True or False Questions 1. Democracy requires equality of some sort, whether it be in the liberals’ insistence on equal opportunity for individuals or the socialists’ insistence on equal power for all in a classless society. True or False
2. The fascists provided a view of the world in which individuals and classes were to be absorbed into an all-embracing whole, rejecting the notions of either individualism or contending classes. True or False
3. For both Hitler and Mussolini, reason is more reliable than intuitions and emotions. True or False
4. Secularism argues that religion is both a source of comfort and insight as well as identifying absolute and unquestionable truths for guiding public life. True or False
5. Modern socialism arose in part from the complaint that liberalism was not going far enough in its attempt to remake society in the image of Enlightenment ideals. True or False
6. Fascism grows out of the conviction that the ideals of the Enlightenment are worth pursuing. True or False
7. Advocates of the Counter-Enlightenment argued that human beings are nonrational, even irrational, beings. True or False
8. Mazzini did not confine his nationalism to his native country, like Herder and Fichte, he supported nationalism as an ideal for all nations, not just his own. True or False
9. Mosca, Pareto, and Michels contributed to the idea of elitism by concluding that a classless society of equals was impossible. True or False
10. Roberto Michels studies of socialist parties and trade unions of Europe concluded that even among these institutions professing to achieve a “classless” society were controlled by a relatively small group of leaders. True or False
11. According to the philosophy of irrationalism, reason plays a larger part in the actions of people when compared to emotions and desire. True or False
12. According to American philosopher and psychologist, William James, people need to believe in something for they cannot endure a life devoid of some larger purpose or meaning. True or False
13. According to Georges Sorel, it is not the reasonableness of a myth but its emotional power that leads people to act en masse where they can smash almost any obstacle in their path. True or False
14. The slogans, the mass demonstrations, the torchlight parades—all were designed to stir the people at their most basic emotional and instinctive levels and all were used by fascist leaders, such as Mussolini and Hitler. True or False
Multiple Choice Questions 1. Mussolini and his followers, as well as Hitler and his, did appeal to the masses for support: a) based on popular votes, b) the latter’s organizational skills, c) in the area of canvassing group neighborhoods, d) to exercise power through blind loyalty.
2. Taking the scientific discoveries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as their model and inspiration, the philosophers of this era claimed that the application of reason could remove all the social and political evils that stood in the way of happiness and progress: a) Reformation, b) Inquisition, c) Enlightenment, d) Creationism.
3. A philosophy which argues that human beings are not all alike with differences that distinguish groups of people from one another in terms of sex, race, language, culture, creed, and nationality: a) The Renaissance, b) Dialectical Materialism, c) Realism, d) Counter-Enlightenment.
4. Once the shackles of ignorance and superstition have been broken, human reason will be free to order society in a rational way, and life will steadily and rapidly become better for all: a) Telos, b) Progressivism, c) Utopianism, d) Idealism
5. He said that “The noble-minded man will be active and effective, and will sacrifice himself for his people. We must think of ourselves as members of the larger and lasting community of the nation:” a) Johann Gottlieb Fichte, b) Karl Marx, c) Vladimir Lenin, d) Franklin Roosevelt.
6. The following two countries ultimately were late to unify and become nation-states, but they finally did in 1871: a) Croatia & Serbia, b) Ireland & Scotland, c) Germany & Italy, d) Luxembourg & Holland.
7. Zionism, a movement to: a) establish a homeland, or nation-state, for Jews in Israel, b) remove Jewish persecution in Spain, c) condemn Hitler’s reign of terror on German Jews, d) bring attention to the plight of Jews in the former Soviet Union.
8. What type of threat did democracy pose, according to Tocqueville and Mill? a) it allowed for mediocrity, b) it condemned the wrong people to a life on the margins, c) it increases corruption among the privileged few, d) it created conditions ripe for the tyranny of the majority.
9. According to Michels, this “iron law” is destined to defeat the well-meaning designs of democrats and egalitarians. Like Mosca and Pareto, he concluded that elites rule the world; they always have, and they always will: a) the Peter Principle, b) the iron law of oligarchy, c) deterrence theory, d) the imperialism of bureaucracy.
10. The French social psychologist, Gustav Le Bon concluded that people: a) behave more rationally in a group setting, such as a church or synagogue, then they would alone, b) uncomfortable in a group setting and feel a need to be alone, c) will participate in acts of barbarism that they would never engage in as lone individuals, d) are more motivated by material acquisition than emotional fulfillment.
Fill-in Questions 1. Totalitarianism is:
a) the attempt to take _________ control of a ________—not just its government but all of its social, cultural, and _________ institutions—
b) in order to fulfill an ____________ vision of how society ought to be organized and life ought to be lived.
2. What distinguishes fascism from conservatism?
a) fascists are openly hostile to _________ and few of them have had any respect for hereditary monarchs and aristocrats.
b) nor do fascists seek to return to the old, established ways of life; on the contrary, fascism in its most distinctive forms has been openly ______________, eager not only to change society but to change it root and branch.
c) the fascist plan is to ____________ ______ in the hands of a totalitarian state led by a single ______ and a supreme _______.
3. What were some of reasons for supporting religion by some proponents of the Counter-Enlightenment?
a) Some of them wrote from sincere religious conviction, but others simply held that religious beliefs are socially __________ _________.
b) The belief in heaven and hell, they maintained, may be all that keeps most people behaving as well as they do; to lose that belief may be to lose all hope of a __________ and orderly ________.
c) If that means that government must support an ____________ _______ and persecute or even execute dissenters, then so be it.
Marx: Revealing History’s Meaning: INTRODUCTION
Tannenbaum, pgs. 260-264
True/False Questions 1. Marx profoundly affected a number of scholarly disciplines beyond political philosophy, most importantly economics and sociology but also art and literature. True or False
2. The bourgeoisie was a growing capitalist class that sought freedom from control by monarchs and the upper-class nobility, argued Marx and Engels. True or False
3. The French Revolution of 1789 overthrew a popular government and replaced it with an absolute monarchy. True or False
4. Marx argued that law and government enforcement mechanisms protected both capitalist wealth and the means by which owners increased it. True or False
5. To Marx, the social consequences of capitalism were quite progressive and beneficial because it brought new technologies, needed capital, and unique managerial skills to the forefront. True or False
6. Though adults were oppressed and exploited under capitalism, children were protected by a number of laws in England, argued Marx. True or False
7. For Karl Marx, the Industrial Revolution shattered the customary relationship between the lord of the manor and the peasant whereby the latter were only to be exploited like robots by their employers. True
8. In spite of the flaws Marx identified with the rise of capitalism, creative pride of the final products was maintained by workers in the new industrial order. True or False
9. For Marx, it is a waste of time to try to reform those responsible for the injustice caused by the Industrial Revolution and capitalism, whether one works with individuals or through institutions because this is a part of the destiny of human development and history. True or False
Multiple Choice Questions 1. Who assisted Karl Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto? a) Friedrich Engels, b) Vladimir Lenin, c) Rosa Luxemburg, d) Mikhail Bakunin.
2. What was the central problem addressed by Marx and Engel’s Manifesto? a) the forces of nationalism that affected human interaction, b) the role that religion would play in incorporating the document’s concerns, c) the relationship between the nobility and the monarchy, d) human suffering and its relationship to politics and economics.
3. What did the Glorious Revolution of 1688 achieve for England? a) it produced less representative institutions in government, b) it moved the state away from absolutism to constitutional monarchy, c) it solidified the power of the monarchy over the nobility, d) it compelled the monarchy to cooperate with the Pope.
4. To Marx, the political uprisings in England, the American colonies, and the French revolution could be fully understood only when linked to: a) culture, b) tribalism, c) economics, d) religion.
5. The following produced major developments included large-scale production on assembly lines in manufacturing firms: a) the Glorious Revolution, b) the American Revolution, c) the French revolution, d) the Industrial Revolution.
6. Marx argued that the following performed the labor needed by the Industrial Revolution, extracting natural resources and producing finished products: a) the bourgeoisie, b) the proletariat, c) counter revolutionaries, d) reactionaries.
7. What was the political strategy offered by some thoughtful members of the middle class as a way to resolve the problems identified by Marx rather than revolution? a) give the workers an ownership stake in the factories where they worked, b) establish a welfare state where government could subsidize the salaries of workers, c) give workers the vote where elected politicians could pass laws to protect the former, d) get religious leaders to instill proper morals among the business elite.
Fill-in Questions 1. According to Donald Tannenbaum, at its core, The Communist Manifesto is:
a) a radical analysis of the relationship of __________ to _________ throughout human ________ and
b) a profound critique of ___________ couched in the dramatic language of ___________.
2. What were the results of the following three political revolutions?
a) The _________ Revolution of 1688, produced more representative institutions in the already independent nation-state of England, moving it from absolute to ___________ monarchy.
b) Similarly, the American Revolution, fomented by the ____________ of Independence in 1776, led to both national independence through political separation from England and ___________ institutions in the new nation-state.
c) A third, the _______ Revolution of 1789, overthrew an absolute monarchy, replacing it with a more ________ government.
Answers True or False Questions, Ball, pgs. 199-206
Multiple Choice Questions 1. d
Fill-in Questions 1. a) society, economic, b) ideological
3. a) necessary fictions, b) civilized, society, c) established church
True or False Questions,Tannenbaum, pgs. 260-264
Multiple Choice Questions 1. a
1. a) economics, politics, history, b) capitalism, revolution.