total ruin. Although he refrains from taking the potion, he is bound by the movements of Hyde and sadly, after he turns uncontrollably into Hyde at the park, suicide looks to be his only means of escape. Jekyll was a city of refuge, he could not let Hyde surface.
Jekyll is yet again on the run as Hyde. He seeks safety in a bustling Inn. Strange you might think as he finds the busy and noisy pub a suitable place to stay under cover. Here he weighs up all his options. Choosing one he leaves the inn, returns home and writes the letter to his dear friend Mr Utterson. The situation outside the cabinet takes place and the mystery is solved, Jekyll and Hyde are both dead, killed by a self-detroyer.
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