Timeline Of Viktor Frankl's Life and the Holocaust



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Timeline Of Viktor Frankl's Life and the Holocaust

1905

Viktor Frankl was born in Vienna, Austria

1924

Frankl graduates from high school

1925

Frankl meets Freud in person

1928 - 1929

Frankl organizes cost-free counseling centers for teenagers in Vienna and six other cities and begins working at the Psychiatric University Clinic

1930

Frankl earns his doctorate in medicine

1933

Frankl put in charge of the ward for suicidal women at the psychiatric hospital

January 30: Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany.

April 1: The Nazis organized a nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany.

May 10: Nazi party members, students, teachers, and others burned books written by Jews, political opponents of Nazis, and the intellectual avant-garde during public rallies across Germany

1935

September 15: The Nazi government decreed the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of the German Blood and Honor. These Nuremberg "racial laws" made Jews second-class citizens. They prohibited sexual relations and intermarriage between Jews and "persons of German or related blood."

1937

Frankl opens his own practice in neurology and psychiatry

1938

March 12-13: German troops invaded Austria, and Germany incorporated Austria into the German Reich in what was called the Anschluss.

July 6-15: Delegates from 32 countries and representatives from refugee aid organizations attended the Evian Conference at Evian, France, to discuss immigration quotas for refugees fleeing Nazi Germany. Most countries were unwilling to ease their immigration restrictions.

November 9-10: In a nationwide pogrom called Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"), the Nazis and their collaborators burned synagogues, looted Jewish homes and businesses, and killed at least 91 Jews. Approximately 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and imprisoned in the Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Mauthausen concentration camps.

1939

Frankl obtains a visa to the United States but concerned for his elderly parents, lets it expire

March 15: German troops occupied the Czech lands and established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

May 13-June 17: Cuba and the United States refused to accept more than 900 refugees-almost all of whom were Jewish-aboard the ocean liner St.Louis, forcing its return to Europe.

September 1: German troops invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War

1940

Frankl is made head of the neurological department of Rothschild Hospital, the only hospital for Jews in Vienna during the Nazi regime, for the next two years

May 20: SS authorities established the Auschwitz concentration camp (Auschwitz I) outside the Polish city of Oswiecim.



1941

Frankl marries his first wife, Tilly Grosser

June 22: Germany and its Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union. German mobile killing squads called Einsatzgruppen were assigned to identify, concentrate, and kill Jews behind the front lines.

September 3: At the Auschwitz concentration camp, SS functionaries performed their first gassing experiments using Zyklon B.

September 15: The Nazi government decreed that Jews over the age of six who resided in Germany had to wear a yellow Star of David on their outer clothing in public at all times.

November 24: German authorities established the Theresienstadt (also Terezin) ghetto, in the German controlled Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

November 26: SS authorities established a second camp at Auschwitz, called Auschwitz-Birkenau or Auschwitz II which was later used as a killing center.

1942

Frankl is arrested with his wife, father, mother, and brother and brought to the concentration camp at Theresienstadt in Bohemia. His father dies there of starvation/exhaustion.

January 20: Senior Nazi officials met at a villa in the outskirts of Berlin at the Wannsee Conference to discuss and coordinate implementation of the "Final Solution."



1943

Organized arrests of Jews occur in workplaces for the purposes of deportation

1944

Frankl is transported with Tilly and his 65-year-old mother to the extermination camp Auschwitz. His mother is immediately murdered in the gas chamber, and Tilly is moved to Bergen-Belsen, where she dies at the age of 24. His brother and his brother's wife also die in the gas chambers of Auschwitz. Frankl is later transported by cattle car, via Vienna, to Kaufering and Türkheim (subsidiary camps of Dachau)

1945

Frankl's camp is liberated, and he returns to Vienna, only to discover the deaths of his loved ones

January 17: As Soviet troops approached, SS units evacuated prisoners in the Auschwitz camp complex, marching them on foot toward the interior of the German Reich. The forced evacuations came to be called "death marches."

January 27: Soviet troops liberated about 8,000 prisoners left behind at the Auschwitz camp complex.

April 29: U.S. troops liberated approximately 32,000 prisoners at Dachau.

April 30: Hitler committed suicide in his bunker in Berlin.

May 7-9: German armed forces surrendered unconditionally in the West on May 7 and in the East on May 9.
Allied and Soviet forces proclaimed May 8, 1945, to be Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day).

September 2: World War II officially ended.

November 20: The International Military Tribunal, made up of United States, British, French, and Soviet judges, began a trial of 21 major Nazi leaders at Nuremberg, Germany.

Official acts documenting anti-Jewish actions are to be destroyed.



1946

Frankl given the position of director of the Vienna Neurological Policlinic where he stays for 25 years.

1947

Frankl marries Eleonore Schwindt -- "Elly"--and has a daughter, Gabriele, in December of that year

1946

Frankl publishes his book Man's Search for Meaning

1948

Frankl receives his Ph.D. in philosophy and made associate professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Vienna

1950

Frankl founded and became president of the Austrian Medical Society for Psychotherapy

1997

Frankl dies of heart failure



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