University of Warwick
Note: Written initially in 1996, this paper was revised in May 2005.
Work-based learning programmes are about learning primarily from
context is the ability to reflect constructively on that experience. This paper
attempts to make that process explicit so that learners are provided with a tool
they can use to develop the range, depth and effectiveness of their
So the paper is essentially for practical use. The first three sections
examples relevant to experience-based programmes which were current at
the time at University College Northampton. Section 3 suggests practical
ways in which to reflect constructively on experience. Section 4 presents an
inventory of questions to assist in each stage of the process of reflection.
1. Boud and Walker (1)
When reflecting on an event it is useful - often important - to recall how you
confident, uneasy, nervous, insecure? Were you satisfied, dissatisfied? Why?
What particular features, people or behaviour made you feel that way? Why
did they make you feel that way? Are these factors related to something else
that needs attention?
Link the event to other experiences which may be similar or different in
particular respects. Use non-critical techniques to make connections, like
brainstorming, writing, talking, using a tape, before you go on to analyse and
evaluate them. This way you generate analogies which can lead to insights, or
you find you have developed your thinking linearly from a previous
In this phase, work with the data provided by the experience and the
association phase above to explore relationships within it and to draw
conclusions. Mind maps and Venn diagrams can be helpful in this; for less
concrete ideas, analogies, similes and metaphors can be useful. For example,
Was the assessment of a particular exercise consistent with its declared
In the processing of examination results, was there effective communication
In this phase, test the conclusions from the integration phase above against
what you know to be true, effective or valid from other experience. Are your
conclusions consistent with past experience, or others' experience? Its validity
can also be tested by a version of Einstein's "thought experiments" in which
you mentally run through a possible application in practice of your
conclusions. Does it "feel right?"
Appropriation means making the learning one's own. This can be at the level
of a fairly straightforward technique, but is often at a profound level in which
the learner's world view can shift. "The new learning which flows from
reflection can not only change future approaches to events, but can also
affect the behaviour of learners, as well as providing learners with an insight
into how they learn. Other possible outcomes of this reflection are a greater
readiness to apply what has been learned, and a deeper commitment to
2. Boyd and Fales (2)
The following components of the process of learning through reflection were
refer to learning which takes place at a profound level and affects at least to
some extent the way in which the learner views the world.
2.1. A sense of inner discomfort.
This could be intentionally provoked by a teacher, mentor or advisor, but often
evolves apparently spontaneously in the learner. It can be the feeling that
something does not fit, has been forgotten, is confusing, has too many
possible alternatives; it is often described as a sense of "stuckness".
2.2. Identification or clarification of the concern.
The reflective learner will be able to convert this vague unease into a defined
problem or issue. It may happen unconsciously, or the learner may
consciously explore the sense of unease by writing, identifying "blocks" (why
"The key characteristic which seems to differentiate reflective learning from
is conceptualised in relation to self. The individual is aware of and places self
as the centre point reference for the problem or task."
2.3 Openness to New Information.
Having identified the issue the reflective learner will not want immediately to
resolve it, but will remain open to new information or perspectives on it. Often
this openness is as much a feeling, a willingness to suspend judgement, as a
detached intellectual process. It can take the form of reviewing past
experience, engaging in lateral thinking activities (De Bono-style),
brainstorming, discussion, changing activity (conscious disengagement), or
facing up to a really challenging question.
This is where an adviser or mentor can often be of great value, and where the
opportunity. Be proactive here - at least write down your thoughts or discuss
them with others, always trying to explore and push at the boundaries.
learner now feels comfortable with the issue. It can occur apparently quite
suddenly and spontaneously, or following a period of active thinking about the
issue. This comfortableness will usually come from an insight, a new
appreciation of how one thing influences another. This could be at the level of
technique or process. If this is at a deep level, it might cause the learner to
change at an equally profound level - It is not unusual for attitudes, beliefs or
values to change in this process.
For example, in dealing with "difficult" people, one might learn to adopt
2.5. Deciding to take action.
Here the learner will decide on the relevance or potential effectiveness of the
new insight to practical situations. How will it work in practice? How right does
it feel? How will it be received by
others? Which others are likely
to be most
receptive? Which most helpful? Which most objective?
Alternatively the context of this learning may be such that the resulting
Whatever the decision, even negative feedback from others is unlikely to take
process seem never to be wholly lost.
3. Schon (3)
A third proponent of reflective learning, Donald Schon, suggests that
reflection-on-action comprises three broad phases: conscious reflection;
critical analysis; action / new perspective. All commentators agree that
feelings play a significant role in triggering the reflection and, particularly with
profound insights, in the final shift in perspective.
Let us use Schon's three
identifiable skills or attributes.(4)
3.1. The first phase requires the learner to be self-aware and to be able to
him / herself and the environment. Whilst these attributes will be among the
desired outcomes of reflective learning, they will actually foster the learning
process itself. It seems to be a question of strengthening these characteristics
through reflective practice.
3.1.1. Honey and Mumford's inventory of learning styles (Honey, 1985)
practical vehicles to develop these attributes.
3.1.2. The learner must also be observant and able to describe
diary or journal, or simple notes taken during or after the experience
should help develop both the powers of observation, and self-
3.2. The second phase requires critical skills. The ability to be objective, to
issues of practice and principle which need to be addressed, all belong here.
The ability to use theory and concepts in such an analysis is also relevant.
The following pointers may help establish a process: (5)
3.2.1. Hypothesis testing.
Much of mankind's knowledge has come from hypothesis testing. A
hypothesis is a statement of the following type:
Students learn best from enthusiastic teachers; or
The best managers specify exactly what is required, or again
Having freedom of action in your work is a great motivator.
Each hypothesis can be tested by research, or by experience through
what is termed action research or simply by experience observed in a
less structured way.
But you do not have to rely on the hypotheses of others. From personal
learner may be able to generate his or her own hypothesis to test. It is
almost certain that one's "own" hypothesis has already been thought
of, and can be found in the relevant literature, but this should not deter
the learner from thinking along these lines. The resulting learning
experience is the more powerful for being original to the learner, and
one's own perspective may well be unique.
Mv students are increasingly instrumental in their approach to their
3.2.2 Applying theory.
resulting from experiment and/or an extensive process of logical
thinking. For example:
In the long run, pay is not a great motivator at work (a
conclusion from Maslow's work);
Kolb's four stages of experiential learning; Bloom's taxonomy of
Any of these theories is testable in a work situation: the main aim
3.2.3 Examining rival propositions.
It may be illuminating in choosing between alternative actions to
formulate relevant propositions in general terms, and compare
them with your own experience.
“The more tutor/student contact. the better the potential
“Empathise: always hold the
3.3 The final phase requires the skills of synthesis and evaluation - Synthesis
experience, and the insights of others. Frequently a perusal of the literature
will help in this:
3.3.1. Practitioner literature.
Practitioner literature is often in the form of journals. In all areas of work
there are regular publications in which people report on some aspect of
their work. Email user groups, e-forums, mailbases and weblogs are
major channels of sharing experience. These articles and notes are a
fruitful way of generating practical ideas and perspectives on your own
3.3.2. Academic literature.
Books and refereed journals belong to this category. These tend to be
more abstract, and though using empirical evidence, deal mainly in
theories, concepts and principles. Principles and Practice of
Management, Educational Theory, and Educational Psychology would
be examples of areas of interest in academic literature.
Evaluation is the ability to set experience or evidence against criteria
and standards. An obvious general criterion of judgement would be
"Did I do the job well?" But this is not very helpful. By what criteria have
you given the answer? Here are some possibilities:
Was it done on time? Was it done with minimum of effort? Did I
communicate effectively? How do I know that? Was the work
qualitatively sound? What am I measuring that against? What are
others now doing / able to do as a result? What change has been
brought about? What benefit has that brought? How do I know that?
How does that job fit in with a broader project?
Some of the ideas we have set out above in "critical thinking" may also be
4. Implications for the reflective learner (B)
This is an inventory of questions which may be used to promote reflection on
an experience. Experience is taken to mean, in the work context, a one-way
communication, a more complex one-to-one interaction, a project, an
organisational or administrative process, or a learning exercise. The inventory
could be used also to plan any experience.
Phase 1: Intentions, and whether you have met them.
What would have been the ideal outcome of the experience in terms of
Did the experience fall short of the ideal? In what ways? By what
them correctly? How do I know?
What are my feelings about this experience?
Phase 2: Critical analysis
Did I devise or structure the experience appropriately?
Did I take into account my own strengths and limitations?
What skills and knowledge do I need to learn to improve the
Did I carry out the experience appropriately'? Were my initiatives and
the structure and/or to the execution of the experience?
Did I apply them appropriately?
Phase 3: Svnthesis (integration) and evaluation
Could I draw any conclusions (make hypotheses?) from the
propositions? Does it support or run counter to them? Are there
implications for how I might apply the theory, concept or proposition
Should I set yourself the same objectives again? Will I approach them
experience? Does this experience connect with other, analogous
experiences of mine or of others? Would a look at the literature help?
execution? Is this a change (i) in technique, or (ii) in attitude or (iii) in
value (belief) system? What are my feelings about this?
Participants in work-based professional development programmes are most
reflect purposively on their experience. Knowledge of relevant theoretical
frameworks. concepts. and principles of good practice are important frames of
reference for developing professional practice. Also important are self-
awareness and the skills of description, critical analysis, integration and
evaluation. Thinking around these skill and knowledge areas should help
participants make the most of their Professional Development Programme.
The inventory of questions and issues may help in the process of reflection.
Andrew Castley 19.10.1996
2. Adapted from Reflective Learning: Key to learning from experience in the
E.M.Boyd and A. W.Fales.
4. Adapted from Reflection: a review of the literature, in Journal of Advanced
5 Adapted from S. Swailes, A Guide to Project Work in Management. Nene