Volleyball plan

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The ball

Main article: Volleyball (ball)

FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical, made of leather or synthetic leather, have a circumference of 65–67 cm (26–26 in), a weight of 260–280 g (9.2–9.9 oz) and an interior air pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2 (4.27–4.62 psi).[20] Other governing bodies have similar regulations.


White is on the attack while red attempts to block.

Each team consists of six players.[18] To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. A player from the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court (the serve).[18] The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net.[18] These contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the player designated as the setter; second of the set (usually an over-hand pass using wrists to push finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards a spot where one of the players designated as an attacker can hit it, and third by the attacker who spikes (jumping, raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the net.[3] The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be on offence.

The team on defence attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: players at the net jump and reach above the top (and if possible, across the plane) of the net to block the attacked ball.[3] If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). After a successful dig, the team transitions to offence.

Buddhist monks play volleyball in the Himalayan state of Sikkim, India.

The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until an error is made.[18] The most frequent errors that are made are either to fail to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to cause the ball to land outside the court.[18] A ball is "in" if any part of it touches the inside of a team's court or a sideline or end-line, and a strong spike may compress the ball enough when it lands that a ball which at first appears to be going out may actually be in. Players may travel well outside the court to play a ball that has gone over a sideline or end-line in the air.

Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession, a player "catching" the ball, a player touching the net while attempting to play the ball, or a player penetrating under the net into the opponent's court. There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules, although most of them are infrequent occurrences. These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking (back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line), players not being in the correct position when the ball is served, attacking the serve in the frontcourt and above the height of the net, using another player as a source of support to reach the ball, stepping over the back boundary line when serving, taking more than 8 seconds to serve,[21] or playing the ball when it is above the opponent's court.

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